Titer

Titer Blood Tests and health information

Titer lab tests are an excellent way to keep track of your immune system's health.

The titer test is a simple and inexpensive approach to keep track of your immune system. It's the most accurate way to measure antibodies in your body, and that may help you live a healthier life. Titer testing can help evaluate if you need extra immunizations by measuring your immune system's reaction to vaccines.

Do you have concerns about your immunity to certain diseases?

If that's the case, you should get tested for the antibodies that are linked to these diseases. You'll be able to tell whether or not you're protected from them this way. You won't have to guess any longer since antibody testing will provide you with accurate results.

You deserve accurate results that will give you peace of mind when it comes to your health. It's time to stop guessing and start getting real results instead with these antibody titer tests.

Our antibody titer tests can help you figure out if you have the protection you need against a variety of illnesses. It's best if you don't ever assume you're immune to sickness. Instead of guessing, you should use these antibody tests to get the correct information.

For more information click the link to the Guide to Immunity Detection and Titer Testing.

Find the correct immunity detection and titer testing from the list of labs below to monitor your immune levels with an accurate reading of your confidential results in 24 to 48 hrs.

 


Name Matches

Diphtheria and Tetanus Antitoxoids

Clinical Significance

Diphtheria and Tetanus Antitoxoids - Used to evaluate diphtheria immunization response. Antibody levels of > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 10680, Diphtheria Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani. Immunization with Tetanus Antitoxoid is effective with boosters in immunocompetent individuals. Antibody levels of > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. However, tetanus can still occur in some individuals with such antibody levels. These results should not be used to determine the necessity to administer antitoxin when clinically indicated. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 91424, Tetanus Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

Diphtheria Antitoxoid≥0.10 IU/mLTetanus Antitoxoid≥0.10 IU/mL

 

 



Clinical Significance

Used to evaluate diphtheria immunization response. Antibody levels of > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 10680, Diphtheria Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

 

Alternative Name(s)

DPT Titer,Anti Diphtheria


Hepatitis A & B Titer Test

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total
  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Immunity, Quantitative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total

The Hepatitis A & B Titer Test is ordered when a person needs proof of immunity to Hepatitis A and B or just want to check their immune status.

The Hepatitis Titer Test includes immunity testing for both Hepatitis A and B.  Hepatitis is a viral disease which affects the liver.  Vaccinations for Hepatitis A and B can provide protective antibodies which immunize a person from catching the virus.  Additionally, a person who has been affected by Hepatitis A or B and recovers can develop natural immunity.  Titer testing looks for the antibodies which typically indicate that a person is immune to a particular virus or infection.

Hepatitis B Immunity

Not Immune and no active or prior infection; may be a good candidate for vaccine

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

Immunity due to vaccination

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Positive
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

HEPATITIS B INFECTION

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Positive  A positive result indicates an infection, usually with symptoms; contagious; could also be a flare of a chronic infection

Hepatitis A immunity

Immunity

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total = Positive
  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody = Negative

No active infection but previous HAV exposure; has developed immunity to HAV or recently vaccinated for HAV

No Immunity

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total= Negative
  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody = Negative

No current or previous HAV infection; vaccine may be advised if at risk

HEPATITIS A INFECTION

  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody = Positive   A positive result indicates an acute or recent infection

 


Hepatitis A Antibody, Total (IgM - IgG)

Hepatitis A Total (IgM - IgG) Blood Test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to hepatitis A.

The total Hepatitis A antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies and thus may be used to identify both current and past infections. This test will also be positive after receiving the vaccine, so sometimes it may be used to determine whether a person has developed immunity after vaccination.

  • A positive result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates  exposure to hepatitis A vairus but does not rule out acute infection. 
  • A Negative result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates no current or previous HAV infection; vaccine may be recommended if at risk.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following.

A total antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies but does not distinguish between them.

If the total antibody test or hepatitis A IgG result is positive and someone has never been vaccinated against HAV, then the person has had past exposure to the virus. About 30% of adults over age 40 have antibodies to hepatitis A.


Hepatitis A IgM Antibody & Total A Antibody Panel conatins the following 2 tests.

  • Hepatitis A IgM Antibody
  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total

This test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to hepatitis A.

Hepatitis A Antibody, Total

The total Hepatitis A antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies and thus may be used to identify both current and past infections. This test will also be positive after receiving the vaccine, so sometimes it may be used to determine whether a person has developed immunity after vaccination.

Hepatitis A IgM Antibody

The Hepatitis A IgM antibody test detects the first antibody produced by the body when it is exposed to hepatitis A. This test is used to detect early or recent infections and to diagnose the disease in people with symptoms of acute hepatitis. IgM antibodies to Hepatitis A suggest a current, acute or recent Hepatitis A infection.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following.

If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is positive the results indicate Acute or recent Hepatitis A virus infection.

If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is negative and the Hepatitis A Antibody, Total is positive then the results indicate no active infection but previous Hepatitis A virus exposure; has developed immunity to Hepatitis A virus or recently vaccinated for Hepatitis A virus.


Description: The Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test is a blood test used to screen for recent exposure to Hepatitis A and to help diagnose liver infection.

Also Known As: HAV AB Test, Hepatitis A Virus Antibody Test, Anti HAV Test, Anti Hepatitis A Virus Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test ordered?

When someone shows evidence of an acute infection, testing for hepatitis A antibodies is recommended.

When a person is suspected to have been exposed to the virus, regardless of whether or not symptoms are present, a HAV test may be conducted.

Testing is also often ordered to show proof of immunization.

