Hepatitis B Immunity Panel

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Hepatitis B Core Ab Total

Hepatitis B Surface

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The Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test contains 1 test with 2 biomarkers.

Brief Description: The Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test is a comprehensive series of blood tests designed to determine an individual's immunity status with respect to the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The panel primarily evaluates the presence or absence of antibodies related to the virus to assess exposure, immunity, or ongoing infection.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When and Why a Hepatitis B Immunity Panel Test May Be Ordered

The Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test may be ordered:

  1. Before Vaccination: To check if someone is already immune to the virus before receiving the hepatitis B vaccine.
  2. Post-Vaccination: To ensure that the vaccine has produced an adequate immune response.
  3. Occupational Health Screening: For individuals in professions with a higher risk of exposure, such as healthcare workers.
  4. Prior to Surgery or Medical Procedures: Especially in individuals with liver conditions or those undergoing immunosuppressive treatments.
  5. Suspected Exposure: If someone has been exposed to body fluids from an infected person or has had unprotected sex with an individual with HBV.

What the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel Test Checks For

The Hepatitis B Immunity Panel primarily looks for:

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (HBsAb): Determines immunity to Hepatitis B. A positive result typically indicates past infection and subsequent recovery or successful vaccination.
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody (HBcAb): Can show past or recent infections. It remains in the system indefinitely after infection.

Other Lab Tests Ordered Alongside the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel Test

When a Hepatitis B Immunity Panel is ordered, it's often part of a broader evaluation of hepatitis B status or overall liver health. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:

  1. Liver Function Test:

    • Purpose: To assess liver health and function.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate the liver for any signs of damage or dysfunction, which can be associated with hepatitis B infection.
  2. Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg) and Hepatitis B e Antibody (anti-HBe):

    • Purpose: To assess the state of hepatitis B infection.
    • Why Is It Ordered: HBeAg is a marker of infectivity and active replication of the virus, while anti-HBe indicates lower levels of virus replication.
  3. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Test:

    • Purpose: To screen for hepatitis C infection.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Individuals at risk for hepatitis B are often at risk for hepatitis C as well; co-infection can impact disease management and prognosis.
  4. Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Antibody Test:

    • Purpose: To determine immunity to hepatitis A.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Like hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A affects the liver, and it's important to assess the overall viral hepatitis status.
  5. Complete Blood Count (CBC):

    • Purpose: To evaluate overall blood health.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To identify any underlying anemia or other hematological issues that can occur with liver disease.
  6. Prothrombin Time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR):

    • Purpose: To assess blood clotting function.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Liver damage can affect the production of clotting factors, leading to prolonged PT/INR.
  7. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP):

    • Purpose: To screen for liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma).
    • Why Is It Ordered: Chronic hepatitis B infection increases the risk of liver cancer, and AFP can be a useful tumor marker.

These tests, when ordered alongside a Hepatitis B Immunity Panel, provide a comprehensive evaluation of hepatitis B status and liver health. They are crucial for diagnosing hepatitis B infection, assessing liver function, monitoring disease progression, and guiding treatment decisions. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual’s risk factors, vaccination history, and clinical presentation.

Conditions or Diseases that Require a Hepatitis B Immunity Panel Test

The primary reason for ordering this panel is:

  • Hepatitis B Exposure or Infection: To determine if an individual has been exposed to, currently has, or is immune to the Hepatitis B virus.
  • Chronic Hepatitis B Monitoring: In patients with known chronic HBV, to gauge the state of the disease and effectiveness of treatments.

Usage of Results from the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel Test by Health Care Providers

Doctors utilize the results in the following ways:

  • Immunity Status: A positive HBsAb result with negative HBsAg and HBcAb indicates immunity, often due to vaccination.
  • Current Infection: A positive HBsAg suggests a current infection.
  • Past Infection: A positive HBcAb with negative HBsAg indicates past infection and subsequent recovery.

The combination of results allows clinicians to discern between past exposure, current infection, and immunity, guiding further treatment, management, or preventive measures.

In conclusion, the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test provides a comprehensive understanding of an individual's interaction with the Hepatitis B virus, guiding healthcare decisions and interventions.

Most Common Questions About the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test:

Purpose and Clinical Indications

Why is Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test conducted?

The Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test is used to assess the immune status of an individual with respect to the Hepatitis B virus. The test can indicate whether the person is immune due to previous infection or vaccination, whether an active infection exists, or if the person is susceptible to future Hepatitis B infections.

Who should consider taking the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test?

Individuals who are at high risk of exposure to Hepatitis B, such as healthcare workers, those who frequently travel to regions where the virus is prevalent, or those with close contacts who have Hepatitis B should consider taking this test. Additionally, individuals with unexplained liver enzyme elevations or those with multiple sexual partners may also benefit from the test.

Interpretation of Results

What do positive results on the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test mean?

A positive result can mean different things depending on the specific marker that is positive. For instance, a positive result for the Hepatitis B surface antibody suggests immunity against the virus, either from vaccination or from recovery from a past infection. On the other hand, a positive result for the Hepatitis B surface antigen indicates an active infection.

What do negative results on the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test imply?

A negative result typically indicates that the individual has not been exposed to the Hepatitis B virus and is not immune. In this case, the person remains susceptible to future Hepatitis B infections and should consider vaccination for prevention.

Implications and Medical Management

How do healthcare professionals use the results of the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test in making clinical decisions?

Healthcare professionals use the results to determine the appropriate course of action, which may include vaccination, antiviral medications, or further testing and monitoring. For example, if the test indicates immunity, then no immediate action may be needed other than routine monitoring. If there's evidence of an active infection, antiviral medications may be prescribed, and close contacts may also need to be tested.

What happens if someone is found to be susceptible to Hepatitis B based on Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test?

If an individual is found to be susceptible to Hepatitis B, it is generally recommended that they receive the Hepatitis B vaccine to confer immunity and prevent future infection. Depending on the individual's risk profile, periodic retesting may also be recommended to ensure that immunity has been achieved after vaccination.

Post-Test Management

Following the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test, are there any recommended follow-up tests?

If the test indicates an active Hepatitis B infection, additional tests may be recommended to assess liver function and to further characterize the infection. This could include tests for Hepatitis B e antigen, Hepatitis B core antibody, and liver function tests like ALT and AST.

Are there lifestyle changes recommended after taking the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test?

Lifestyle recommendations may vary depending on the results. For those with an active infection, it's crucial to avoid activities that might spread the virus, such as unprotected sex or sharing needles. Abstinence from alcohol may also be advised to reduce liver stress. For those found to be susceptible to Hepatitis B, getting vaccinated and avoiding high-risk behaviors are typically recommended.

By understanding the importance, implications, and follow-up measures related to the Hepatitis B Immunity Panel test, both healthcare providers and patients can make informed decisions about managing Hepatitis B risk and infection.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

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