All Immunity and Titer Tests

Immunity and Titer Lab Tests and health information

Are you interested in determining your immunity status? 

If this is the case, immunity detection and titer testing are required. Ulta Labs provides precise and dependable testing to assist you in making educated health decisions.

We offer titer testing and antibody detection for a variety of medical conditions, including the following: 

With immunity lab tests, Ulta Lab Tests can help you take charge of your health today. 

Please see the list below for lab testing for conditions that changes in your immunity may impact.


To learn more about immunity and titers, as well as titer lab testing, click the links below.

Here are some of the benefits of using Ulta Lab Tests: 

  • You don't need a referral from a physician
  • Your results are secure and confidential
  • Results are available in 24-48 hours for most tests
  • You don't need health insurance
  • 100% satisfaction guarantee
  • Affordable pricing

Immunity lab tests from Ulta Lab Tests will help you take charge of your health right now.


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Immune Health Panel - 10 Key Lab Tests

Our Immune Panel has been designed to help you with optimizing your immune system. Most nutrients in your diet play a critical role in helping to maintain your "optimal" immune response. Both excessive and insufficient intakes can negatively impact susceptibility to various infections and your immune status.

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Magnesium
  • Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma 
  • QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS 
  • Selenium
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) and Folate Panel, Serum 
  • Zinc

Immunity Panel

The Immunity Panel combines several common titer immunity tests for additional savings.  These tests are often ordered when someone needs proof of their immune status to common infectious diseases for work or school.  It may also be ordered for pregnant women as part of their prenatal testing. 

This package includes titers for: 

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative
  • MMR (IgG) Panel (Measles, Mumps, Rubella)
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody (IgG)

For a testing package which also includes Hepatitis A, please see our Immunity Panel Plus.

 


Immunity Panel Plus

The Immunity Panel Plus combines several common titer immunity tests for additional savings.  These tests are often ordered when someone needs proof of their immune status to common infectious diseases for work or school.  It may also be ordered for pregnant women as part of their prenatal testing. 

This package includes titers for:

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative
  • MMR (IgG) Panel (Measles, Mumps, Rubella)
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody (IgG)

Please note that the Hepatitis A Total Antibodies test included in this package does not provide numerical results.  Results for this test will be positive or negative only.


NEW - SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (IgG), Spike, Semi-Quantitative

IMPORTANT - Test collection is available only to patients who: are asymptomatic; have been asymptomatic for at least 10 days; lack a fever (as assessed by non-contact thermometer checks at time of visit); and are wearing a face mask.

THIS IS NOT A TEST FOR AN ACTIVE INFECTION

Patients suspected of having or confirmed to have active COVID-19 infection or disease may not visit Quest patient service centers, which are not equipped to collect the necessary respiratory specimens for molecular COVID-19 diagnostic testing. Patients who believe they may have COVID-19 are strongly encouraged to contact their healthcare provider.

"This test checks for a type of antibody called immunoglobulin G (IgG) that is the result of past or recent exposure to COVID-19, also known as the novel coronavirus. The human body produces IgG antibodies as part of the immune response to the virus. It usually takes around 10 to 18 days to produce enough antibodies to be detected in the blood.

Test results may help identify if you were previously exposed to the virus and, if exposed, can check whether or not your body has produced antibodies. Antibodies typically suggest protective immunity after you’ve recovered or been exposed to COVID-19. However, evidence is still being collected to determine if IgG antibodies provide protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infection.

If you were never diagnosed with COVID-19, this test can help determine if you may have been previously exposed to the virus.

If you were diagnosed with COVID-19, this test can check whether or not your body has produced antibodies.

Multiple sources, including the CDC and healthcare experts, recommend you discuss your test results and whether to return to work with your healthcare provider and employer.


PATIENT SERVICE CENTERS - COVID-19 Antibody (IgG) testing requirements.

1. A FACE MASK IS REQUIRED

2. AN APPOINTMENT IS REQUIRED - For the safety of patients and employees, Quest has limited appointment times for COVID-19 Antibody (IgG) testing.


NEW! SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (IgG), Spike, Semi-Quantitative

A SARS-CoV-2 semi-quantitative IgG test result is reported as positive at an index3 of ≥1.00. This positive result indicates that an individual has developed an immune response to a SARS-CoV-2 infection or a SARS-CoV-2 spike vaccine within the limits of the assay.

