Immunity

The immunity blood tests provide an accurate reading of the number of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, in your blood that are available to fight disease-causing substances like viruses and bacteria. Order from Ulta Lab Tests today and receive your results in one to two days confidentially online.


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A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)


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NEW - SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (IgG), Spike, Semi-Quantitative

IMPORTANT - Test collection is available only to patients who: are asymptomatic; have been asymptomatic for at least 10 days; lack a fever (as assessed by non-contact thermometer checks at time of visit); and are wearing a face mask.

THIS IS NOT A TEST FOR AN ACTIVE INFECTION

Patients suspected of having or confirmed to have active COVID-19 infection or disease may not visit Quest patient service centers, which are not equipped to collect the necessary respiratory specimens for molecular COVID-19 diagnostic testing. Patients who believe they may have COVID-19 are strongly encouraged to contact their healthcare provider.

"This test checks for a type of antibody called immunoglobulin G (IgG) that is the result of past or recent exposure to COVID-19, also known as the novel coronavirus. The human body produces IgG antibodies as part of the immune response to the virus. It usually takes around 10 to 18 days to produce enough antibodies to be detected in the blood.

Test results may help identify if you were previously exposed to the virus and, if exposed, can check whether or not your body has produced antibodies. Antibodies typically suggest protective immunity after you’ve recovered or been exposed to COVID-19. However, evidence is still being collected to determine if IgG antibodies provide protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infection.

If you were never diagnosed with COVID-19, this test can help determine if you may have been previously exposed to the virus.

If you were diagnosed with COVID-19, this test can check whether or not your body has produced antibodies.

Multiple sources, including the CDC and healthcare experts, recommend you discuss your test results and whether to return to work with your healthcare provider and employer.


PATIENT SERVICE CENTERS - COVID-19 Antibody (IgG) testing requirements.

1. A FACE MASK IS REQUIRED

2. AN APPOINTMENT IS REQUIRED - For the safety of patients and employees, Quest has limited appointment times for COVID-19 Antibody (IgG) testing.


NEW! SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (IgG), Spike, Semi-Quantitative

A SARS-CoV-2 semi-quantitative IgG test result is reported as positive at an index3 of ≥1.00. This positive result indicates that an individual has developed an immune response to a SARS-CoV-2 infection or a SARS-CoV-2 spike vaccine within the limits of the assay.

Conversely, a negative result is reported at an index4 of <1.00. A negative semi- quantitative antibody result means that the patient serum specimen had no SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG antibodies, or that the relative level of antibodies in the patient specimen was below the index cutoff.

• Estimated sensitivity of 99.9% based on positive percent agreement (PPA) and specificity of 99.9%, based on negative percent agreement (NPA).


Clinical Significance

SARS-CoV-2 Antibody (IgG), Spike, Semi-Quantitative - The results of this semi-quantitative test should not be interpreted as an indication or degree of immunity or protection from reinfection. Individuals that have been vaccinated with a SARS-CoV-2 spike or receptor-binding domain vaccine may be positive in this test, and their sero-positivity may or may not be due to a SARS-CoV-2 infection.
This test is intended as an aid in identifying individuals with an adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2, indicating recent or prior infection. This test may be positive in vaccinated patients. It is unknown for how long antibodies persist following infection and if the presence of antibodies confers protective immunity. This assay should not be used to diagnose acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


This test may be helpful if you: 

  • Have had a positive test for COVID-19 and it has been at least 7 days and you want to know if you have detectable levels of IgG antibodies
  • Have not experienced a fever or felt feverish in the last 3 days
  • Have not experienced new or worsening symptoms of COVID-19 in the past 10 days: loss of smell or taste, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, feeling weak or lethargic, lightheadedness or dizziness, vomiting or diarrhea, slurred speech, and/or seizures

This test may NOT be helpful if you are: 

  • Feeling sick or have had a fever within the last 3 full days, please contact a healthcare provider
  • Trying to diagnose COVID-19, please contact a healthcare provider
  • Less than 7 days since being tested for and diagnosed with COVID-19
  • Directly exposed to COVID-19 in the past 14 days
  • A person with a compromised immune system, a condition that makes it difficult to fight infections
  • For the latest information on COVID-19, please visit our website for information for patients.

