Hormone Tests for Women

Hormone Lab Tests for Women - and health information

Do you have low energy or a changing body? 

You may have a hormonal imbalance. Our hormone testing can uncover the cause of your symptoms.

It's not always easy to tell if your hormones are out of balance just by your symptoms, but it's important to know for sure. It's essential to get treatment if you have an imbalance so that your symptoms don't worsen and cause additional complications. 

Hormones are chemical messengers that carry instructions to cells throughout the body. They impact a variety of processes, including growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, reproduction, and mood. Hormone imbalances in men and women can lead to fatigue and weight gain

  • Reduced sex drive
  • Gaining weight 
  • Losing hair 
  • Feeling tired and weak 
  • Night sweats and hot flashes 
  • Muscle mass and strength loss 
  • Digestive disorders (abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea) 
  • Anxiety or depression issues. 

Click here to learn more about women's hormone testing, as well as the 12 most frequent hormone lab tests and what they indicate. 

You can test your levels for the 12 key hormones that can go out of balance due to stress, injury, sickness, poor diet, aging, or lack of exercise with our lab tests. Hormones play an important role in mood, energy, and weight management. They also have an impact on how you feel about yourself. That's why it's critical to track your hormone levels and establish baselines. An imbalance may happen at any moment, and it becomes more common as people become older. 

We offer affordable lab tests online, with specimen collection available at over 2,000 locations across the country. We provide a convenient and economical solution to keep your health on track with quick, convenient local testing and test results from Quest Diagnostics in as little as 24 to 48 hours for most tests. Furthermore, our affordable pricing is guaranteed, allowing you to receive the high-quality service you need without breaking the bank. 

Order your hormone blood tests right now to find out whether you have any hormone abnormalities.  Please don't put it off any longer; order yours now to take control of your health and stay healthy.

Get started by selecting one of the lab tests listed below.


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Tests in the Hormone Testing for Women: 12 Common Lab Tests and What They Mean

  • DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay [ 402 ]
  • Estradiol [ 4021 ]
  • Estrogen, Total, Serum [ 439 ]
  • Estrone, LC/MS/MS [ 23244 ]
  • FSH and LH [ 7137 ]
  • IGF-I, LC/MS [ 16293 ]
  • Pregnenolone, LC/MS/MS [ 31493 ]
  • Progesterone, Immunoassay [ 745 ]
  • Prolactin [ 746 ]
  • Testosterone, Total And Free And Sex Hormone Binding Globulin [ 37073 ]
     

IMPORTANT - Note the Estradiol test included in this panel is not for children that have yet to start their menstrual cycle.  If this test is ordered for a child that has yet to begin their menstrual cycle Quest Diagnostics labs will substitute Estradiol, Free, LC/MS/MS at an additional fee of $290.00

This panel contains Cortisol, A.M. #4212, which requires the patient to have their specimen collected between 7 a.m. - 9 a.m.


IMPORTANT - Note the Estradiol test included in this panel is not for children that have yet to start their menstrual cycle.  If this test is ordered for a child that has yet to begin their menstrual cycle Quest Diagnostics labs will substitute Estradiol, Free, LC/MS/MS at an additional fee of $290.00

This panel contains Cortisol, A.M. #4212, which requires the patient to have their specimen collected between 7 a.m. - 9 a.m.


IMPORTANT - Note the Estradiol test included in this panel is not for children that have yet to start their menstrual cycle.  If this test is ordered for a child that has yet to begin their menstrual cycle Quest Diagnostics labs will substitute Estradiol, Free, LC/MS/MS at an additional fee of $290.00

This panel contains Cortisol, A.M. #4212, which requires the patient to have their specimen collected between 7 a.m. - 9 a.m.


IMPORTANT - Note the Estradiol test included in this panel is not for children that have yet to start their menstrual cycle.  If this test is ordered for a child that has yet to begin their menstrual cycle Quest Diagnostics labs will substitute Estradiol, Free, LC/MS/MS at an additional fee of $290.00

This panel contains Cortisol, A.M. #4212, which requires the patient to have their specimen collected between 7 a.m. - 9 a.m.


  • DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay [ 402 ]
  • Estradiol [ 4021 ]
  • Estrogen, Total, Serum [ 439 ]

  • DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay [ 402 ]
  • Estradiol [ 4021 ]
  • Estrogen, Total, Serum [ 439 ]
  • Estrone, LC/MS/MS [ 23244 ]
  • FSH and LH [ 7137 ]

  • DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay [ 402 ]
  • Estradiol [ 4021 ]
  • Estrogen, Total, Serum [ 439 ]
  • Estrone, LC/MS/MS [ 23244 ]
  • FSH and LH [ 7137 ]
  • IGF-I, LC/MS [ 16293 ]
  • Pregnenolone, LC/MS/MS [ 31493 ]
  • Progesterone, Immunoassay [ 745 ]

  • DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay [ 402 ]
  • Estradiol [ 4021 ]
  • Estrogen, Total, Serum [ 439 ]
  • Estrone, LC/MS/MS [ 23244 ]
  • FSH and LH [ 7137 ]
  • IGF-I, LC/MS [ 16293 ]
  • Pregnenolone, LC/MS/MS [ 31493 ]
  • Progesterone, Immunoassay [ 745 ]
  • Prolactin [ 746 ]
  • Testosterone, Total And Free And Sex Hormone Binding Globulin [ 37073 ]
     

Description: 17-hydroxyprogesterone is a test that is measuring the levels of 17-OHP in the blood. 17-OHP is used to detect and monitor the treatment processes for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Also Known As: 17-OHP Test, 17-OH Progesterone Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test ordered?

The 17-OHP test is regularly ordered as part of a newborn screening and may be repeated if the screening test results are elevated to confirm the initial findings.

When an infant or young kid exhibits signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency or CAH, a 17-OHP test may be administered.

When the milder type of CAH is suspected, this test may be ordered in older children or adults. When a girl or woman is having symptoms that could be caused by CAH or another illness, such as PCOS, the 17-OHP test can be used.

Boys and men may be tested if they are experiencing early puberty or infertility.

When a person is diagnosed with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a 17-OHP test may be ordered on a regular basis to assess treatment effectiveness.

What does a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone blood test check for?

17-hydroxyprogesterone is a steroid hormone that is created during the cortisol production process. This test detects and/or evaluates congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a hereditary disorder characterized by decreased adrenal cortisol and aldosterone production and increased male sex hormone production.

Cholesterol is the source of 17-OHP. It is a precursor of active steroid hormones, rather than an active steroid hormone.

Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that aids in the breakdown of protein, carbohydrates, and fats, regulates the immune system, and maintains blood pressure. Other steroid hormones produced by the adrenal glands include aldosterone, which helps regulate salt levels and blood pressure, and androgens, which, like testosterone, cause male sexual characteristics and other consequences.

The processes in the synthesis of cortisol necessitate the use of several enzymes. Inadequate levels of cortisol are produced when one or more of these enzymes are insufficient or malfunctioning, as is the case with CAH. CAH is caused by a partial or total loss of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase, which accounts for around 90% of cases.

The adrenal gland grows in size because a low level of cortisol induces an increase in the level of a specific pituitary hormone that drives adrenal growth and hormone production. The increased size and activity, however, are insufficient to overcome the cortisol production bottleneck. Other chemicals that do not require the faulty enzyme, such as 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androgens, are created in excess. This is why 17-OHP testing can aid in the detection of CAH.

CAH is a set of hereditary illnesses characterized by cortisol-related enzyme deficits and caused by particular gene mutations. A mutation in the 21-hydroxylase gene causes around 90% of CAH cases, which can be diagnosed by an increase in 17-OHP in the blood. When both genes, one from each parent, contain mutations that reduce or cease the activity of the enzyme for which the gene codes, the disease is caused. Parents could be carriers, and carriers could not show any symptoms.

CAH with 21-hydroxylase deficiency can be inherited in two forms: severe and mild.