What does a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody blood test check for?

Hepatitis A is a highly infectious liver infection caused by hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis is a condition marked by inflammation and enlargement of the liver, and it can be caused by a variety of things. This test looks for antibodies produced by the immune system in response to a hepatitis A infection in the blood.

Hepatitis A is one of five hepatitis viruses known to cause the disease, with the others being B, C, D, and E. Hepatitis A can cause a severe, acute illness that lasts 1 to 2 months, but unlike the other hepatitis viruses, it does not create a persistent infection.

Hepatitis A is transmitted from person to person most usually by stool contamination or by swallowing food or water contaminated by an infected person's stool. Direct contact with an infected person, international travel, direct contact with a newly arrived international adoptee, a recognized foodborne outbreak, men having sex with men, and use of illegal drugs are all recognized risk factors for hepatitis A.

Hepatitis can be caused by a variety of things, but the symptoms are all the same. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in hepatitis. It can't remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body since it can't digest them. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood can rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin or a liver panel can inform a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they don't tell them what's causing it. Hepatitis viral antibody testing may aid in determining the etiology.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test:

  • Hepatitis A IgG Antibody test
  • Hepatitis B Testing
  • Hepatitis C Testing
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • AST
  • ALT
  • ALP
  • Bilirubin

Conditions where a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test is recommended:

  • Liver Disease
  • Viral Hepatitis
  • Traveler’s Diseases
  • Food and Waterborne Illness

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test?

This test is used to diagnose a hepatitis A virus caused liver infection. Hepatitis and its symptoms can be caused by a variety of things, therefore this test can help you figure out if your symptoms are caused by hepatitis A.

This test will also come back positive after a person has received the Hepatitis A vaccine, therefore it can be used to see if they have developed immunity following immunization.

Other tests, such as bilirubin, hepatic function panel, ALT, and AST, may be used in conjunction with viral hepatitis testing to assist diagnose the condition in acute hepatitis.

What do my Hepatitis A Antibody test results mean?

A total antibody test identifies both IgM and IgG antibodies without distinguishing between the two.

If the test is positive and the person has never been vaccinated against HAV, then person has been exposed to the virus. Hepatitis A antibodies are found in about 30% of persons over the age of 40.

If the test is negative, then the person has neither been exposed or vaccinated against the Hepatitis A Virus.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following:

  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is positive the results indicate Acute or recent Hepatitis A virus infection.
  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is negative and the Hepatitis A Antibody, Total is positive then the results indicate no active infection but previous Hepatitis A virus exposure; has developed immunity to Hepatitis A virus or recently vaccinated for Hepatitis A virus.
  • Dietary supplements containing biotin may interfere in assays and may skew analyte results to be either falsely high or falsely low. For patients receiving the recommended daily doses of biotin, draw samples at least 8 hours following the last biotin supplementation. For patients on mega-doses of biotin supplements, draw samples at least 72 hours following the last biotin supplementation.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


This assay does not distinguish between Total B core antibody IgG and IgM detected before or at the onset of symptoms; however, such reactivity can persist for years after illness, and may even outlast anti-HBs. Occasionally Hepatitis B core antibody may be the only marker of either current or past Hepatitis B infection.


Description: Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative is a test that will determine if there are Hep B antibodies present in the blood.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, Hep B Surface Antibody Test, Hep B Antibody Test, Hepatitis B Antibody Test, Hep B Surface Ab Test, HBV Antibody Test, HBV Surface Antibody Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test ordered:

Hepatitis B antibody testing is generally ordered to determine immunity to Hepatitis B through the detection of antibodies in the blood. This testing is often requested for medical records related to school and healthcare professions.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative blood test check for?

Antibodies to the hepatitis B virus are detected in hepatitis B antibody tests, which indicate a past infection or immunization against the virus.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is disseminated through coming into touch with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who reside in or travel to places of the world where hepatitis B is common are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, generally during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing infants at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test:

  • Hepatitis A antibody test
  • Hepatitis C antibody test
  • Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin Fractionated
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • AST
  • ALT
  • Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Liver Disease

How does my health care provider use a Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test?

Antibody generated in response to HBV surface antigen is detected by hepatitis B surface antibody test. It is used to determine the necessity for immunization or if a person has recovered from an infection and is immune. It can also arise from effective vaccination.

What do my Hepatitis B antibody test results mean?

If antibodies are not detected, it indicates that a person has not developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

If antibodies are detected, it indicates that a person has developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hepatitis B Surface antigen test is a blood test that checks for hepatitis b antigen in your blood’s serum. If hepatitis B antigen is detected, confirmation testing will be performed.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, HBsAg Test, Hepatitis B Antigen Test, HBV Test, HBV Surface Antigen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS IS A REFLUX TEST - The price charged for this test is only for the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. ADDITIONAL CHARGE OF $39 WILL OCCUR FOR THE REFLUX CONFIRMATION if the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive.

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test ordered?

When someone develops signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis, hepatitis B tests may be conducted to see if they are caused by HBV infection.

When standard test findings such as ALT and/or AST are elevated, hepatitis B testing may be ordered as a follow-up. Acute varieties of hepatitis can sometimes be diagnosed this way since they only generate minor symptoms that are easily confused with the flu. Chronic hepatitis is more typically diagnosed when routine test results are abnormal and has no symptoms.

When someone falls into one of the high risk categories for chronic hepatitis B, a test for hepatitis B surface antigen may be utilized for screening.