Conversely, a negative result is reported at an index4 of <1.00. A negative semi- quantitative antibody result means that the patient serum specimen had no SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG antibodies, or that the relative level of antibodies in the patient specimen was below the index cutoff.

• Estimated sensitivity of 99.9% based on positive percent agreement (PPA) and specificity of 99.9%, based on negative percent agreement (NPA).


Clinical Significance

SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (IgG), Spike, Semi-Quantitative - The results of this semi-quantitative test should not be interpreted as an indication or degree of immunity or protection from reinfection. Individuals that have been vaccinated with a SARS-CoV-2 spike or receptor-binding domain vaccine may be positive in this test, and their sero-positivity may or may not be due to a SARS-CoV-2 infection.
This test is intended as an aid in identifying individuals with an adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2, indicating recent or prior infection. This test may be positive in vaccinated patients. It is unknown for how long antibodies persist following infection and if the presence of antibodies confers protective immunity. This assay should not be used to diagnose acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


This test may be helpful if you: 

  • Have had a positive test for COVID-19 and it has been at least 7 days and you want to know if you have detectable levels of IgG antibodies
  • Have not experienced a fever or felt feverish in the last 3 days
  • Have not experienced new or worsening symptoms of COVID-19 in the past 10 days: loss of smell or taste, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, feeling weak or lethargic, lightheadedness or dizziness, vomiting or diarrhea, slurred speech, and/or seizures

This test may NOT be helpful if you are: 

  • Feeling sick or have had a fever within the last 3 full days, please contact a healthcare provider
  • Trying to diagnose COVID-19, please contact a healthcare provider
  • Less than 7 days since being tested for and diagnosed with COVID-19
  • Directly exposed to COVID-19 in the past 14 days
  • A person with a compromised immune system, a condition that makes it difficult to fight infections
  • For the latest information on COVID-19, please visit our website for information for patients.

What will my results tell me? - Your test results may help identify if you were exposed to the virus and, if so, whether or not your body has these antibodies. Although having antibodies usually gives immunity from further infection, there is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections. ?Results from this test also will not provide any information on whether you can spread the virus to others. 

If you have questions about returning to work, contact your employer for guidance. Be sure to continue to follow federal, state, and local government guidance regarding social distancing and isolation. 

Are there any limitations to IgG antibody tests? - It usually takes around 10 to 18 days after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 for your body to produce enough antibodies for detection in the blood. Getting an IgG antibody test too soon after being infected may cause a negative result that is false (false negative). Additionally, IgG antibody tests may detect IgG antibodies from previous exposure to coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV-2. This can cause a positive result that is false (false positive). There is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections. 

Are there any risks involved in getting this test? - There is no risk involved in getting this test. The test is conducted by collecting a blood sample. 

How do I prepare for the test? - To have your specimen collected at the patient service center, you will need to wear a face mask, consent to a non-contact thermometer checks at the time of visit, and depending upon the patient service center schedule an appointment. There is no other special preparation other than the requirements to receive this test that is restricted to only to patients who: are asymptomatic; have been asymptomatic for at least 10 days; lack a fever (as assessed by non-contact thermometer checks at time of visit); and are wearing a face mask.

What is coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? 
Coronavirus disease (also called COVID-19) is a serious respiratory illness. It is caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), one of the most recently discovered types of coronaviruses. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and has spread globally, becoming a worldwide pandemic. Those who have this disease may or may not experience symptoms, which range from mild to severe. 

What is a serology test? 
This serology? ?test checks for a type of antibody called ?immunoglobulin G (IgG)?. If you’ve been exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, your body produces IgG antibodies as part of the immune response to the virus. This test cannot tell you if you have an active infection with SARS-CoV-2. If you suspect you have COVID-19, follow up with your healthcare provider about getting a molecular (PCR) test. 

Note: This test can sometimes detect antibodies from other coronaviruses, which can cause a false positive result if you have been previously diagnosed with or exposed to other types of coronaviruses. Additionally, if you test too soon, your body may not have produced enough IgG antibodies to be detected by the test yet, which can lead to a false negative result. 

At this time, antibody testing is mainly used in studies to determine how much of the population has been exposed to COVID-19. There is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future COVID-19 infection. Positive or negative antibody tests do not rule out the possibility of COVID-19 infection. Results also do not provide any information on whether you can spread the virus to others.