Severe forms can result in kids being born with severe aldosterone and cortisol deficits, necessitating medical treatment. This severe variant is most commonly found in infancy or early childhood through regular newborn screening. It may manifest in early childhood with signs and symptoms such as vomiting, listlessness, lack of energy, not eating properly, failure to thrive, dehydration, and low blood pressure if it is not found through screening, especially with severe sickness.

Excess male sex hormones can cause the development of male characteristics in females. Female babies' sex organs may not be obviously male or female, making it difficult to tell their gender at first. During childhood and adolescence, females may have excessive hair development on the face and body, as well as other male secondary sexual traits such as irregular menstruation. Men with this disorder may not appear different at birth, but they might develop sexual traits early in life, putting them at risk for fertility problems later in life.

Only partial lack of the enzyme may be present in the milder, though more prevalent type of CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This kind of CAH, also known as late-onset or non-classical CAH, can manifest symptoms at any age during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Symptoms might be nonspecific, develop slowly over time, and differ from one person to the next. Though this type of CAH is rarely life-threatening, it can cause growth, development, and puberty issues in children, as well as infertility in adults.

Lab tests often ordered with a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test:

  • Cortisol
  • ACTH
  • Testosterone
  • Androstenedione
  • Pregnenolone

Conditions where a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test is recommended:

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Infertility

How does my health care provider use a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test?

The 17-hydroxyprogesterone test is used to detect congenital adrenal hyperplasia and can be used in the conjunction with other tests to diagnose and track CAH.

In the United States, the 17-OHP test is frequently ordered as part of newborn screening to detect CAH caused by a lack of 21-hydroxylase.

The 17-OHP test can be used to screen for CAH in older children and adults before symptoms develop, or to confirm a CAH diagnosis in persons who are already experiencing symptoms.

Diagnosis

The presence of 17-OHP in the blood can help doctors diagnose CAH in older children and people who have a milder, "late-onset" variant of the disease.

A 17-OHP test, along with plasma renin activity, androstenedione, and testosterone assays, may be used to evaluate the success of treatment if someone is diagnosed with 21-hydroxylase insufficiency.

In women with symptoms such as abundant face and body hair and irregular periods, a 17-OHP test, along with other hormone testing, may be done to help rule out CAH. Women with probable polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility, as well as those with suspected adrenal or ovarian malignancies, fall under this category.

False-positive results have been reported with 17-OHP testing, particularly the newborn screening test. Other tests may be performed if the level is higher but not to the point where it is indicative of CAH.

As a follow-up test, an ACTH test may be ordered. ACTH stimulation causes a significant increase in 17-OHP levels in CAH.

CYP21A2 gene mutations that cause the disorder may be detected by genetic testing.

A karyotype test may be ordered as a follow-up test to discover chromosome problems and to assist in determining the gender of a newborn.

Electrolytes may be ordered to determine the sodium and potassium levels of a person.

What do my 17 Hydroxyprogesterone test results mean?

If a newborn or infant has highly elevated 17-OHP levels, he or she is most likely suffering from CAH. If a person's levels are somewhat elevated, he or she may have a milder case of CAH or an 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

The absence of CAH due to a 21-hydroxylase deficit is most often shown by normal 17-OHP findings.

In a person with CAH, low or declining amounts suggest a positive response to treatment. High or rising levels may suggest that treatment has to be changed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The AMH test is a blood test that checks for Anti Mullerian Hormone in your blood’s serum.

Also Known As: AMH Test, AMH Hormone Test, Mullerian-inhibiting hormone Test, MIH Test, Mullerian Inhibiting Factor Test, MIF Test, Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Test, MUS Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test ordered?

When a woman's ovarian function, reproductive concerns, especially when considering assisted reproduction techniques like in vitro fertilization, or when a health practitioner wishes to evaluate her chances of entering menopause, an AMH test may be recommended.

When a woman shows indications and symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome, AMH may be ordered.

AMH may be ordered on a regular basis for a woman with AMH-producing ovarian cancer to check therapy effectiveness and recurrence.

When an infant's genitalia is ambiguous or when a male child's testicles have not descended properly, an AMH test may be ordered.

What does an Anti-Mullerian Hormone blood test check for?

Anti-Müllerian hormone is a hormone generated by male and female reproductive tissues, including the testicles and ovaries. The role of AMH, as well as the amount generally present, varies by gender and age. This test detects the presence of AMH in the blood.

AMH is produced by the testicles early in the development of a baby boy, limiting the development of female reproductive organs while boosting the development of other male reproductive organs. AMH levels in boys stay high until adolescence, when they begin to decline.

AMH levels are low in girls, allowing for the development of female reproductive structures. Young females' AMH levels remain low until adolescence, when the ovaries begin to manufacture it and levels rise. AMH will then gradually decrease in women during their reproductive years, eventually becoming undetectable after menopause.

AMH is essential for a woman during her reproductive years. A female contains roughly one million eggs at birth, which normally decline to about 500,000 during infancy. Only a small percentage of these leftover eggs will mature into follicles, one at a time throughout a woman's monthly menstrual cycle. During the process of egg maturation and release, AMH exerts a balancing influence on the monthly cyclical actions of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. This follicular expansion is reflected in the amount of AMH present.

The AMH level has been demonstrated in studies to be effective in assessing a woman's remaining egg maturation potential and her chances of conceiving. During the childbearing years, AMH decreases gradually, reduces considerably as menopause approaches, and is essentially undetectable after menopause. The level of AMH can be used to assess a woman's current reproductive status and anticipate the beginning of menopause.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, a disorder affecting the ovaries, has been linked to elevated AMH levels. This syndrome causes unusually excessive levels of AMH to be produced by the extra follicles.

In the fetus, AMH is also important for sexual distinction. A developing fetus might develop either male or female reproductive organs throughout the first several weeks of pregnancy. The two testicles present in a baby boy produce AMH and androgens, which limit the development of female reproductive organs while promoting the growth of other male reproductive organs. Both male and basic female organs may develop if a significant amount of AMH is not accessible or lacking during this process. A baby with ambiguous genitalia may not be recognized as male or female right away.

Some ovarian cancers have high levels of AMH. If the hormone is produced by a tumor, the AMH test can be used as a tumor marker to track therapy effectiveness and check for recurrence.

Lab tests often ordered with an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test:

  • FSH
  • LH
  • Estrogen
  • Estradiol
  • Testosterone Free and Total
  • Progesterone
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin

Conditions where an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test is recommended:

  • PCOS
  • Infertility
  • Menopause

How does my health care provider use an Anti-Mullerian test?

Anti-Müllerian hormone is not a commonly requested test, but it can be helpful in some situations.

AMH is a hormone made by the reproductive organs. Its function and the amount that is generally present varies by gender and age.

An AMH test, along with other hormone tests like estradiol and FSH, may be ordered for women of reproductive age to determine how much time they have left to conceive. These tests can also be used to assess ovarian function and possibly forecast when menopause will occur.

AMH may be ordered for a woman who will be having assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization; the amount of AMH present is linked to her potential treatment response. A low amount of AMH indicates a poor ovarian response, implying that fewer eggs will be recovered following ovarian stimulation. It's usually ordered in conjunction with additional hormone lab tests and a transvaginal ultrasound scan for this purpose.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome can be diagnosed with an AMH test. Because there are more follicles present, AMH may be raised.

AMH levels are elevated in several ovarian malignancies. If the hormone is initially increased, the test can be used as a tumor marker to assess therapy response and track recurrence.

An AMH test, together with chromosome testing, hormone testing, and sometimes imaging scans, may be requested to help establish the sex of an infant with external genitals that are not distinctly male or female.

What do my Anti Mullerian Hormone test results mean?

A low quantity and quality of eggs with diminishing fertility during a woman's reproductive years may suggest a poor number and quality of eggs, resulting in minimal or less responsiveness to IVF treatment. It could also mean that the ovaries aren't working properly.

A decrease in AMH level and/or a severe fall in AMH could indicate the start of menopause. AMH levels that are negative to low in a female are normal during childhood and after menopause.

Although an elevated level of AMH is frequently associated with PCOS, it is not diagnostic of the illness. Increased AMH may potentially signal a greater or even excessive reactivity to IVF, necessitating a modification of the treatment.