What will my results tell me? - Your test results may help identify if you were exposed to the virus and, if so, whether or not your body has these antibodies. Although having antibodies usually gives immunity from further infection, there is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections. ?Results from this test also will not provide any information on whether you can spread the virus to others. 

If you have questions about returning to work, contact your employer for guidance. Be sure to continue to follow federal, state, and local government guidance regarding social distancing and isolation. 

Are there any limitations to IgG antibody tests? - It usually takes around 10 to 18 days after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 for your body to produce enough antibodies for detection in the blood. Getting an IgG antibody test too soon after being infected may cause a negative result that is false (false negative). Additionally, IgG antibody tests may detect IgG antibodies from previous exposure to coronaviruses other than SARS-CoV-2. This can cause a positive result that is false (false positive). There is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future SARS-CoV-2 infections. 

Are there any risks involved in getting this test? - There is no risk involved in getting this test. The test is conducted by collecting a blood sample. 

How do I prepare for the test? - To have your specimen collected at the patient service center, you will need to wear a face mask, consent to a non-contact thermometer checks at the time of visit, and depending upon the patient service center schedule an appointment. There is no other special preparation other than the requirements to receive this test that is restricted to only to patients who: are asymptomatic; have been asymptomatic for at least 10 days; lack a fever (as assessed by non-contact thermometer checks at time of visit); and are wearing a face mask.

What is coronavirus disease (COVID-19)? 
Coronavirus disease (also called COVID-19) is a serious respiratory illness. It is caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), one of the most recently discovered types of coronaviruses. It was first identified in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and has spread globally, becoming a worldwide pandemic. Those who have this disease may or may not experience symptoms, which range from mild to severe. 

What is a serology test? 
This serology? ?test checks for a type of antibody called ?immunoglobulin G (IgG)?. If you’ve been exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, your body produces IgG antibodies as part of the immune response to the virus. This test cannot tell you if you have an active infection with SARS-CoV-2. If you suspect you have COVID-19, follow up with your healthcare provider about getting a molecular (PCR) test. 

Note: This test can sometimes detect antibodies from other coronaviruses, which can cause a false positive result if you have been previously diagnosed with or exposed to other types of coronaviruses. Additionally, if you test too soon, your body may not have produced enough IgG antibodies to be detected by the test yet, which can lead to a false negative result. 

At this time, antibody testing is mainly used in studies to determine how much of the population has been exposed to COVID-19. There is not enough evidence at this time to suggest that people who have IgG antibodies are protected against future COVID-19 infection. Positive or negative antibody tests do not rule out the possibility of COVID-19 infection. Results also do not provide any information on whether you can spread the virus to others.


CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns. Antibody IgG may represent prior exposure or recent infection if there is a significant change in titer between acute and convalescent specimens.

CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns.

Clinical Significance

Used to evaluate diphtheria immunization response. Antibody levels of > or = to 0.10 IU/mL are considered protective. For Pre and Post vaccination testing to assess normal immune response, please refer to Test Code 10680, Diphtheria Antitoxoid, Pre and Post Vaccination.

 

Alternative Name(s)

DPT Titer,Anti Diphtheria


Hepatitis A IgM Antibody

This test is used to screen for recent exposure to the Hepatitis A virus.and to help diagnose a liver infection due to the Hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to Hepatitis A.

Hepatitis A IgM Antibody

The Hepatitis A IgM antibody test detects the first antibody produced by the body when it is exposed to Hepatitis A. This test is used to detect early or recent infections and to diagnose the disease in people with symptoms of acute hepatitis. IgM antibodies to Hepatitis A suggest a current, acute or recent Hepatitis A infection.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following:

  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is positive the results indicate Acute or recent Hepatitis A virus infection.
  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is negative and the Hepatitis A Antibody, Total is positive then the results indicate no active infection but previous Hepatitis A virus exposure; has developed immunity to Hepatitis A virus or recently vaccinated for Hepatitis A virus.
  • Dietary supplements containing biotin may interfere in assays and may skew analyte results to be either falsely high or falsely low. For patients receiving the recommended daily doses of biotin, draw samples at least 8 hours following the last biotin supplementation. For patients on mega-doses of biotin supplements, draw samples at least 72 hours following the last biotin supplementation.