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


Includes

Interleukin 2 Receptor (CD25) Soluble, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 13, Interleukin 1 beta, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 8, Tumor Necrosis Factor - alpha, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 17

Clinical Significance

Primarily for research and to support attempts to understand the pathogenesis of immune, infectious, allergic, or inflammatory disorders.


CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns. Antibody IgG may represent prior exposure or recent infection if there is a significant change in titer between acute and convalescent specimens.

CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns.

Diphtheria and Tetanus Antitoxoids

Clinical Significance

Diphtheria and Tetanus Antitoxoids - Used to evaluate diphtheria immunization response. Antibody levels of > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 10680, Diphtheria Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani. Immunization with Tetanus Antitoxoid is effective with boosters in immunocompetent individuals. Antibody levels of > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. However, tetanus can still occur in some individuals with such antibody levels. These results should not be used to determine the necessity to administer antitoxin when clinically indicated. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 91424, Tetanus Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

Diphtheria Antitoxoid≥0.10 IU/mLTetanus Antitoxoid≥0.10 IU/mL

 

 



Clinical Significance

Used to evaluate diphtheria immunization response. Antibody levels of > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 10680, Diphtheria Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

 

Alternative Name(s)

DPT Titer,Anti Diphtheria


Hepatitis A & B Titer Test

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total
  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Immunity, Quantitative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total

The Hepatitis A & B Titer Test is ordered when a person needs proof of immunity to Hepatitis A and B or just want to check their immune status.

The Hepatitis Titer Test includes immunity testing for both Hepatitis A and B.  Hepatitis is a viral disease which affects the liver.  Vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B can provide protective antibodies which immunize a person from catching the virus.  Additionally, a person who has been affected by Hepatitis A or B and recovers can develop natural immunity.  Titer testing looks for the antibodies which typically indicate that a person is immune to a particular virus or infection.

Hepatitis B Immunity

Not Immune and no active or prior infection; may be a good candidate for vaccine

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

Immunity due to vaccination

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Positive
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

HEPATITIS B INFECTION

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Positive  A positive result indicates an infection, usually with symptoms; contagious; could also be a flare of a chronic infection

Hepatitis A immunity

Immunity

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total = Positive
  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody = Negative

No active infection but previous HAV exposure; has developed immunity to HAV or recently vaccinated for HAV

No Immunity

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total= Negative
  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody = Negative

No current or previous HAV infection; vaccine may be advised if at risk

HEPATITIS A INFECTION

  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody = Positive   A positive result indicates an acute or recent infection

 


Hepatitis A Antibody, Total (IgM - IgG)

Hepatitis A Total (IgM - IgG) Blood Test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to hepatitis A.

The total Hepatitis A antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies and thus may be used to identify both current and past infections. This test will also be positive after receiving the vaccine, so sometimes it may be used to determine whether a person has developed immunity after vaccination.

  • A positive result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates  exposure to hepatitis A vairus but does not rule out acute infection. 
  • A Negative result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates no current or previous HAV infection; vaccine may be recommended if at risk.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following.

A total antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies but does not distinguish between them.

If the total antibody test or hepatitis A IgG result is positive and someone has never been vaccinated against HAV, then the person has had past exposure to the virus. About 30% of adults over age 40 have antibodies to hepatitis A.


Hepatitis A IgM Antibody & Total A Antibody Panel conatins the following 2 tests.

  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody
  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total

This test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to hepatitis A.

Hepatitis A Antibody, Total

The total Hepatitis A antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies and thus may be used to identify both current and past infections. This test will also be positive after receiving the vaccine, so sometimes it may be used to determine whether a person has developed immunity after vaccination.

Hepatitis A IgM Antibody

The Hepatitis A IgM antibody test detects the first antibody produced by the body when it is exposed to hepatitis A. This test is used to detect early or recent infections and to diagnose the disease in people with symptoms of acute hepatitis. IgM antibodies to Hepatitis A suggest a current, acute or recent Hepatitis A infection.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following.

If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is positive the results indicate Acute or recent Hepatitis A virus infection.

If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is negative and the Hepatitis A Antibody, Total is positive then the results indicate no active infection but previous Hepatitis A virus exposure; has developed immunity to Hepatitis A virus or recently vaccinated for Hepatitis A virus.