When AMH is used to track the progress of an AMH-producing ovarian cancer, a decrease in AMH suggests a positive response to treatment, whereas an increase could indicate cancer recurrence.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A hs-CRP or High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein test is a blood test used to accurately detect lower concentrations of the protein C-Reactive Protein. This test is used to evaluate your risk of cardiovascular and heart disease and to check for inflammation and many other issues.

Also Known As: hsCRP Test, Cardiac CRP Test, high sensitivity C-reactive protein Test, CRP Test for heart disease.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a hs-CRP test ordered?

There is currently no consensus on when to get an hs-CRP test. It may be beneficial for treatment purposes to order hs-CRP for those that have kidney disease, diabetes or inflammatory disorders.

It's possible that hs-CRP will be tested again to confirm that a person has persistently low levels of inflammation.

What does a hs-CRP blood test check for?

C-reactive protein is a protein found in the blood that rises in response to infection and inflammation, as well as after trauma, surgery, or a heart attack. As a result, it's one of numerous proteins referred to as acute phase reactants. The high-sensitivity CRP test detects low levels of inflammation in the blood, which are linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

According to the American Heart Association, CVD kills more people in the United States each year than any other cause. A number of risk factors have been related to the development of CVD, including family history, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, being overweight or diabetic, however a considerable number of people with few or no recognized risk factors will also acquire CVD. This has prompted researchers to investigate for new risk variables that could be causing CVD or could be used to identify lifestyle modifications and/or treatments that could lower a person's risk.

High-sensitivity CRP is one of an increasing number of cardiac risk markers that may be used to assess an individual's risk. According to certain research, monitoring CRP with a highly sensitive assay can assist identify the risk level for CVD in persons who appear to be healthy. CRP levels at the higher end of the reference range can be measured with this more sensitive test. Even when cholesterol levels are within an acceptable range, these normal but slightly elevated levels of CRP in otherwise healthy persons might indicate the future risk of a heart attack, sudden cardiac death, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Lab tests often ordered with a hs-CRP test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Lipid Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lp-Pla2
  • Glucose

Conditions where a hs-CRP test is recommended:

  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Stroke

How does my health care provider use a hs-CRP test?

A test for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein can be used to assess a person's risk of cardiovascular disease. It can be used in conjunction with a lipid profile or other cardiac risk markers, such as the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 test, to provide further information regarding the risk of heart disease.

CRP is a protein that rises in the bloodstream as a result of inflammation. A continuous low level of inflammation, according to studies, plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis, the narrowing of blood vessels caused by the build-up of cholesterol and other lipids, which is typically linked to CVD. The hs-CRP test successfully detects low levels of C-reactive protein, indicating low but chronic inflammation, and so aids in predicting a person's risk of developing CVD.

Some specialists believe that high-sensitivity CRP is a good test for assessing CVD, heart attacks, and stroke risk, and that it can help in the evaluation process before a person gets one of these health problems. Some experts believe that combining a good marker for inflammation, such as hs-CRP, with a lipid profile is the best way to predict risk. This test has been recommended by several organizations for persons who are at a moderate risk of having a heart attack in the following ten years.

What does my hs-CRP test result mean?

Even when cholesterol levels are within an acceptable range, high levels of hs-CRP in otherwise healthy people have been found to predict an elevated risk of future heart attacks, strokes, sudden cardiac death, and/or peripheral arterial disease.

Higher hs-CRP concentrations indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, while lower values indicate a lower risk. Individuals with hs-CRP values at the high end of the normal range are 1.5 to 4 times more likely than those with low levels of hs-CRP to have a heart attack.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Sodium: this is a measure of sodium in your blood's serum. Sodium is a vital mineral for nerve and muscle cell function.

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


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Description: A cortisol test measures the amount of cortisol in the blood. These levels will start off high in the morning and throughout the say they become lower. At midnight they are typically at their lowest level. Someone who works a night shift or has an irregular sleep schedule may have a different pattern. This test can be used to determine Cushing's or Addison's Disease.

Also Known As: Cortisol AM Test, Cortisol Total Test, Cortisol Test, Cortisol Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Specimen must be drawn between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m. Test is not recommended for patients receiving prednisone/prednisolone therapy due to cross reactivity with the antibody used in this test.

When is a Cortisol AM test ordered?

When a person has symptoms that point to a high level of cortisol and Cushing syndrome, a cortisol test may be recommended.

Women with irregular menstrual periods and increased facial hair may be tested, and children with delayed development and small stature may also be tested.

When someone exhibits symptoms that point to a low cortisol level, adrenal insufficiency, or Addison disease, this test may be ordered.

What does a Cortisol AM blood test check for?

Cortisol is a hormone that plays a function in protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. It has an effect on blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and immune system regulation. Only a small fraction of cortisol in the blood is "free" and biologically active; the majority is attached to a protein. Cortisol is a hormone that is produced into the urine and found in the saliva. This test determines how much cortisol is present in the blood, urine, or saliva.

Cortisol levels in the blood usually rise and fall in a pattern known as "diurnal variation." It reaches its highest point early in the morning, then gradually decreases over the day, reaching its lowest point around midnight. When a person works irregular shifts and sleeps at different times of the day, this rhythm might fluctuate, and it can be disrupted when a disease or condition inhibits or stimulates cortisol production.

The adrenal glands, two triangle organs that sit on top of the kidneys, generate and emit cortisol. The hypothalamus in the brain and the pituitary gland, a small organ below the brain, control the hormone's production. The hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone when blood cortisol levels drop, which tells the pituitary gland to create ACTH. The adrenal glands are stimulated by ACTH to generate and release cortisol. A certain amount of cortisol must be produced for normal adrenal, pituitary gland, and brain function.

Cushing syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms associated with an unusually high cortisol level. Cortisol production may be increased as a result of:

  • Large doses of glucocorticosteroid hormones are given to treat a range of ailments, including autoimmune illness and certain cancers.
  • Tumors that produce ACTH in the pituitary gland and/or other regions of the body.
  • Cortisol production by the adrenal glands is increased as a result of a tumor or abnormal expansion of adrenal tissues.

Rarely, CRH-producing malignancies in various regions of the body.

Cortisol production may be reduced as a result of:

  • Secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by an underactive pituitary gland or a pituitary gland tumor that prevents ACTH production.
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency, often known as Addison disease, is characterized by underactive or injured adrenal glands that limit cortisol production.

After quitting glucocorticosteroid hormone medication, especially if it was abruptly stopped after a long time of use.

Lab tests often ordered with a Cortisol AM test:

  • Cortisol PM
  • ACTH
  • Aldosterone
  • 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
  • Growth Hormone

Conditions where a Cortisol AM test is recommended:

  • Addison’s Disease
  • Cushing’s Syndrome
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Hypertension
  • Pituitary Disorders

How does my health care provider use a Cortisol AM test?

A cortisol test can be used to detect Cushing syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of cortisol, as well as adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease, which are characterized by a deficiency of cortisol. Among other things, the hormone cortisol controls how proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are metabolized. Cortisol levels in the blood normally increase and fall in a "diurnal variation" pattern, rising early in the morning, dropping during the day, and reaching their lowest point around midnight.

The adrenal glands generate and excrete cortisol. The hypothalamus in the brain and the pituitary gland, a small organ below the brain, control the hormone's production. The hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone when blood cortisol levels drop, which tells the pituitary gland to create ACTH. Cortisol production and release are triggered by ACTH in the adrenal glands. A certain amount of cortisol must be produced for normal brain, pituitary, and adrenal gland function.

Only a small fraction of cortisol in the blood is "free" and biologically active; the majority is attached to a protein. Blood cortisol testing assesses both protein-bound and free cortisol, but urine and saliva cortisol testing assesses only free cortisol, which should be in line with blood cortisol levels. Multiple blood and/or saliva cortisol levels collected at various times, such as 8 a.m. and 4 p.m., can be used to assess cortisol levels and diurnal variation. A 24-hour urine cortisol sample will not reveal diurnal variations; instead, it will assess the total quantity of unbound cortisol voided over the course of 24 hours.