Hepatitis B tests may be repeated on a regular basis to monitor persons who have chronic hepatitis B infections. Hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis Be antigen are normally evaluated every 6 months to a year since HBeAg can disappear on its own in certain persons. HBeAg and HBV DNA testing can be used to detect whether or not a patient is receiving effective treatment for chronic HBV.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen blood test check for?

Hepatitis B tests look for chemicals that indicate a present or former hepatitis B infection. Some tests look for viral antigen or antibodies produced in response to an infection, while others look for or analyse the virus's genetic material. A person with a current active infection or immunity as a result of earlier exposure can be identified by the pattern of test findings.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is transmitted through contact with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who live in or go to locations where hepatitis B is widespread are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, usually during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by exchanging razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Efficient hepatitis B vaccines have already been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing newborns at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Acute HBV infection, albeit potentially dangerous, normally goes away on its own in most adults. Infants and children are more likely than adults to get a persistent infection. Ninety percent of newborns affected with HBV will develop a chronic illness. Between the ages of one and five, the risk of having chronic hepatitis lowers to 25% to 50%. Only 6% to 10% of HBV illnesses become chronic in children over the age of five.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and hepatic enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Hepatitis B testing can be used to detect infection in the absence of symptoms, to establish whether an infection is acute or chronic, and to track the progress of a chronic infection and its treatment.

Lab tests often ordered with a a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test:

  • Hepatitis A Test
  • Hepatitis C Test
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin
  • AST
  • AST
  • GGT
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Disease
  • HIV

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis B Antigen test?

Hepatitis B viral tests can be used for a number of different reasons. Some tests look for antibodies produced in response to HBV infection, while others look for antigens produced by the virus and yet others look for viral DNA.

In most cases, one set of tests is used as an initial panel of tests to diagnose HBV infection or determine the reason of acute symptoms, while another set of tests may be performed after a diagnosis to track disease progression, detect chronic infection, and/or determine carrier status.

What do my Hepatitis B Surface antigen test results mean?

Hepatitis B tests can be requested alone, although they are frequently ordered in combination, depending on the purpose for testing. The results of the tests are usually compared. The significance of one test result may be influenced by the outcome of another. However, not everyone is subjected to all tests.

If the findings of initial and follow-up testing suggest that a person has chronic hepatitis B, the individual may be treated with medication, and the effectiveness of that therapy can be tracked using HBe antigen and antibody tests, as well as HBV DNA tests.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Hepatitis B Titer Test

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Immunity, Quantitative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total

The Hepatitis B Titer Test is ordered when a person needs proof of immunity to Hepatitis B or just want to check their immune status.

The Hepatitis Titer Test includes immunity testing for Hepatitis B.  Hepatitis is a viral disease which affects the liver.  Vaccinations for Hepatitis B can provide protective antibodies which immunize a person from catching the virus.  Additionally, a person who has been affected by Hepatitis B and recovers can develop natural immunity.  Titer testing looks for the antibodies which typically indicate that a person is immune to a particular virus or infection.

Hepatitis B Immunity

Not Immune and no active or prior infection; may be a good candidate for vaccine

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

Immunity due to vaccination

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Negative
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-HBs) = Positive
  • Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total (Anti-HBc IgG+IgM) = Negative

HEPATITIS B INFECTION

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) = Positive  A positive result indicates an infection, usually with symptoms; contagious; could also be a flare of a chronic infection.

Hepatitis C Antibody, HCV RNA & Liver Panel

  • Hepatitis C Antibody
  • Hepatitis C Virus RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR
  • Hepatic Function Panel

Hepatitis C antibody tests are used to screen individuals for the infection, including, people with no signs or symptoms but with risk factors, people who have symptoms associated with hepatitis or liver disease, or those who have been exposed to the virus.

Since the antibody test can remain positive for most people even if they have cleared the infection, this panel includes a hepatitis C RNA test, which detects the genetic material of the virus. A positive result on the RNA test means the virus is present, the infection has not resolved, and the person may require treatment. The liver panel is included to assess the health of the liver.

An HCV antibody test is typically reported as "positive" or "negative."

Results of Hepatitis C Virus RNA testing are reported as a number if virus is present. If no virus is present or if the amount of virus is too low to detect, the result is often reported as "negative" or "not detected."

Interpretation of the HCV screening and follow-up tests is shown below. In general, if the HCV antibody test is positive, then the individual tested is infected or has likely been infected at some time with hepatitis C. If the Hepatitis C Virus RNA test is positive, then the person has a current infection. If no Hepatitis C Virus RNA is detected, then the person either does not have an active infection or the virus is present in very low numbers.

HCV Antibody = Negative

No infection or too early after exposure for the test to be accurate; if suspicion remains high, retesting at a later time may be required.

_________________________

HCV Antibody = Positive or Indeterminate

HCV RNA = Negative

Past infection or no infection (false-positive screen); additional testing if indicated

_____________________

HCV Antibody = Positive or Weak or Indeterminate

HCV RNA = Positive

Current infection


Description: The Measles Antibodies IgG IgM test is used to measure the blood’s serum for measles antibodies, which may be present because of a current or previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: Rubeola Test, Measles Virus Test, Measles Titer test, Measles Infection Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Measles Antibodies test ordered?

An IgG antibody test for measles may be conducted if a health care provider wants to see if a patient is immune to the viruses, either from a past infection or vaccination.

When a person has measles-like signs and symptoms, or has been exposed to someone who has the virus and now has a fever and some symptoms that could be attributable to measles, IgM and IgG antibody testing may be requested.  These tests are usually ordered early in the infection's progress.