Hepatitis A IgM Antibody

This test is used to screen for recent exposure to the Hepatitis A virus.and to help diagnose a liver infection due to the Hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to Hepatitis A.

Hepatitis A IgM Antibody

The Hepatitis A IgM antibody test detects the first antibody produced by the body when it is exposed to Hepatitis A. This test is used to detect early or recent infections and to diagnose the disease in people with symptoms of acute hepatitis. IgM antibodies to Hepatitis A suggest a current, acute or recent Hepatitis A infection.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following:

  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is positive the results indicate Acute or recent Hepatitis A virus infection.
  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is negative and the Hepatitis A Antibody, Total is positive then the results indicate no active infection but previous Hepatitis A virus exposure; has developed immunity to Hepatitis A virus or recently vaccinated for Hepatitis A virus.
  • Dietary supplements containing biotin may interfere in assays and may skew analyte results to be either falsely high or falsely low. For patients receiving the recommended daily doses of biotin, draw samples at least 8 hours following the last biotin supplementation. For patients on mega-doses of biotin supplements, draw samples at least 72 hours following the last biotin supplementation.

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Hepatitis A Antibody Test to diagnose the Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) in the blood. The hepatitis A test looks for antibodies to the HAV virus in the blood. These antibodies are proteins made by the body in response to the presence of the hepatitis A virus. Our type- specific hepatitis A antibody test is used to determine whether a person is or has been infected with the hepatitis A virus.

Hepatitis A Antibody, Total

This test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to hepatitis A.

The total Hepatitis A antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies and thus may be used to identify both current and past infections. This test will also be positive after receiving the vaccine, so sometimes it may be used to determine whether a person has developed immunity after vaccination.

A positive result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates  exposure to hepatitis A vairus but does not rule out acute infection. 

A Negative result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates no current or previous HAV infection; vaccine may be recommended if at risk.


This assay does not distinguish between Total B core antibody IgG and IgM detected before or at the onset of symptoms; however, such reactivity can persist for years after illness, and may even outlast anti-HBs. Occasionally Hepatitis B core antibody may be the only marker of either current or past Hepatitis B infection.


Description: Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative is a test that will determine if there are Hep B antibodies present in the blood.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, Hep B Surface Antibody Test, Hep B Antibody Test, Hepatitis B Antibody Test, Hep B Surface Ab Test, HBV Antibody Test, HBV Surface Antibody Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test ordered:

Hepatitis B antibody testing is generally ordered to determine immunity to Hepatitis B through the detection of antibodies in the blood. This testing is often requested for medical records related to school and healthcare professions.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative blood test check for?

Antibodies to the hepatitis B virus are detected in hepatitis B antibody tests, which indicate a past infection or immunization against the virus.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is disseminated through coming into touch with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who reside in or travel to places of the world where hepatitis B is common are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, generally during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing infants at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test:

  • Hepatitis A antibody test
  • Hepatitis C antibody test
  • Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin Fractionated
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • AST
  • ALT
  • Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Liver Disease

How does my health care provider use a Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test?

Antibody generated in response to HBV surface antigen is detected by hepatitis B surface antibody test. It is used to determine the necessity for immunization or if a person has recovered from an infection and is immune. It can also arise from effective vaccination.

What do my Hepatitis B antibody test results mean?

If antibodies are not detected, it indicates that a person has not developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

If antibodies are detected, it indicates that a person has developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hepatitis B Surface antigen test is a blood test that checks for hepatitis b antigen in your blood’s serum. If hepatitis B antigen is detected, confirmation testing will be performed.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, HBsAg Test, Hepatitis B Antigen Test, HBV Test, HBV Surface Antigen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS IS A REFLUX TEST - The price charged for this test is only for the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. ADDITIONAL CHARGE OF $39 WILL OCCUR FOR THE REFLUX CONFIRMATION if the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive.

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test ordered?

When someone develops signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis, hepatitis B tests may be conducted to see if they are caused by HBV infection.

When standard test findings such as ALT and/or AST are elevated, hepatitis B testing may be ordered as a follow-up. Acute varieties of hepatitis can sometimes be diagnosed this way since they only generate minor symptoms that are easily confused with the flu. Chronic hepatitis is more typically diagnosed when routine test results are abnormal and has no symptoms.