If an elevated amount of cortisol is found, a health professional will conduct additional tests to confirm the results and discover the cause.

If a person's blood cortisol level is abnormally high, a doctor may order additional tests to be sure the high cortisol is indeed abnormal. Additional testing could involve monitoring 24-hour urinary cortisol, doing an overnight dexamethasone suppression test, and/or obtaining a salivary sample before sleep to detect cortisol at its lowest level. Urinary cortisol testing necessitates collecting urine over a set length of time, usually 24 hours. Because ACTH is released in pulses by the pituitary gland, this test can assist evaluate whether a raised blood cortisol level is a true rise.

An ACTH stimulation test may be ordered if a health practitioner feels that the adrenal glands are not releasing enough cortisol or if initial blood tests reveal insufficient cortisol production.

The purpose of ACTH stimulation is to compare the levels of cortisol in a person's blood before and after receiving an injection of synthetic ACTH. If the adrenal glands are healthy, the reaction to ACTH stimulation will be an increase in cortisol levels. Low amounts of cortisol will result if they are broken or not functioning properly. To distinguish between adrenal and pituitary insufficiency, a lengthier variant of this test can be used.

What do my Cortisol AM test results mean?

Cortisol levels are typically lowest before bedtime and highest shortly after awakening, though this pattern can be disrupted if a person works rotating shifts and sleeps at various times on separate days.

Excess cortisol and Cushing syndrome are indicated by an increased or normal cortisol level shortly after awakening, as well as a level that does not diminish by bedtime. If the excess cortisol is not suppressed after an overnight dexamethasone suppression test, the 24-hour urine cortisol is elevated, or the late-night salivary cortisol level is elevated, the excess cortisol is likely due to abnormal increased ACTH production by the pituitary or a tumor outside of the pituitary, or abnormal production by the adrenal glands. Additional tests will aid in determining the root of the problem.

If the subject of the examination reacts to an ACTH stimulation test and has insufficient cortisol levels, the issue is most likely brought on by the pituitary's insufficient production of ACTH. The adrenal glands are most likely the source of the issue if the subject does not react to the ACTH stimulation test.

 

An additional test, like as a CT scan, may be used by the medical professional to evaluate the degree of any gland damage once an irregularity has been identified and related to the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, or another cause.

Important: Patient needs to have the specimen collected between 7 a.m.-9 a.m.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Brief Description: DHEA Sulfate is a blood test that is measuring the levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in the blood. It is often used to diagnose any problems in the adrenal glands such as cancer or a tumor. It can also be used to evaluate the cause of early puberty in young boys and male characteristics or appearance in women.

Also Known As: DHEA-SO4 Test, DHEAS Test, DHES1 Test, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a DHEA Sulfate test ordered?

When excess androgen production is suspected and/or a health practitioner wants to analyze a person's adrenal gland function, a DHEAS test, along with other hormone testing, may be requested.

It can be assessed when a woman exhibits signs and symptoms of amenorrhea, infertility, and/or virilization. The intensity of these alterations varies, but they may include:

  • A huskier voice
  • Hair on the face or on the body that is excessive
  • Baldness in men
  • Muscularity
  • Acne
  • The Adam's apple has been enlarged
  • Breast size has shrunk

It may also be ordered if a young girl exhibits evidence of virilization or if a female infant's external genitalia are not clearly male or female.

When young males show indicators of premature puberty, such as a deeper voice, pubic hair, muscularity, and an enlarged penis before the age of typical puberty, DHEAS may be evaluated.

What does a DHEA Sulfate blood test check for?

Male sex hormone dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate is found in both men and women. This test determines the amount of DHEAS in your blood.

DHEAS:

  • At puberty, it aids in the development of male secondary sexual traits.
  • Can be transformed into more strong androgens like testosterone and androstenedione by the body.
  • It has the ability to transform into estrogen.

DHEAS is almost entirely produced by the adrenal glands, with minor contributions from a woman's ovaries and a man's testicles.

It's a good indicator of how well the adrenal glands are working. Overproduction of DHEAS can be caused by malignant and non-cancerous adrenal tumors, as well as adrenal hyperplasia. DHEAS can be produced by an ovarian tumor in rare cases.

DHEAS excess:

  • In adult men, it may go unnoticed.
  • In young boys, it can cause early puberty.
  • Menstrual irregularities and the development of masculine physical traits in girls and women, such as excess body and facial hair
  • Can result in a female infant being born with genitals that aren't clearly male or female

Lab tests often ordered with a DHEA Sulfate test:

  • Testosterone
  • ACTH
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Prolactin
  • Estrogen
  • Estradiol
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
  • 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
  • Androstenedione

Conditions where a DHEA Sulfate test is recommended:

  • PCOS
  • Infertility
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

How does my health care provider use a DHEA Sulfate test?

The dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate test is ordered in conjunction with testosterone and other male hormones assays to:

  • Examine the adrenal glands' performance.
  • Differentiate DHEAS-secreting disorders produced by the adrenal glands from those caused by the testicles or, in rare cases, the ovaries
  • Adrenocortical tumors and adrenal malignancies can be diagnosed with this test.
  • Assist in the diagnosis of congenital and adult-onset adrenal hyperplasia.

DHEAS levels are frequently examined in women, along with other hormones like FSH, LH, prolactin, estrogen, and testosterone, to help diagnose polycystic ovarian syndrome and rule out other reasons of infertility, lack of monthly cycle, and excess facial and body hair.

DHEAS levels, along with other hormones, may be requested to examine and diagnose the cause of young females developing masculine physical traits and young boys developing early puberty.

What do my DHEA-S test results mean?

A normal DHEAS level, together with other normal male hormone levels, suggests that the adrenal gland is working properly. When an adrenal tumor or cancer is present but not secreting hormones, DHEAS may be normal.

A high DHEAS blood level could indicate that the person's symptoms are caused or exacerbated by excessive DHEAS production. An elevated level of DHEAS, on the other hand, is not used to make a diagnosis of any particular condition; rather, it usually signals that further testing is required to determine the source of the hormone imbalance. An adrenocortical tumor, Cushing illness, adrenal cancer, or adrenal hyperplasia, as well as a DHEAS-producing ovarian tumor, can all cause high DHEAS.

DHEAS levels may be high in polycystic ovary syndrome, but they may also be normal, as PCOS is usually associated with ovarian androgen production.

Adrenal insufficiency, adrenal dysfunction, Addison disease, or hypopituitarism, a disorder characterized by low levels of pituitary hormones that govern the generation and secretion of adrenal hormones, can all produce low DHEAS levels.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: Estradiol is a blood test that is used to measure the levels of Estradiol in the blood's serum. Estradiol is one of the Estrogen hormones in the body.  Estradiol, Ultrasensitive LC/MS/MS #30289 is a more appropriate test for children that have not yet started a menstrual cycle.

Also Known As: E2 Test, Estrogen 2 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Estradiol test ordered?

Tests for estradiol for women may be ordered if:

  • After menopause, a woman may experience symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • When a woman is unable to conceive, a series of estradiol readings taken over the course of her menstrual cycle may be used to track follicle development before using in vitro fertilization procedures
  • A woman is experiencing menopause symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and/or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • If a menopausal woman is on hormone replacement therapy, her doctor may order estrone levels on a regular basis to check her progress.

Men and young boys may be subjected to estradiol testing if:

  • A boy's puberty is delayed, as evidenced by slow or delayed growth of testicles and penis, as well as a lack of deepening of voice or growth of body hair.
  • Signs of feminization, such as larger breasts.

What does an Estradiol blood test check for?

Estradiol, or E2, is a component of Estrogen that is present in the blood. For women, Estradiol is something that should be produced naturally, and the body produces larger amounts of Estradiol during puberty and it fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle. Estradiol is most prominent in women of reproductive age. Low levels are common in girls who have not yet had their first menstrual cycle and in women after their reproductive age.

Lab tests often ordered with an Estradiol test:

  • Estrogen, Total, Serum
  • Estriol
  • Estrone
  • Testosterone Free and Total
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Progesterone

Conditions where an Estradiol test is recommended:

  • Infertility
  • Menopause
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
  • Hormone Imbalance
  • Premature, delayed, or abnormal development of sex organs

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use an Estradiol test?