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Hepatitis A Antibody Test to diagnose the Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) in the blood. The hepatitis A test looks for antibodies to the HAV virus in the blood. These antibodies are proteins made by the body in response to the presence of the hepatitis A virus. Our type- specific hepatitis A antibody test is used to determine whether a person is or has been infected with the hepatitis A virus.

Hepatitis A Antibody, Total

This test is used to help diagnose a liver infection due to the hepatitis A virus. There are several causes of hepatitis and the accompanying symptoms, so this test may be used to determine if the symptoms are due to hepatitis A.

The total Hepatitis A antibody test detects both IgM and IgG antibodies and thus may be used to identify both current and past infections. This test will also be positive after receiving the vaccine, so sometimes it may be used to determine whether a person has developed immunity after vaccination.

A positive result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates  exposure to hepatitis A vairus but does not rule out acute infection. 

A Negative result Hepatitis A Antibody, Total that is not accompanied with Hepatitis A IgM test indicates no current or previous HAV infection; vaccine may be recommended if at risk.


This assay does not distinguish between Total B core antibody IgG and IgM detected before or at the onset of symptoms; however, such reactivity can persist for years after illness, and may even outlast anti-HBs. Occasionally Hepatitis B core antibody may be the only marker of either current or past Hepatitis B infection.


Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative (anti-HBs

Detects antibody produced in response to HBV surface antigen. It is used to detect previous exposure to HBV; it can also develop from successful vaccination so it is used to determine the need for vaccination (if anti-HBs is absent) or to determine if a person has recovered from an infection and is immune (cannot get the infection again).

Clinical Significance

This assay is used to determine immune status for Hepatitis B as ≥10 mIU/mL as per CDC Guidelines.


Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation: Positive samples will be confirmed

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS IS A REFLUX TEST - The price charged for this test is only for the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. ADDITIONAL CHARGES WILL OCCUR FOR THE REFLUX CONFIRMATION if the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive.

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAG) Detects protein that is present on the surface of the virus.  It is used to screen for, detect, and help diagnose acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections; earliest routine indicator of acute hepatitis B and frequently identifies infected people before symptoms appear; undetectable in the blood during the recovery period; it is the primary way of identifying those with chronic infections, including "hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier" state.

Clinical Significance

Surface antigen usually appears in the serum after an incubation period of 1 to 6 months following exposure to Hepatitis B virus and peaks shortly after onset of symptoms. It typically disappears within 1 to 3 months. Persistence of Hepatitis B surface antigen for greater than 6 months is a prognostic indicator of chronic Hepatitis B infection.


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The Hepatitis B test detects acute hepatitis B infections, and can also be used to help diagnose chronic hepatitis B infections. Detecting an early hepatitis B infection is important to avoid health complications. If the HBV test positive returns a positive result for hepatitis B, our labs will automatically run a confirmation test at no additional cost– This ensures that you receive the most sensitive and accurate results.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation: Positive samples will be confirmed

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAG) Detects protein that is present on the surface of the virus.  It is used to screen for, detect, and help diagnose acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections; earliest routine indicator of acute hepatitis B and frequently identifies infected people before symptoms appear; undetectable in the blood during the recovery period; it is the primary way of identifying those with chronic infections, including "hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier" state.

Clinical Significance

Surface antigen usually appears in the serum after an incubation period of 1 to 6 months following exposure to Hepatitis B virus and peaks shortly after onset of symptoms. It typically disappears within 1 to 3 months. Persistence of Hepatitis B surface antigen for greater than 6 months is a prognostic indicator of chronic Hepatitis B infection.


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Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®) 

Tests for HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB to diagnose HSV-1 infection when lesions are absent. A positive HSV-1 IgG antibody test indicates a previous infection.

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative 
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal 
  • >1.09 Positive 

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.


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Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®) 

  1. HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB
  2. HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

Diagnose HSV infection when lesions are absent; determine HSV type

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal
  • >1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV Type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV Type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.


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Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®) 

HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB - Diagnose HSV-2 infection when lesions are absent.

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal
  • >1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.


Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®) 

  1. HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB
  2. HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

Diagnose HSV infection when lesions are absent; determine HSV type

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal
  • >1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV Type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV Type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.