When someone falls into one of the high risk categories for chronic hepatitis B, a test for hepatitis B surface antigen may be utilized for screening.

Hepatitis B tests may be repeated on a regular basis to monitor persons who have chronic hepatitis B infections. Hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis Be antigen are normally evaluated every 6 months to a year since HBeAg can disappear on its own in certain persons. HBeAg and HBV DNA testing can be used to detect whether or not a patient is receiving effective treatment for chronic HBV.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen blood test check for?

Hepatitis B tests look for chemicals that indicate a present or former hepatitis B infection. Some tests look for viral antigen or antibodies produced in response to an infection, while others look for or analyse the virus's genetic material. A person with a current active infection or immunity as a result of earlier exposure can be identified by the pattern of test findings.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is transmitted through contact with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who live in or go to locations where hepatitis B is widespread are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, usually during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by exchanging razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Efficient hepatitis B vaccines have already been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing newborns at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Acute HBV infection, albeit potentially dangerous, normally goes away on its own in most adults. Infants and children are more likely than adults to get a persistent infection. Ninety percent of newborns affected with HBV will develop a chronic illness. Between the ages of one and five, the risk of having chronic hepatitis lowers to 25% to 50%. Only 6% to 10% of HBV illnesses become chronic in children over the age of five.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and hepatic enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Hepatitis B testing can be used to detect infection in the absence of symptoms, to establish whether an infection is acute or chronic, and to track the progress of a chronic infection and its treatment.

Lab tests often ordered with a a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test:

  • Hepatitis A Test
  • Hepatitis C Test
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin
  • AST
  • AST
  • GGT
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Disease
  • HIV

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis B Antigen test?

Hepatitis B viral tests can be used for a number of different reasons. Some tests look for antibodies produced in response to HBV infection, while others look for antigens produced by the virus and yet others look for viral DNA.

In most cases, one set of tests is used as an initial panel of tests to diagnose HBV infection or determine the reason of acute symptoms, while another set of tests may be performed after a diagnosis to track disease progression, detect chronic infection, and/or determine carrier status.

What do my Hepatitis B Surface antigen test results mean?

Hepatitis B tests can be requested alone, although they are frequently ordered in combination, depending on the purpose for testing. The results of the tests are usually compared. The significance of one test result may be influenced by the outcome of another. However, not everyone is subjected to all tests.

If the findings of initial and follow-up testing suggest that a person has chronic hepatitis B, the individual may be treated with medication, and the effectiveness of that therapy can be tracked using HBe antigen and antibody tests, as well as HBV DNA tests.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: The hepatitis B Surface antigen test is a blood test that checks for hepatitis b antigen in your blood’s serum. If hepatitis B antigen is detected, confirmation testing will be performed.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, HBsAg Test, Hepatitis B Antigen Test, HBV Test, HBV Surface Antigen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS IS A REFLUX TEST - The price charged for this test is only for the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. ADDITIONAL CHARGE OF $39 WILL OCCUR FOR THE REFLUX CONFIRMATION if the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive.

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test ordered?

When someone develops signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis, hepatitis B tests may be conducted to see if they are caused by HBV infection.

When standard test findings such as ALT and/or AST are elevated, hepatitis B testing may be ordered as a follow-up. Acute varieties of hepatitis can sometimes be diagnosed this way since they only generate minor symptoms that are easily confused with the flu. Chronic hepatitis is more typically diagnosed when routine test results are abnormal and has no symptoms.

When someone falls into one of the high risk categories for chronic hepatitis B, a test for hepatitis B surface antigen may be utilized for screening.

Hepatitis B tests may be repeated on a regular basis to monitor persons who have chronic hepatitis B infections. Hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis Be antigen are normally evaluated every 6 months to a year since HBeAg can disappear on its own in certain persons. HBeAg and HBV DNA testing can be used to detect whether or not a patient is receiving effective treatment for chronic HBV.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen blood test check for?