Measles symptoms usually appear 7 to 18 days after exposure and include one or more of the following:

  • A common rash that begins on the face and progresses down the body to the trunk and legs
  • Fever that is very high
  • Coughing that is dry
  • Itchy, red, watery eyes
  • Light sensitivity
  • A stuffy nose
  • Throat irritation
  • Inside the mouth, there are tiny white dots

When numerous persons have been exposed and show the signs and symptoms indicated above, testing may be required during a suspected or confirmed outbreak.

What does a Measles Antibodies blood test check for?

The viruses that cause measles and mumps belong to the Paramyxoviridae family. They both induce infections that normally go away within a few days, but in rare situations, they might lead to significant problems. Both can be avoided by being vaccinated. Antibodies developed in response to infection may be detected in the blood during measles and mumps testing. In addition, employing culture or a molecular approach such as polymerase chain reaction, the virus or its genetic material can be detected directly in a sample. These techniques can be used to a wide range of samples.

The number of instances of measles and mumps infections in the United States has dropped from several hundred thousand to a few hundred per year. Comprehensive measles and mumps immunization campaigns are to blame for the declines. While vaccines exist for each virus, combination vaccines, such as MMR, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella all at once, are commonly used. In recent years, the majority of new cases in the United States have occurred in rare outbreaks, mostly among persons who have not been vaccinated, particularly those who have gone to places of the world where measles or mumps are more common.

Rubeola, often known as measles, is a highly contagious viral infection spread through respiratory secretions. The virus infects cells in the lungs and back of the throat, causing symptoms such as a high fever, dry cough, red eyes, light sensitivity, a runny nose, sore throat, tiny white spots inside the mouth, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads down the body to the trunk and legs after a 1 to 2 week incubation period.

The majority of patients recover in a few weeks, but up to 20% of them experience consequences such as ear infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, or, in rare cases, encephalitis or blindness. People who are malnourished, deficient in vitamin A, or have weakened immune systems are more likely to be affected. Women who are pregnant and infected with measles are more likely to have a miscarriage or go into labor prematurely.

Vaccination has greatly reduced the number of persons infected with measles in the United States and many other countries of the world, but the World Health Organization still considers measles to be a top cause of mortality in children under the age of five. Measles killed roughly 145,700 individuals worldwide in 2013, according to their estimates, the majority of whom were youngsters under the age of five.

The outcome of the immunization campaign In the United States, endemic measles was declared eradicated in 2000. Small outbreaks, however, continue to occur on a yearly basis. The majority of cases occur in people who are either unvaccinated or whose vaccination status is unknown, and most outbreaks are linked to travel to locations where measles outbreaks are happening.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 911 cases of measles were reported from 63 outbreaks between 2001 and 2011. With almost 600 cases recorded in 2014, the United States experienced the greatest number of measles cases in 20 years. Many were linked to visitors who had visited the Philippines, where there had been an unusually significant outbreak of over 50,000 cases.

The CDC, as well as the medical communities in the United States and around the world, remain worried and watchful. Measles is still endemic in many parts of the world, there is always the possibility of travelers spreading the disease, and small percentages of the population remain unvaccinated.

Lab tests often ordered with a Measles Antibodies test:

  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Measles Antibodies test is recommended:

  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • Meningitis
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pancreatitis
  • Infertility
  • Pneumonia
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Measles Antibodies test?

Antibody tests for measles can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a measles outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the measles viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Measles Antibody test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to measles are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current measles infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with measles.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses measles IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have measles IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Measles Antibody IgG test is used to measure the blood’s serum for measles antibodies, which may be present because of a previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: Rubeola Test, Measles Virus Test, Measles Titer test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Measles Antibody IgG test ordered?

An IgG antibody test for measles may be conducted if a health care provider wants to see if a patient is immune to the viruses, either from a past infection or vaccination.

When a person has measles-like signs and symptoms, or has been exposed to someone who has the virus and now has a fever and some symptoms that could be attributable to measles, IgM and IgG antibody testing may be requested.  These tests are usually ordered early in the infection's progress.

Measles symptoms usually appear 7 to 18 days after exposure and include at least one of the following:

  • A common rash that begins on the face and progresses down the body to the trunk and legs
  • Fever that is very high
  • Coughing that is dry
  • Itchy, red, watery eyes
  • Light sensitivity
  • A stuffy nose
  • Throat irritation
  • Inside the mouth, there are tiny white dots

When numerous persons have been exposed and show the signs and symptoms indicated above, testing may be required during a suspected or confirmed outbreak.

What does a a Measles Antibody IgG blood test check for?

The viruses that cause measles and mumps belong to the Paramyxoviridae family. They both induce infections that normally go away within a few days, but in rare situations, they might lead to significant problems. Both can be avoided by being vaccinated. Antibodies developed in response to infection may be detected in the blood during measles and mumps testing. In addition, employing culture or a molecular approach such as polymerase chain reaction, the virus or its genetic material can be detected directly in a sample. These techniques can be used to a wide range of samples.

The number of instances of measles and mumps infections in the United States has dropped from several hundred thousand to a few hundred per year. Comprehensive measles and mumps immunization campaigns are to blame for the declines. While vaccines exist for each virus, combination vaccines, such as MMR, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella all at once, are commonly used. In recent years, the majority of new cases in the United States have occurred in rare outbreaks, mostly among persons who have not been vaccinated, particularly those who have gone to places of the world where measles or mumps are more common.