Estrogen tests are used to detect a deficit or excess of estrogen in a woman, as well as to aid in the diagnosis of a range of illnesses linked to this imbalance. They may also be ordered to monitor the health of the growing fetus and placenta during pregnancy, as well as to help predict the timing of a woman's ovulation. Estrogen testing can be used to detect a hormone excess and its origin in men.

In the case of girls and women

Estradiol testing may be requested for the following reasons:

  • Diagnose early-onset puberty, which occurs when a girl develops secondary sex traits much earlier than anticipated, or late puberty, which occurs when a female develops secondary sex characteristics or begins menstruation later than predicted.
  • Examine menstrual irregularities such as the absence of menstrual periods, infertility, and unusual vaginal bleeding.
  • Evaluate ovary function and look for signs of ovarian failure.
  • Serial measurements of estradiol can be used to track follicle development in the ovary in the days leading up to in vitro fertilization.
  • Keep track of any hormone replacement therapy you're getting to help with your fertility.
  • Keep track of menopausal hormone replacement medication, which is used to treat symptoms caused by estrogen insufficiency.
  • Identify cancers that produce estrogen.
  • As with breast cancer, keep an eye on anti-estrogen therapy.

Boys and men may be subjected to estradiol testing in order to:

  • Assist in the diagnosis of delayed puberty
  • Assist in determining the cause of larger breasts or other feminization indications.
  • Detect an excess of relative estrogen due to a testosterone or androgen deficit.
  • Identify cancers that produce estrogen.

What do my Estradiol test results mean?

Estradiol is one of the three Estrogens that have a large impact on the women's body throughout the menstrual cycle. When these hormones are too high or too low, it could cause irregular bleeding, infertility, complications with menopause, and delayed or premature puberty. Out of range levels can also be indicative of an ovarian condition such as PCOS. It is important to note that these values will fluctuate throughout a woman's cycle. The Estrogen hormones work together and if one is out of range, the others may also be out of range. It is recommended to follow up with a licensed healthcare professional to determine the best treatment if need.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

IMPORTANT - Note this Estradiol test is not for children that have yet to start their menstrual cycle.  If this test is ordered for a child that has yet to begin their menstrual cycle Quest Diagnostics labs will substitute in Estradiol, Ultrasensitive LC/MS/MS - #30289 at an additional charge of $34


Much of Estradiol is bound to proteins. The unbound portion and Estradiol bound to proteins with low affinity reflect the Free concentration. The Free Estradiol may better correlate with medical conditions than the Total Estradiol concentrations.


Description: Estriol is a blood test that is used to measure the levels of Estriol in the blood's serum. Estriol is one of three Estrogen hormones in the body.  Estriol can be used to evaluate the cause of irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, or diagnose hormonal imbalances

Also Known As: Estriol LCMSMS Serum, Estriol Blood Test, Oestriol Test, E3 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Estriol test ordered?

A medical provider may order series of estriol samples during pregnancy to look for a trend, such as whether the estriol level rises or falls over time.

As part of the triple/quad screen, unconjugated estriol is frequently tested in the 15th to 20th week of pregnancy.

What does an Estriol blood test check for?

Estrogens are a class of steroids that have a role in the development and operation of female reproductive organs, as well as the generation of secondary sex characteristics. They help regulate the menstrual cycle, are involved in the growth of breasts and the uterus, and aid in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, together with another hormone, progesterone. Though they are primarily associated with women, they are also prevalent in men and play a role in bone metabolism and growth in both genders. Estrogen tests look for one of three hormones in the blood: estrone, estradiol, or estriol.

The placenta produces estriol, which increases in concentration throughout a woman's pregnancy. Increasing levels indicate that the pregnancy and the developing infant are in good health. Estriol is part of the maternal serum screen, which is done in the second trimester to assess fetal risk owing to chromosomal abnormalities. Non-pregnant women and males have very low amounts of E3.

During pregnancy, the predominant estrogen is estriol. The placenta produces it, and it begins to rise in the eighth week of pregnancy and continues to rise throughout the pregnancy. Approximately 4 weeks previous to the start of labor, the level of E3 rises dramatically. Estriol, which circulates in maternal blood, is soon excreted. Each test of estriol is a snapshot of what is going on with the placenta and fetus, yet estriol concentrations vary naturally during the day.

E3 levels are virtually undetectable after delivery.

Lab tests often ordered with an Estriol test:

  • Estrogen Total
  • Estradiol
  • Estrone
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Progesterone
  • Testosterone
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
  • Androstenedione
  • DHEA-S

Conditions where an Estriol test is recommended:

  • Infertility
  • Menopause
  • Pregnancy
  • PCOS

How does my health care provider use an Estriol test?

Estrogen tests are used to detect a deficit or excess of estrogen in a woman, as well as to aid in the diagnosis of a range of illnesses linked to this imbalance. They may also be ordered to monitor the health of the growing fetus and placenta during pregnancy, as well as to help predict the timing of a woman's ovulation. Estrogen testing can be used to detect a hormone excess and its origin in men.

Testing for estriol:

May be ordered serially to aid in the monitoring of a high-risk pregnancy; if so, each sample should be drawn at the same time each day.

One of the components of second trimester maternal serum screening is an unconjugated estriol test. Reduced levels have been linked to Down syndrome, neural tube anomalies, and adrenal abnormalities, among other genetic illnesses.

What do my Estriol test results mean?

The sex and age of the person being tested determine the normal estrogen levels. It also depends on a woman's menstrual cycle or whether she is pregnant.

Estrogen levels can be elevated or lowered in a variety of metabolic disorders. Because the levels of estrone, estradiol, and estriol change from day to day and throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, care must be used when interpreting the results.

Rather than examining single numbers, a health practitioner monitoring a woman's hormones will look at trends in the levels, rising or falling over time in connection with the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. The findings of a test are not diagnostic of a specific ailment, but they do provide information to a health care provider regarding the possible source of a person's symptoms or status.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: Estrogen is a blood test that will measure the amount of estrogen in the blood's serum. It is used in fertility treatment, hormone treatment, and can be used to help diagnose a problem with the endocrine system.

Also Known As: Estrogen Estrogenic Hormones Test, Estrogen Test, Total Estrogen Test, Estrogen Serum Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Estrogen Total test ordered?

Testing for estrogen for girls and women may be ordered if:

  • The development of a girl's sex organs occurs sooner or later than predicted.
  • After menopause, a woman may experience symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • When a woman is unable to conceive, a series of estradiol readings taken over the course of her menstrual cycle may be used to track follicle development before using in vitro fertilization procedures.
  • A woman is experiencing menopause symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and/or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • If a menopausal woman is on hormone replacement therapy, her doctor may order estrone levels on a regular basis to check her progress.

Boys and men may be subjected to estrogen testing if:

  • A boy's puberty is delayed, as evidenced by slow or delayed growth of testicles and penis, as well as a lack of deepening of voice or growth of body hair.
  • Signs of feminization, such as larger breasts, can be seen in a guy.

What does an Estrogen Total blood test check for?

Estrogens are a class of steroids that have a role in the development and operation of female reproductive organs, as well as the generation of secondary sex characteristics. They help regulate the menstrual cycle, are essential in the growth of breasts and the uterus, and aid in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, together with another hormone, progesterone. Though they are primarily associated with women, they are also prevalent in men and play a role in bone metabolism and growth in both genders.

The amount of estrogen in a man's blood varies, but it does so much less over time and is much lower than in a woman's.

Lab tests often ordered with an Estrogen Total test:

  • Estradiol
  • Estriol
  • Estrone
  • Testosterone Free and Total
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Progesterone

Conditions where an Estrogen Total test is recommended:

  • Infertility
  • Menopause
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Hormone Imbalance
  • Premature, delayed, or abnormal development of sex organs

How does my health care provider use an Estrogen Total test?