Hepatitis B tests look for chemicals that indicate a present or former hepatitis B infection. Some tests look for viral antigen or antibodies produced in response to an infection, while others look for or analyse the virus's genetic material. A person with a current active infection or immunity as a result of earlier exposure can be identified by the pattern of test findings.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is transmitted through contact with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who live in or go to locations where hepatitis B is widespread are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, usually during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by exchanging razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Efficient hepatitis B vaccines have already been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing newborns at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Acute HBV infection, albeit potentially dangerous, normally goes away on its own in most adults. Infants and children are more likely than adults to get a persistent infection. Ninety percent of newborns affected with HBV will develop a chronic illness. Between the ages of one and five, the risk of having chronic hepatitis lowers to 25% to 50%. Only 6% to 10% of HBV illnesses become chronic in children over the age of five.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and hepatic enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Hepatitis B testing can be used to detect infection in the absence of symptoms, to establish whether an infection is acute or chronic, and to track the progress of a chronic infection and its treatment.

Lab tests often ordered with a a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test:

  • Hepatitis A Test
  • Hepatitis C Test
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin
  • AST
  • AST
  • GGT
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Disease
  • HIV

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis B Antigen test?

Hepatitis B viral tests can be used for a number of different reasons. Some tests look for antibodies produced in response to HBV infection, while others look for antigens produced by the virus and yet others look for viral DNA.

In most cases, one set of tests is used as an initial panel of tests to diagnose HBV infection or determine the reason of acute symptoms, while another set of tests may be performed after a diagnosis to track disease progression, detect chronic infection, and/or determine carrier status.

What do my Hepatitis B Surface antigen test results mean?

Hepatitis B tests can be requested alone, although they are frequently ordered in combination, depending on the purpose for testing. The results of the tests are usually compared. The significance of one test result may be influenced by the outcome of another. However, not everyone is subjected to all tests.

If the findings of initial and follow-up testing suggest that a person has chronic hepatitis B, the individual may be treated with medication, and the effectiveness of that therapy can be tracked using HBe antigen and antibody tests, as well as HBV DNA tests.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Hepatitis B Titer Test

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Immunity, Quantitative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total

The Hepatitis B Titer Test is ordered when a person needs proof of immunity to Hepatitis B or just want to check their immune status.

The Hepatitis Titer Test includes immunity testing for Hepatitis B.  Hepatitis is a viral disease which affects the liver.  Vaccinations for Hepatitis B can provide protective antibodies which immunize a person from catching the virus.  Additionally, a person who has been affected by Hepatitis B and recovers can develop natural immunity.  Titer testing looks for the antibodies which typically indicate that a person is immune to a particular virus or infection.

Hepatitis B Immunity

Not Immune and no active or prior infection; may be a good candidate for vaccine

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

Immunity due to vaccination

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Positive
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

HEPATITIS B INFECTION

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Positive  A positive result indicates an infection, usually with symptoms; contagious; could also be a flare of a chronic infection.

Hepatitis C Antibody, HCV RNA & Liver Panel

  • Hepatitis C Antibody
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR
  • Hepatic Function Panel

Hepatitis C antibody tests are used to screen individuals for the infection, including, people with no signs or symptoms but with risk factors, people who have symptoms associated with hepatitis or liver disease, or those who have been exposed to the virus.

Since the antibody test can remain positive for most people even if they have cleared the infection, this panel includes a hepatitis C RNA test, which detects the genetic material of the virus. A positive result on the RNA test means the virus is present, the infection has not resolved, and the person may require treatment. The liver panel is included to assess the health of the liver.

An HCV antibody test is typically reported as "positive" or "negative."

Results of Hepatitis C Virus RNA testing are reported as a number if virus is present. If no virus is present or if the amount of virus is too low to detect, the result is often reported as "negative" or "not detected."

Interpretation of the HCV screening and follow-up tests is shown below. In general, if the HCV antibody test is positive, then the individual tested is infected or has likely been infected at some time with hepatitis C. If the Hepatitis C Virus RNA test is positive, then the person has a current infection. If no Hepatitis C Virus RNA is detected, then the person either does not have an active infection or the virus is present in very low numbers.

HCV Antibody = Negative

No infection or too early after exposure for the test to be accurate; if suspicion remains high, retesting at a later time may be required.

_________________________

HCV Antibody = Positive or Indeterminate

HCV RNA = Negative

Past infection or no infection (false-positive screen); additional testing if indicated

_____________________

HCV Antibody = Positive or Weak or Indeterminate

HCV RNA = Positive

Current infection


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Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®) 

Tests for HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB to diagnose HSV-1 infection when lesions are absent. A positive HSV-1 IgG antibody test indicates a previous infection.

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative 
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal 
  • >1.09 Positive 

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.