Immune Health Panel - 10 Key Lab Tests

Our Immune Panel has been designed to help you with optimizing your immune system. Most nutrients in your diet play a critical role in helping to maintain your "optimal" immune response. Both excessive and insufficient intakes can negatively impact susceptibility to various infections and your immune status.

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Magnesium
  • Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma 
  • QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS 
  • Selenium
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) and Folate Panel, Serum 
  • Zinc

Immunity Panel

The Immunity Panel combines several common titer immunity tests for additional savings.  These tests are often ordered when someone needs proof of their immune status to common infectious diseases for work or school.  It may also be ordered for pregnant women as part of their prenatal testing. 

This package includes titers for: 

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative
  • MMR (IgG) Panel (Measles, Mumps, Rubella)
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody (IgG)

For a testing package which also includes Hepatitis A, please see our Immunity Panel Plus.

 


Immunity Panel Plus

The Immunity Panel Plus combines several common titer immunity tests for additional savings.  These tests are often ordered when someone needs proof of their immune status to common infectious diseases for work or school.  It may also be ordered for pregnant women as part of their prenatal testing. 

This package includes titers for:

  • Hepatitis A Antibody, Total
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative
  • MMR (IgG) Panel (Measles, Mumps, Rubella)
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody (IgG)

Please note that the Hepatitis A Total Antibodies test included in this package does not provide numerical results.  Results for this test will be positive or negative only.


Clinical Use
Assess T-cell activation following transplantation
Assess prognosis in patients with lymphoma
Monitor therapeutic response in patients with hairy cell leukemia


Clinical Background
Elevated levels of soluble IL-2 receptor are detected in AIDS, autoimmune diseases, sarcoidosis, and a variety of leukemias and lymphomas. In HIV-positive individuals, the IL-2 receptor level is elevated during the asymptomatic phase, as well as during persistent generalized lymphadenopathy and symptomatic phases. IL-2 receptor detection may be useful in monitoring HIV and in assessing T-cell activation following transplantation. Elevated IL-2 receptor levels may also have clinical and prognostic significance in patients with malignant lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, B-cell, and undifferentiated lymphomas.


Studies have suggested that IL-2 receptor levels in a broad spectrum of conditions associated with T- or B-cell immune activation offer a rapid and reliable measure of disease activity, response to therapy, and, in some cases, prognosis. Measurement of the soluble IL-2 receptor level is also helpful in assessing therapeutic response in patients with hairy cell leukemia.


Method
Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)

Clinical Significance 

Following stimulation by antigen, IL-2R is expressed on all T cells. IL-2R is released by activated cells into the surrounding extracellular fluid. IL2-R is involved in infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, cancer, and transplantation. IL-2R Antibodies are used therapeutically.

Alternative Name(s) 

IL-2 Receptor,  CYTOKINE


Serum iron quantification is useful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis. The measurement of total iron binding in the same specimen may facilitate the clinician''s ability to distinguish between low serum iron levels caused by iron deficiency from those related to inflammatory neoplastic disorders. The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferrin. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferri

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Measles, also known as Rubeola, causes fever, irritability, respiratory illness, and the characteristic skin rash. Immunization has greatly diminished the incidence of measles. The presence of IgG is consistent with immunity or prior exposure. IgM is consistent with current or recent infection. IgM tests can generate false positive results and low levels of IgM can persist for longer than 12 months.

Measles Antibody IgG - to establish whether you have immunity to measles due to a previous infection or to vaccination.

Measles, also known as rubeola, causes fever, irritability, respiratory illness, and the characteristic skin rash. Immunization has greatly diminished the incidence of measles. The presence of IgG is consistent with immunity or prior exposure. 

Alternate Test Name: Measles Immunity Test



Did you know over 200 forms of primary immune deficiency diseases affect almost 500,000 people in the United States? 

Primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDDs) are rare, costly, and can lead to disability and huge changes in your life. Immunity blood tests are critical in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

If you lack immunity to common diseases and wonder about a blood test to check your immune system, you're in the right place.

Keep reading this guide to learn everything you need to know about immunity deficiencies and immunity blood tests.

What is Immune Deficiency

Immunity deficiency is categorized by a group of disorders called primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDDs). These disorders are rare, genetic, and impair your immune system. If your immune system doesn't function properly, you're subject to debilitating and chronic infections.