Rubeola, often known as measles, is a highly contagious viral infection spread through respiratory secretions. The virus infects cells in the lungs and back of the throat, causing symptoms such as a fever that is high, red eyes, a dry cough, sensitivity to light, a sore throat, runny nose tiny white spots inside the mouth, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the body after 1 to 2 weeks.

The majority of patients recover in a few weeks, but up to 20% of them experience consequences such as ear infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, or, in rare cases, encephalitis or blindness. People who are malnourished, deficient in vitamin A, or have weakened immune systems are more likely to be affected. Women who are pregnant and infected with measles are more likely to have a miscarriage or go into labor prematurely.

Vaccination has greatly reduced the number of persons infected with measles in the United States and many other countries of the world, but the World Health Organization (WHO) still considers measles to be a top cause of mortality in children under the age of five. Measles killed roughly 145,700 individuals worldwide in 2013, according to their estimates, the majority of whom were youngsters under the age of five.

The outcome of the immunization campaign In the United States, endemic measles was declared eradicated in 2000. Small outbreaks, however, continue to occur on a yearly basis. The majority of cases occur in people who are either unvaccinated or whose vaccination status is unknown, and most outbreaks are linked to travel to locations where measles outbreaks are happening.

According to the CDC, 911 cases of measles were reported from 63 outbreaks between 2001 and 2011. With almost 600 cases recorded in 2014, the United States experienced the greatest number of measles cases in 20 years. Many were linked to visitors who had visited the Philippines, where there had been an unusually significant outbreak of over 50,000 cases.

The CDC, as well as the medical communities in the United States and around the world, remain worried and watchful. Measles is still endemic in many parts of the world, there is always the possibility of travelers spreading the disease, and small percentages of the population remain unvaccinated.

Lab tests often ordered with a Measles Antibody IgG test:

  • Measles Antibody IgM
  • Mumps Antibody tests
  • Rubella Antibody tests
  • Varicella Zoster Virus Antibody tests
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Measles Antibody IgG test is recommended:

  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • Meningitis
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pancreatitis
  • Infertility
  • Pneumonia
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Measles Antibody IgG test?

Antibody tests for measles can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a measles outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the measles viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Measles IgG Antibody test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to measles are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current measles infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with measles.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses measles IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have measles IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Measles Antibody IgM test is used to measure the blood’s serum for measles antibodies, which may be present because of an active infection.

Also Known As: Rubeola Test, Measles Virus Test, Measles Infection Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Measles Antibody IgM test ordered?

When a person has measles-like signs and symptoms, or has been exposed to someone who has the virus and now has a fever and some symptoms that could be attributable to measles, IgM and IgG antibody testing may be requested.  These tests are usually ordered early in the infection's progress.

Measles symptoms usually appear 7 to 18 days after exposure and include at least one of the following:

  • A common rash that begins on the face and progresses down the body to the trunk and legs
  • Fever that is very high
  • Coughing that is dry
  • Itchy, red, watery eyes
  • Light sensitivity
  • A stuffy nose
  • Throat irritation
  • Inside the mouth, there are tiny white dots

When numerous persons have been exposed and show the signs and symptoms indicated above, testing may be required during a suspected or confirmed outbreak.

What does a Measles Antibody IgM blood test check for?

The viruses that cause measles and mumps belong to the Paramyxoviridae family. They both induce infections that normally go away within a few days, but in rare situations, they might lead to significant problems. Both can be avoided by being vaccinated. Antibodies developed in response to infection may be detected in the blood during measles and mumps testing. In addition, employing culture or a molecular approach such as polymerase chain reaction, the virus or its genetic material can be detected directly in a sample. These techniques can be used to a wide range of samples.

The number of instances of measles and mumps infections in the United States has dropped from several hundred thousand to a few hundred per year. Comprehensive measles and mumps immunization campaigns are to blame for the declines. While vaccines exist for each virus, combination vaccines, such as MMR, which protects against measles, mumps, and rubella all at once, are commonly used. In recent years, the majority of new cases in the United States have occurred in rare outbreaks, mostly among persons who have not been vaccinated, particularly those who have gone to places of the world where measles or mumps are more common.

Rubeola, often known as measles, is a highly contagious viral infection spread through respiratory secretions. The virus infects cells in the lungs and back of the throat, causing symptoms such as a fever that is high, red eyes, a dry cough, sensitivity to light, a sore throat, runny nose tiny white spots inside the mouth, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the body after 1 to 2 weeks.

The majority of patients recover in a few weeks, but up to 20% of them experience consequences such as ear infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, or, in rare cases, encephalitis or blindness. People who are malnourished, deficient in vitamin A, or have weakened immune systems are more likely to be affected. Women who are pregnant and infected with measles are more likely to have a miscarriage or go into labor prematurely.

Vaccination has greatly reduced the number of persons infected with measles in the United States and many other countries of the world, but the World Health Organization (WHO) still considers measles to be a top cause of mortality in children under the age of five. Measles killed roughly 145,700 individuals worldwide in 2013, according to their estimates, the majority of whom were youngsters under the age of five.

The outcome of the immunization campaign In the United States, endemic measles was declared eradicated in 2000. Small outbreaks, however, continue to occur on a yearly basis. The majority of cases occur in people who are either unvaccinated or whose vaccination status is unknown, and most outbreaks are linked to travel to locations where measles outbreaks are happening.

According to the CDC, 911 cases of measles were reported from 63 outbreaks between 2001 and 2011. With almost 600 cases recorded in 2014, the United States experienced the greatest number of measles cases in 20 years. Many were linked to visitors who had visited the Philippines, where there had been an unusually significant outbreak of over 50,000 cases.