Estrogen tests are used to detect a deficit or excess of estrogen in a woman, as well as to aid in the diagnosis of a range of illnesses linked to this imbalance. They may also be ordered to monitor the health of the growing fetus and placenta during pregnancy, as well as to help predict the timing of a woman's ovulation. Estrogen testing can be used to detect a hormone excess and its origin in men.

What do my Estrogen test results mean?

The sex and age of the person being tested determine the normal estrogen levels. It also depends on a woman's menstrual cycle or whether she is pregnant. The normal values indicated and the units used in reference ranges will differ slightly between laboratories.

Estrogen levels can be elevated or lowered in a variety of metabolic disorders. Because the levels of estrone, estradiol, and estriol change from day to day and throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, care must be used when interpreting the results.

Rather than examining single numbers, a health practitioner monitoring a woman's hormones will look at trends in the levels, rising or falling over time in connection with the menstrual cycle or pregnancy.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: Estrone is one of the estrogen tests, there are three types of Estrogens that are frequently tested; estrone is one of them and the other two are estradiol and estriol. Estrone is a blood test that will measure the amount of estrone in the blood's serum. It is used in fertility treatment, hormone treatment, and can be used to help diagnose a problem with the endocrine system.

Also Known As: E1 Test, Estrogen 1 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Estrone test ordered?

Estrone testing in women and girls may be requested if:

  • The development of a girl's sex organs occur sooner or later than predicted.
  • After menopause, a woman may experiences symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • When a woman is unable to conceive, a series of estradiol readings taken over the course of her menstrual cycle may be used to track follicle development before using in vitro fertilization procedures 
  • A woman is experiencing menopause symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and/or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • If a menopausal woman is on hormone replacement therapy, her doctor may order estrone levels on a regular basis to check her progress.

Estrone levels in men could be requested in the following circumstances:

  • A boy's puberty is delayed, as evidenced by delayed or slow growth of penis and testicles, as well as a lack of body hair or voice deepening.
  • Signs of feminization, such as larger breasts

What does an Estrone test check for?

Estrogens are a class of steroids that have a role in the development and function of women's reproductive organs, as well as the generation of secondary sex characteristics. They help regulate the menstrual cycle, are involved in the growth of breasts and the uterus, and aid in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy, together with another hormone, progesterone. Though they are primarily associated with women, they are also prevalent in men and play a role in bone metabolism and growth in both genders. Estrogen tests look for one of three hormones in the blood or urine: estrone, estradiol, or estriol.

Androstenedione or other androgens are directly transformed to estrone. The ovaries and placenta, as well as the testicles and adipose tissues, can all produce E1. As needed, E2 and E1 can be transformed into each other. In men and postmenopausal women, E1 is the main estrogen.

Lab tests often ordered with an Estrone test:

  • Estrogen
  • Estriol
  • Estradiol
  • Estradiol, Ultrasensitive
  • Testosterone Free and Total
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Progesterone

Conditions where an Estrone test is recommended:

  • Infertility
  • Menopause
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Hormone Imbalance
  • Premature or delayed puberty
  • Breast cancer

How does my health care provider use an Estrone test?

Estrone testing is used to identify a woman's estrogen insufficiency or excess, as well as to diagnose a range of illnesses linked to this imbalance. It may also be ordered to monitor the health of the growing fetus and placenta during pregnancy, as well as to help pinpoint the date of a woman's ovulation. Estrone testing can be used to determine a hormone excess and its source in men.

What do my Estrone test results mean?

The sex and age of the person being tested influence the normal estrone readings. It also depends on a woman's menstrual cycle or whether she is pregnant. The normal values indicated and the units used in reference ranges will differ slightly between laboratories.

Estrone levels can rise or fall in a variety of metabolic situations. Estrone levels change from day to day and throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, therefore interpretation of the results must be done with caution.

Rather than examining single numbers, a health practitioner monitoring a woman's hormones will look at trends in the levels, rising or falling over time in connection with the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. The findings of a test are not diagnostic of a specific ailment, but they do provide information to a health care provider regarding the possible source of a person's symptoms or status.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Follicle Stimulating Hormone, or FSH, test is a blood test that measures the levels of FSH in the blood. This can be used to diagnose conditions related to the sex organs, early or late puberty, or a condition affecting the pituitary or hypothalamus. It is also used to predict ovulation, evaluate infertility and monitor during infertility treatment. Levels that are out of range can help, along with several other hormone test, to evaluate the cause of irregular menstrual cycles.

Also Known As: Follicle Stimulating Hormone Test, Follitropin Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a FSH test ordered?

An FSH test may be recommended for a woman if she is having trouble conceiving or has irregular or absent menstrual periods.

When a woman's menstrual cycle has ended or grown erratic, FSH may be ordered to see if she has entered menopause.

When a man's spouse is unable to conceive, when he has a low sperm count, or when he has low muscle mass or diminished sex drive, for example, the test may be ordered.

When a health care provider detects a pituitary issue in a woman or a man, testing may be ordered. Because a pituitary problem can disrupt the production of a variety of hormones, other signs and symptoms may appear in addition to those described above. Fatigue, weakness, unexpected weight loss, and decreased appetite are just a few examples.

When a boy or girl does not seem to be entering puberty at the proper age, FSH and LH may be prescribed. Puberty symptoms include:

  • Breast enlargement in young women
  • Pubic hair development
  • In boys, the testicles and penis grow.
  • In girls, menstruation begins.

What does a FSH blood test check for?

FSH is a hormone linked to production and the development of eggs and sperm in both men and women. FSH is measured in the blood.

The pituitary gland, a grape-sized structure near the base of the brain, produces FSH. The hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland, and hormones generated by the ovaries or testicles all work together to control FSH production. The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which causes the pituitary to secrete FSH and luteinizing hormone, a hormone that is closely related to FSH and is also important in reproduction.

During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, FSH increases the growth and maturation of eggs in the ovaries in women. The menstrual cycle is divided into two phases: follicular and luteal, each lasting approximately 14 days. During this follicular phase, FSH triggers the follicle's synthesis of estradiol, and the two hormones collaborate to help the egg follicle develop further. A surge of FSH and luteinizing hormone occurs near the end of the follicular period. Shortly after this burst of hormones, the egg is released from the ovary. The hormones inhibin, estradiol, and progesterone all help the pituitary gland regulate the quantity of FSH released. FSH also improves the ovary's ability to respond to LH.

Ovarian function declines and eventually quits as a woman matures and approaches menopause. FSH and LH levels rise as a result of this.

FSH induces the development of mature sperm in men's testicles, as well as the production of androgen binding proteins. After adolescence, men's FSH levels remain rather steady.

FSH levels rise early after birth in infants and children, then fall to very low levels by 6 months in boys and 1-2 years in girls. Prior to the onset of puberty and the development of secondary sexual characteristics, concentrations begin to rise again.

The production of too much or too little FSH can be caused by disorders affecting the brain, pituitary, ovaries, or testicles, resulting in infertility, irregular menstrual cycles, or early or delayed sexual development.

Lab tests often ordered with a FSH test:

  • Estrogen
  • Estradiol
  • LH
  • Testosterone
  • Progesterone
  • Androstenedione
  • Sperm Analysis
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin

Conditions where a FSH test is recommended:

  • Infertility
  • Menopause
  • Pituitary Disorders
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • PCOS

How does my health care provider use a FSH test?

There are various applications for the follicle-stimulating hormone test, which is a hormone linked to reproduction and the development of eggs in women and sperm in men.

The test can be used with additional hormone assays including luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estradiol, and/or progesterone in both women and men to help:

  • Find out what's causing infertility.
  • Diagnose conditions involving ovarian or testicular dysfunction.
  • Aid in the diagnosis of diseases of the pituitary or hypothalamus, which can impact FSH production.

FSH levels are also relevant in women for:

  • Menstrual irregularities are being investigated.
  • Menopause start or confirmation prediction

FSH levels in males are used to determine the cause of a low sperm count.

FSH and LH are used to diagnose delayed or precocious puberty in children. Puberty timing irregularities could indicate a more significant disease involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries, testicles, or other systems. LH and FSH levels can help distinguish between benign symptoms and real disease. Once it's been determined that the symptoms are due to an actual condition, more testing can be done to figure out what's causing them.