Over 200 forms of PIDDs can be diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or when you're an adult depending on the severity. Certain PIDDs are fatal.

When you have PIDD, you're born missing some of the body's natural immune defenses, or your immune system doesn't work normally. This defect leaves you more susceptible to germs that cause infections.

Certain forms of PIDD are very mild and aren't detected until adulthood. Other forms are so severe they're discovered immediately after a baby is born. 

Nowadays, treatments can boost the immune system in many types of PIDD and lead to improved outcomes and quality of life for people with this condition.

Risk factors for Immune Deficiency

The one known risk factor for primary immune deficiency disorder is your family history. If you have a type of PIDD or are concerned, you might due to your family history, talk to your doctor. You also may want to seek genetic counseling before starting a family.

Causes of Immune Deficiency

Many causes of immunodeficiency disorders are inherited, meaning they're passed down from one or both parents. Problems with the genetic code that produces cells in the immune system cause this disorder. PIDD is classified into six groups based on the part of the immune system affected. These groups include:

Signs and Symptoms of Immune Deficiency

The most common sign of PIDD is frequent infections that last longer and are harder to treat. You'll also likely get infections that people with normal immune systems don't get. Signs and symptoms depend on the type of PIDD you have, but usually include:

  • Frequent pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus infections, skin infections, or ear infections
  • Infection and inflammation of your internal organs
  • Blood disorders like anemia
  • Problems with digestion like loss of appetite, nausea, and diarrhea
  • Autoimmune disorders like lupus
  • Delayed growth in children

Complications from primary immunodeficiency disorder vary, depending on the type you have. Though there is still a risk of serious complications like:

  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Recurrent infections
  • Damage to your heart, lungs, nervous system, and intestines
  • Increased risk of developing cancer
  • Death from serious infections 

How is Immune Deficiency Diagnosed

Your doctor will ask you about your personal history of illness and infections. They will also ask you about any close relatives being diagnosed with an immune disorder. Your doctor will also check your symptoms and do a physical examination.

Tests to diagnose immune disorders include tests to level the levels of your infection-fighting proteins (immunoglobulins) in your blood. You'll also have blood tests to measure the number of immune system cells, like white blood cells.

If you're a woman with PIDD, it's a good idea to have genetic testing so you can prepare for future pregnancies. If you're already pregnant, you can have samples of amniotic tested for abnormalities.

Lab Tests for Immune Deficiency

When you need to check your immune system, a blood test is an easiest and cheapest way to detect if you have problems.

Lab tests for PIDD include an immune system blood test called an immunity panel. This panel tests hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and chickenpox immunity. 

An immunoglobulins panel checks for elevations in IgG, IgA, and IgM. Decreased levels of these are found in people with immune deficiency.

c-reactive protein is useful for measuring inflammation in your body, indicating how your immune system works.

complete blood count (CBC) measures not only your red blood cells but key components of your immune system, such as white blood cells, neutrophils, and monocytes.

FAQS About Immune Deficiency

Is there a cure for PIDD? Yes, a stem cell transplantation from a close relative can build a normally functioning immune system. The donor must have similar antigens, so the recipient accepts the donor's stem cells. But only the most serious of PIDD get this treatment. Most people with PIDD do not require this.

What treatments are there for PIDD? Many people with PIDD are treated with IgG replacement therapy. This therapy provides the antibodies that the body needs to have a functioning immune system. Many people take antibiotics and other medications to prevent infections.

How do I know if my child has PIDD? If your child has poor growth, weight loss, unusual or difficult to treat infections, or a family history of PIDD, you should talk to your pediatrician.

Where can I go for more information about PIDD? The Immune Deficiency Foundation aims to improve treatments and the quality of life of people affected by PIDD. You can find education, tools, events, news, and research updates.

Immunity Blood Tests With Ulta Lab Tests

Ulta Lab Tests offers highly accurate tests, allowing you to make the best decisions about your health. Here are some things you can love about Ulta Lab Tests:

  • Secure and confidential results
  • No need for health insurance
  • No need for a physician's referral
  • Always affordable pricing
  • A 100% satisfaction guarantee

Order your immunity blood lab tests today, and your results will be provided to you securely and confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours in most cases.

Go to the best blood test lab and take charge of your health. Shop with Ulta Lab Tests today!