The CDC, as well as the medical communities in the United States and around the world, remain worried and watchful. Measles is still endemic in many parts of the world, there is always the possibility of travelers spreading the disease, and small percentages of the population remain unvaccinated.

Lab tests often ordered with a Measles Antibody IgM test:

  • Measles Antibody IgG
  • Mumps Antibody tests
  • Rubella Antibody tests
  • Varicella Zoster Virus Antibody tests
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Measles Antibody IgM test is recommended:

  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • Meningitis
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pancreatitis
  • Infertility
  • Pneumonia
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Measles Antibody IgM test?

Antibody tests for measles can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a measles outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the measles viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Measles Antibody test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to measles are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current measles infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with measles.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


MMR (IgG) Panel (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) Titers - Includes Measles Antibody (IgG), Mumps Antibody (IgG), Rubella Immune Status

This panel provides presumptive evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella for purposes of routine vaccination, for students at post-high school educational institutions, and for international travelers.

The MMR (IgG) Panel is the perfect way to ensure that you are protected against measles, mumps, and rubella. This panel provides you with everything you need to know about your immunity to these diseases and will help you make sure that you are up-to-date on your vaccinations. The Measles Antibody (IgG), Mumps Antibody (IgG), and Rubella Immune Status are all included in this thorough panel, so you can rest assured that you are getting a complete picture of your health.

Order the MMR (IgG) Panel today, and be prepared for anything life throws your way.

What is MMR IgG titer?

The MMR (IgG) Panel is a blood test that measures the levels of antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella in your body. Antibodies are proteins that your immune system produces in reaction to infections. By measuring the levels of these antibodies in the blood, it is possible to assess whether or not an individual is immune to these diseases.

What does the MMR (IgG) Panel include?

This panel includes the Measles Antibody (IgG), Mumps Antibody (IgG), Rubella Immune Status, and Rubella Virus Genotype. The Measles Antibody (IgG) portion of the panel will tell you if you have immunity to measles. The Mumps Antibody (IgG) portion of the panel will tell you if you have immunity to mumps. The Rubella Immune Status portion of the panel will tell you if you are immune to rubella. The Rubella Virus Genotype is used to determine which type of rubella virus you have been infected with.

Why do I need the MMR (IgG) Panel?

The MMR (IgG) Panel is recommended for people who want to ensure that they are up-to-date on their vaccinations. This panel is also recommended for international travelers and for students at post-high school educational institutions.

What is MMR titer positive?

A positive MMR titer means that you have immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. A positive MMR titer is generally considered to be protective for life.

What is MMR titer negative?

A negative MMR titer means that you do not have immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. If you have a negative MMR titer, you should receive the MMR vaccine.

I have a positive MMR titer. Do I still need vaccinations?

Yes, you should still receive vaccinations even if you have a positive MMR titer. This is because the levels of antibodies in your body can decline over time, and you may no longer be protected against these diseases. Vaccinations will help to boost your immunity and help to keep you safe.

I have a negative MMR titer; what does that mean?

A negative MMR titer means that you do not have immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. You should receive the MMR vaccine if you have a negative titer. The MMR vaccine is an efficient and safe method of protection against many diseases.

What are the risks of the MMR (IgG) Panel?

There are no risks associated with this panel. This panel is a blood test that is performed using a small sample of blood.There is no discomfort or pain involved with this test.

How do I prepare for the MMR (IgG) Panel?

There is no preparation necessary for this panel. You can eat and drink normally before and after the test.

When will I get my results?

Your results will be available within 1-2 business days.

If you have any further questions about the MMR (IgG) Panel, please contact us at any time. We are here to help you and to ensure that you are getting the most accurate and up-to-date information possible.

How often do you need MMR titers?

It is generally recommended that you get an MMR titer test every five years or so to make sure that your immunity levels are still high. You may also need to get an MMR titer test more frequently if you are exposed to measles, mumps, or rubella. If you are unsure about how often you should get an MMR titer test, please speak to your doctor or healthcare provider.

 


Description: The Rubella test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgG antibodies, which may be present because of a previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Titer Test, Rubella Infections test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibodies test ordered?

When a woman is pregnant or planning to become pregnant, an IgG rubella test is ordered. It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibodies test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibodies test:

  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Rubella Antibodies test is recommended:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibodies test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella antibodies test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Rubella IgM test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgM antibodies, which may be present because of an active infection.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Infection Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibody IgM test ordered?

It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever (mild)
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibody IgM blood test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibody IgM test:

  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Rubella Antibody IgM test is recommended:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibody IgM test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella Antibody IgM test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection (immune). A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Syphilis (RPR + FTA-ABS)

  • FTA-ABS - Treponema pallidum Ab (Confirmation for Syphilis RPR test).
  • Syphilis RPR ( RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer)

FTA-ABS - Treponema pallidum Ab

Clinical Significance

The FTA-ABS is a specific treponemal assay to detect antibody to t. Pallidum. The FTA-ABS becomes reactive 4-6 weeks after infection. Unlike the nontreponemal tests, once the FTA-ABS test becomes reactive, it will remain reactive for many years. Since the reactivity found with the FTA-ABS does not indicate response to therapy, it is not suitable for monitoring treatment. The FTA-ABS test does not distinguish between syphillis and other treponematoses such as yaws, pinta and bejil.