What do my FSH test results mean?

FSH test findings are frequently combined with those from other hormone testing, such as LH, estrogens, and/or testosterone.

A high or low FSH level as part of an infertility workup is not diagnostic, but it does provide some insight into the cause. A hormone imbalance, for example, can influence a woman's menstrual cycle and/or ovulation. To make a diagnosis, a doctor will take into account all of the information gathered during the examination.

Women's Health

FSH and LH levels can assist distinguish between primary ovarian failure and secondary ovarian failure.

Primary ovarian failure is associated with high levels of FSH and LH.

Low FSH and LH levels are indicative of secondary ovarian failure caused by a pituitary or hypothalamic issue. Low FSH levels in the blood have been linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Men's Health

Primary testicular failure causes high FSH levels. As shown below, this can be the result of developmental problems in testicular growth or testicular damage.

Low levels are indicative of pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction.

Children's Health

Precocious puberty is defined by high levels of FSH and LH, as well as the development of secondary sexual traits at an extremely young age. This occurs far more frequently in girls than in boys. This abnormal development is usually caused by a problem with the central nervous system, which can have a variety of causes.

Normal prepubescent LH and FSH levels in children who are showing signs of pubertal alterations could suggest a syndrome known as "precocious pseudopuberty." Elevated levels of the hormones estrogen or testosterone cause the signs and symptoms.

LH and FSH levels can be normal or below what is expected for a child of this age range in delayed puberty.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: A Follicle Stimulating Hormone, or FSH, test is a blood test that measures the levels of FSH in the blood. This can be used to diagnose conditions related to the sex organs, early or late puberty, or a condition affecting the pituitary or hypothalamus. It is also used to predict ovulation, evaluate infertility and monitor during infertility treatment. Levels that are out of range can help, along with several other hormone test, to evaluate the cause of irregular menstrual cycles.

A Luteinizing Hormone, or LH, Test is a test that measures the level of the LH in the blood. It is used to predict ovulation, evaluate infertility and monitor during infertility treatment, or identify a pituitary disorder. It can also help along with several other hormone test to evaluate the cause of irregular menstrual cycles.

Also Known As: Follicle Stimulating Hormone test, Follitropin Test, Luteinizing Hormone Test, Lutropin Test, Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone Test, ICSH Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a FSH and LH test ordered?

An FSH and LH test may be recommended for a woman if she is having trouble conceiving or has irregular or absent menstrual periods.

When a woman's menstrual cycle has ended or grown erratic, FSH and LH may be ordered to see if she has entered menopause.

When a man's spouse is unable to conceive, when he has a low sperm count, or when he has low muscle mass or diminished sex drive, for example, the test may be ordered.

When a health care provider detects a pituitary issue in a woman or a man, testing may be ordered. Because a pituitary problem can disrupt the production of a variety of hormones, other signs and symptoms may appear in addition to those described above. Fatigue, weakness, unexpected weight loss, and decreased appetite are just a few examples.

What does a FSH and LH blood test check for?

FSH and LH are hormones linked to production and the development of eggs and sperm in both men and women. FSH and LH is measured in the blood.

The pituitary gland produces FSH and LH. The hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland, and hormones generated by the ovaries or testicles all work together to control FSH and LH production. The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which causes the pituitary to secrete FSH and luteinizing hormone.

During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, FSH and LH increases the growth and maturation of eggs in the ovaries in women. The menstrual cycle is divided into two phases: follicular and luteal, each lasting approximately 14 days. During this follicular phase, FSH triggers the follicle's synthesis of estradiol, and the two hormones collaborate to help the egg follicle develop further. A surge of FSH and luteinizing hormone occurs near the end of the follicular period. Shortly after this burst of hormones, the egg is released from the ovary. The hormones inhibin, estradiol, and progesterone all help the pituitary gland regulate the quantity of FSH released. FSH also improves the ovary's ability to respond to LH.

Ovarian function declines and eventually quits as a woman matures and approaches menopause. FSH and LH levels rise as a result of this.

FSH induces the development of mature sperm in men's testicles, as well as the production of androgen binding proteins. After adolescence, men's FSH levels remain rather steady.

FSH levels rise early after birth in infants and children, and then quickly fall to low levels by 6 months of age in boys and  around 1 and half years of age in girls. Before puberty and the development of secondary sexual characteristics, FSH levels begin to rise again.

The production of too much or too little FSH and LH can be caused by disorders affecting the brain, pituitary, ovaries, or testicles, resulting in infertility, irregular menstrual cycles, or early or delayed sexual development.

Lab tests often ordered with a FSH and LH test:

  • Estrogen
  • Estradiol
  • Testosterone
  • Progesterone
  • Androstenedione
  • Sperm Analysis
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • Prolactin
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin

Conditions where a FSH and LH test is recommended:

  • Infertility
  • Menopause
  • Pituitary Disorders
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • PCOS

How does my health care provider use a FSH and LH test?

There are various applications for the follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone test, which are hormones linked to reproduction and the development of eggs in women and sperm in men.

The test can be used with additional hormone assays including luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estradiol, and/or progesterone in both women and men to help:

  • Find out what's causing infertility.
  • Diagnose conditions involving ovarian or testicular dysfunction.
  • Aid in the diagnosis of diseases of the pituitary or hypothalamus, which can impact FSH production.

FSH and LH levels are also relevant in women for:

  • Menstrual irregularities are being investigated.
  • Menopause start or confirmation prediction

FSH and LH levels in males are used to determine the cause of a low sperm count.

FSH and LH are used to identify delayed or early puberty in children. Puberty timing irregularities could indicate a more significant disease involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries, testicles, or other systems. LH and FSH levels can help distinguish between benign symptoms and real disease. Once it's been determined that the symptoms are due to an actual condition, more testing can be done to figure out what's causing them.

What do my FSH and LH test results mean?

FSH and LH test findings are frequently combined with those from other hormone testing estrogens, and/or testosterone.

A high or low FSH level as part of an infertility workup is not diagnostic, but it does provide some insight into the cause. A hormone imbalance, for example, can influence a woman's menstrual cycle and/or ovulation. To make a diagnosis, a doctor will take into account all of the information gathered during the examination.

Women's Health

  • FSH and LH levels can assist distinguish between primary ovarian failure and secondary ovarian failure.
  • Primary ovarian failure is associated with high levels of FSH and LH.
  • Low FSH and LH levels are indicative of secondary ovarian failure caused by a pituitary or hypothalamic issue. Low FSH levels in the blood have been linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Men's Health

  • Primary testicular failure causes high FSH levels. As shown below, this can be the result of developmental problems in testicular growth or testicular damage.
  • Low levels are indicative of pituitary or hypothalamic dysfunction.

Children's Health

  • Precocious puberty is defined by high levels of FSH and LH, as well as the development of secondary sexual traits at an extremely young age. This occurs far more frequently in girls than in boys. This abnormal development is usually caused by a problem with the central nervous system, which can have a variety of causes.
  • Normal prepubescent LH and FSH levels in children who are showing signs of pubertal alterations could suggest a syndrome known as "precocious pseudopuberty."
  • For children with delayed puberty, LH and FSH levels can be normal or below what is expected for children of their age.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: A growth hormone test is going to measure the amount of growth hormone in the body. It is used to determine if a person is deficient in growth hormone causing slowed growth. Less commonly, it can be used to determine if there is too much growth hormone causing gigantism or acromegaly.

Also Known As: GH Test, Growth Hormone GH, HGH Test, Human Growth Hormone (hGH), Somatotropin, Growth Hormone Stimulation Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Patients should be fasting and have rested for at least 30 minutes prior to collection.

When is a Growth Hormone test ordered?

When a kid exhibits the following signs and symptoms of growth hormone insufficiency, GH testing is recommended.