The treponemal antibody test (FTA-ABS) is often used as an initial test. A positive result indicates the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood, but since treponemal antibodies remain positive even after an infection has been treated, it does not indicate whether the person has a current infection or was infected in the past. Conversely, nontreponemal antibodies as detected with an RPR typically disappear in an adequately treated person after about 3 years. Thus, if an initial treponemal test is positive, an RPR can be performed to differentiate between an active or past infection. In this case, a positive RPR would confirm that the person has been exposed to syphilis and, if not treated previously, has an active infection or, if treatment had occurred more than 3 years ago, possible re-infection.

Alternative Name(s) 

Treponemal pallidum, Fluorescent Treponemal Antigen, Syphilis

 

Syphilis RPR ( RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer)

Reference Range(s)

Non-Reactive

Clinical Significance

This is a non-treponemal screening test for syphilis. False positive results may occur due to systemic lupus erythematosus, leprosy, brucellosis, atypical pneumonia, typhus, yaws, pinta, or pregnancy. Monitoring of RPR is helpful in assessing effectiveness of therapy.

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen and a positive result on the FTA-ABS confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

Alternative Name(s) 

Syphilis



Tetanus Antitoxoid (Titer)

Clinical Significance

Tetanus is caused by Clostridium tetani. Immunization with Tetanus Antitoxoid is effective with boosters in immunocompetent individuals. Antibody levels > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. However, tetanus can still occur in some individuals with such antibody levels. These results should not be used to determine the necessity to administer antitoxin when clinically indicated. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 91424, Tetanus Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

 

 


Description: The Varicella-Zoster Virus test will test the blood for chickenpox antibodies. This test can be used to determine if a person has the chickenpox antibodies, which can be a result of a previous chickenpox infection or a varicella vaccine.

Also Known As: Varicella Titer Test, VZV Titer Test, VZV Test, Varicella Test, VZV Antibody Test, Chicken Pox Titer Test, Chicken Pox Test, Shingles Titer Test, Shingles Test, Herpes Zoster Virus Test, Herpes Zoster Titer Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Varicella Zoster IgG Antibody test ordered?

VZV antibody testing may be requested when a healthcare provider wants to see if a patient has gained immunity to VZV, especially if the patient is at high risk, such as an organ transplant recipient or a pregnant woman, and/or if the patient has recently been infected.

When a person at risk, such as a newborn or someone who is immunocompromised, has been exposed to VZV and is ill with atypical and/or severe symptoms, a VZV culture or DNA test may be ordered to detect an active primary VZV infection in the baby or a primary or reactivated infection in the immunocompromised person.

What does a Varicella Zoster IgG Antibody blood test check for?

The varicella zoster virus, a member of the herpes virus family, is responsible for chickenpox and shingles. Antibodies produced by the immune system in response to a VZV infection or the virus itself are detected in varicella zoster virus tests.

To detect and diagnose a current or previous infection with VZV, tests for chickenpox and shingles may be used. Testing is not always necessary to diagnose a current infection because clinical signs and symptoms are often suffice, but in some persons with unusual skin lesions, a diagnostic test can assist confirm the illness. The tests may be used to detect a present infection in some people, particularly organ transplant recipients and pregnant women, or to establish whether or not they have developed immunity from a previous infection or immunization.

VZV affected practically everyone in the United States by adulthood before the release and widespread use of a chickenpox vaccine in 1995. While VZV is present in latent form in many adults who were infected as children, the prevalence of new episodes of chickenpox has decreased dramatically, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The vaccine is around 98 percent effective in avoiding illness after two doses, and those who do get sick usually have milder symptoms.

Chickenpox can be caused by the Varicella zoster virus in children and adults who have not been vaccinated or exposed previously. The primary illness is highly contagious, and it can be spread from person to person by coughing, sneezing, or touching blister fluid. Signs and symptoms of a primary infection include an itchy rash that appears two weeks after virus introduction, followed by the creation of pimple-like papules that turn into small, fluid-filled blisters. The vesicles rupture, forming a crust, and then healing. Over the course of a few days, this process proceeds in two or three waves or "crops" of several hundred vesicles.

The virus becomes dormant after the original infection has passed, remaining in sensory nerve cells. During the infection, the person produces antibodies that usually prevent them from contracting chickenpox again. The virus can reactivate later in life particularly in persons with compromised immune systems, traveling down the nerve cells to the skin and causing shingles.

A mild to intense burning or itching discomfort in a band of skin at the waist, face, or another area is a symptom of shingles. It normally occurs in one region on one side of the body, although it can also happen in many places. A rash with or without vesicles occurs in the same region many days after the pain, itching, or tingling begins. The rash and pain go away in most people after a few weeks, and the virus becomes latent again. A few people may experience pain that lasts for months.

For elderly persons, a shingles vaccination is now available. This vaccine reduces the chances of the virus reactivating as shingles and the severity of the symptoms if it does. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices started recommending a shingles vaccine for all persons aged 60 and up in 2006. The vaccination, however, is not suggested for people with weaker immune systems.

The majority of chickenpox and shingles cases go away on their own. The condition can be more severe and long-lasting in persons with weaker immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. It may not become latent in some circumstances and spread to the central nervous system.

The consequences of VZV exposure on a developing baby or infant in pregnant women vary depending on when it occurs and whether or not the mother has already been exposed. A primary VZV infection in the first 20 to 30 weeks of pregnancy might cause congenital defects in the unborn infant. The infant may be born with or acquire chickenpox after birth if the illness begins one to three weeks before delivery, though the newborn may be partially protected by the mother's antibodies. VZV infection can be lethal if a newborn is exposed to it at birth and does not have maternal antibody protection.

Lab tests often ordered with a Varicella Zoster IgG Antibody test:

  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Lyme Disease
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella
  • HIV
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Varicella Zoster IgG Antibody test is recommended:

  • Shingles
  • HIV
  • Pregnancy
  • Encephalitis

How does my health care provider use a Varicella Zoster IgG Antibody test?

Active cases of chickenpox and shingles, which are caused by the varicella zoster virus, are not usually diagnosed using laboratory tests. The signs and symptoms of these illnesses are frequently used to make a diagnosis. Because most adults have been infected with VZV and children have been vaccinated, there is no need for widespread population screening. In some circumstances, however, testing for VZV or antibodies generated in response to VZV infection may be necessary. It may be used in pregnant women, neonates, individuals awaiting organ transplantation, and those living with HIV/AIDS, for example. Testing can be done to see if someone has developed immunity to VZV after being exposed to it previously, either by infection or vaccination.

What do my Varicella Zoster test results mean?

Detection of IgG antibodies are used to determine whether or not a person has experienced previous infection or received vaccination for Varicella Zoster Virus.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Varicella Zoster Virus Antibodies (IgG, IgM)  

 


Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) causes chicken pox and when reactivated, potentially decades later, causes shingles. Twenty percent of adults will develop shingles, a rash or blister of the skin that may cause severe pain.


Vaccinations aren't as readily available as you may think. Many areas throughout the United States don't have the?healthcare access needed?to administer vaccinations to nearby areas. This leaves large chunks of the population at risk for developing preventable conditions.

Vaccinations are crucial, especially during a time when we're all on the go every single day. We need adequate protection from everyday ailments.

Even if you had all of your shots when you were younger, you might no longer have an immune response. This is why everyone needs immunity detection and titer testing.

This serological testing can help your healthcare provider determine what your immunization status is for different conditions. In response, you and your healthcare provider can make a plan for your healthcare moving forward.

To learn more about antibody testing and antibody titer options, keep reading.

What Is Immunity Detection and Titer Testing?

Overall, immunity detection and titer testing help you and your healthcare professional understand what conditions you do and do not have immunity against. Even if you've had the vaccine for a disease, it doesn't mean that your body retains the immunity past a few years.

These kinds of tests use a sample of your blood to test for an immune response. By exposing that sample of blood to the virus or bacteria that you're testing, you can see whether or not you're immune to the condition.

If you're not, you need to update your shots. It's important to stay up-to-date on all of your vaccines so that you're protected from these preventable diseases.

What Are the Risks for Low Immunity and Low Titer Levels?

The most common risk for low immunity is lack of vaccination. If you haven't gotten the vaccine for a particular condition, it's unlikely that your body will have a good immune response to the disease or virus. Even if you've had the disease before, your immune response may not be as strong as it should be.

Another risk for low immunity is receiving the vaccination for a condition a long time ago. Many of us get very important vaccinations near the beginning of our lives. If we don't update these shots as needed, we could lose immunity over time.

Lastly, individuals with immunodeficiencies could experience problems retaining proper immune responses. Their bodies don't have the strength necessary to fight some of these conditions. So, it's even more important for these individuals to get antibody testing to determine what vaccinations they need to update.

What Diseases Can You Test for Immunity and Titer Levels?

Fortunately, the scientific community has formed plenty of serological testing possibilities for different conditions. From measles to diphtheria, there's an immune response test.

If you're worried about a specific condition, you should ask your healthcare provider about vaccination against that particular condition.

You may work with patients who have chickenpox. You may be at a high risk for developing tetanus at work. Whatever the case, you should let your healthcare provider know so that they can help you come up with an immunization plan.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Low Immunity Detection and Low Titer Levels?

You're more likely to develop conditions if you have an impaired immune system or a low or nonexistent immune response. Specifically, you're going to be at risk for developing the disease(s) that you're not protected against.

If you happen to contract the disease that you're not protected against, you will show signs and symptoms that are consistent with the disease.

Unfortunately, there's no way to determine your immune response to a disease unless you get antibody testing or contract the disease. This is why we strongly encourage you to get your tests and vaccinations done now rather than worrying about how your body may react later.

How Are Immunity Detection and Titer Levels Diagnosed?

To measure your immune response to various conditions, you have to get lab work done. This is the only way to diagnose immunity before a live infection from the pathogen associated with the disease in question.

With a titer or immunity test, you'll have your blood drawn at a patient service center. Your blood specimen will be sent to a national laboratory where it will be tested for antibodies (an immune response) to the condition you are testing for.

If your specimen doesn't have a response, you're not immune to the condition.

The Lab Tests to Screen, Diagnose, and Monitor Immunity Detection and Titer Levels

There are plenty of lab tests for various conditions that you may want to check your immunity for.

At Ulta Labs, we offer immunity detection and titer testing for a variety of conditions:

Our antibody titer tests can help you determine whether or not you have the protection that you need from various conditions. It would be best if you never assumed that you're immune to a disease. Instead of guessing, you need to get real results from these antibody tests.

Get Your Immunity Detection and Titer Testing With Ulta Lab Tests

If you're looking to determine your immunization status, you need immunity detection and titer testing.

Ulta Lab Tests offers highly accurate and reliable tests so that you can make informed decisions about your health. Here are a few great things to love about Ulta Lab Tests:

  • You'll get secure and confidential results
  • You don't need health insurance
  • You don't need a physician's referral
  • You'll get affordable pricing
  • We offer a 100% satisfaction guarantee

Order your immunity detection and titer testing today and, your results will be provided to you securely and confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours for most tests.

Take control with Ulta Lab Tests today!