  • A child's growth rate is slowed in early life
  • Delay in puberty compared to other children of the same chronological age
  • Bone growth is delayed 

Stimulation testing may be requested for an adult when there are symptoms of GHD and/or hypopituitarism, such as:

  • Bone density has decreased
  • Fatigue
  • Deficiencies in lipids, such as excessive cholesterol
  • Exercise tolerance is reduced

Other hormone testing, such as thyroid testing, is usually done first to rule out other causes of comparable symptoms. In both children and adults, GH deficiency is uncommon. If GH deficiency was detected in childhood or there is a history of hypothalamic or pituitary illness, it is conceivable in adults.

What does a Growth Hormone blood test check for?

Growth hormone is a hormone that is necessary for children's appropriate growth and development. From birth to adolescence, it promotes correct linear bone growth. Growth hormone regulates the rate at which the body produces energy from meals as well as lipids, proteins, and glucose in both children and adults. It also aids in the regulation of red blood cell formation and muscle mass.

The pituitary gland, a grape-sized gland behind the bridge of the nose at the base of the brain, produces growth hormone. It's released into the bloodstream in pulses throughout the day and night, with maxima occurring largely at night. As a result, a single measurement of GH in blood is difficult to interpret and is rarely relevant in clinical practice. If the sample is collected during a pulse, the value will be higher; if it is taken between pulses, the value will be lower. As a result, GH stimulation and suppression tests are frequently employed to detect GH anomalies.

GH insufficiency is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of

Insufficient GH production causes children to grow more slowly and to be smaller for their age. Some children are born with GH shortage, but others may develop a shortfall later in life as a result of a brain injury or tumor. These disorders can damage the pituitary gland, resulting in a reduction in pituitary function and decreased pituitary hormone production. The cause of a deficit is sometimes unknown.

Growth hormone is involved in the regulation of bone density, muscular mass, and glucose and lipid metabolism in adults. It can also have an impact on the heart and kidneys. Deficiencies might start in childhood or emerge later in life. Damage to the pituitary gland from a head injury, a brain tumor, surgery, or radiation treatment, for example, might create a deficit. Pituitary hormones may be reduced as a result of this. A GH deficit can cause a loss of bone density, muscle mass, and lipid levels to change. Adults with decreased bone density and/or muscle strength, as well as elevated lipids, are not routinely tested for GH insufficiency. These illnesses are caused by GH deficiency, which is a fairly unusual cause.

Excess GH

A GH-secreting pituitary tumor is the most common cause of excessive GH. Surgically removing the pituitary tumor that is producing the excess and/or treating it with medicines or radiation are frequently options. In most situations, GH and IGF-1 levels will revert to normal or near normal levels as a result of this.

In youngsters, too much GH can cause their long bones to continue to develop past puberty, culminating in gigantism, a rare disorder characterized by heights of 7 feet or more. Excess GH can cause face thickness, general weakness, delayed puberty, and headaches in those who have it.

Excess GH in adults can cause acromegaly, an uncommon disorder characterised by bone thickening rather than bone lengthening. Increased GH levels can lead to bigger hands and feet, expanded facial bones, carpal tunnel syndrome, and abnormally enlarged internal organs, despite symptoms like skin thickening, sweating, weariness, headaches, and joint discomfort being modest at first. Skin tags and intestinal polyps can also be caused by too much GH.

If neglected, acromegaly and gigantism can result in type 2 diabetes, a higher risk of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and, generally, a shorter lifespan.

Lab tests often ordered with a Growth Hormone test:

  • IGF-1
  • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
  • TSH
  • Free T3
  • Free T4
  • Cortisol
  • Glucose
  • Prolactin
  • IGF BP-3

Conditions where a Growth Hormone test is recommended:

  • Pituitary Disorders
  • Thyroid Disorders
  • Endocrine Syndromes

How does my health care provider use a Growth Hormone test?

Growth hormone testing is frequently done as a follow-up to other aberrant pituitary hormone test results in order to diagnose growth hormone insufficiency and evaluate pituitary gland function.

GH testing is also used to detect excess GH and to diagnose and track acromegaly and gigantism treatment.

Growth hormone is required for appropriate development and growth in children, as well as for the regulation of metabolism in both children and adults. GH is produced by the pituitary gland and released into the blood in pulses throughout the day.

Because growth hormone is released in pulses, a single blood level measurement is rarely useful in clinical practice. As a result, it's common to do tests to see if the pituitary is suppressing or stimulating growth hormone secretion.

GH stimulation tests are used to identify hypopituitarism and GH insufficiency. A sample of blood is collected after 10-12 hours of fasting for a stimulation test. The person is then given an intravenous solution of a chemical that generally stimulates the production of GH from the pituitary under under medical supervision. Blood is obtained at regular intervals and GH levels are measured to evaluate if the pituitary gland was stimulated to produce the desired levels of GH. The most common stimulant is arginine, but clonidine and glucagon are also utilized. Vigorous exercise, which generally induces an increase in GH, could be employed as a GH release stimulant.

GH suppression tests aid in the detection of GH excess. A blood sample is drawn after 10-12 hours of fasting for a suppression test. A standard glucose solution is then given to the person to drink. Blood samples are taken at regular intervals and examined for GH to evaluate if the glucose dose has suppressed the pituitary gland adequately.

Insulin-like growth factor-1 is produced in response to growth hormone. IGF-1 is a hormone that helps promote appropriate bone and tissue growth and development by mediating the effects of GH. Unlike GH, however, its blood level remains constant throughout the day. As a result, IGF-1 is a good indication of average GH levels, and the IGF-1 test is frequently used to diagnose GH shortage or excess.

A GH suppression test and IGF testing can also be used to track how well a GH-producing pituitary tumor is responding to treatment. If a tumor is found, the levels of GH and IGF-1 can be evaluated after it is removed to see if the tumor was completely eliminated. For years following, tests may be required at regular intervals to monitor GH production and detect tumor recurrence.

Prolactin, free T4, TSH, cortisol, FSH, LH, and testosterone are some of the other blood tests that can be used to assess pituitary gland function. These tests are routinely done before GH testing to ensure that they are normal and/or under control with medication before GH testing. Hypothyroidism, for example, must be treated before GH deficiency testing in children; otherwise, a falsely low GH result may be seen.

What do my growth hormone test results mean?

If the person has signs and symptoms of GHD and their GH levels are not significantly stimulated after a GH stimulation test, it is likely that they have a GH deficiency that the health practitioner can treat.

Thyroid issues can induce symptoms similar to GHD, therefore if the person's TSH and/or T4 levels are abnormal, it will likely be addressed first. Hypopituitarism and/or a general decline in pituitary function are also possible. GH deficiency tests should not be done until a person's thyroid function has been assessed. If a child has hypothyroidism, the condition should be addressed and the child's growth rate assessed before GH testing is considered.

If a person engages in rigorous exercise but does not see a rise in GH levels, they may have a GH deficiency. This discovery would need to be followed up with more testing.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Hemoglobin A1c is the protein Hemoglobin found in red blood cells, but with glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin A1c is used to check for and monitor diabetes as it shows average blood glucose levels over the past 2 to 3 months.

Also Known As: A1c Test, HbA1c Test, Glycohemoglobin Test, Glycated Hemoglobin Test, Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test, HbA1c Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hemoglobin A1c test ordered?

A1c may be requested as part of a routine physical examination or when a practitioner suspects a patient of having diabetes due to characteristic signs or symptoms of high blood sugar, such as:

  • Increased thirst and fluid intake
  • Increased urination
  • Increase in hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Vision is hazy
  • Infections that take a long time to heal

Adults who are overweight and have the following additional risk factors may consider doing the A1c test:

  • Physically inactive
  • Diabetes in a first-degree relative
  • Race/ethnicity that is at high risk such as African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders
  • Blood pressure that is high
  • A lipid profile that is abnormal.
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome 
  • Cardiovascular disease 
  • Insulin resistance and other conditions links to insulin resistance

People who have not been diagnosed with diabetes but have been assessed to be at an increased risk of developing diabetes should have their A1c levels tested at least once a year.

Monitoring

The A1c test may be performed 2 to 4 times a year, depending on the type of diabetes a person has, how well their diabetes is controlled, and the healthcare provider's recommendations. If diabetics are fulfilling treatment goals and have stable glycemic control, the American Diabetes Association advises A1c testing at least twice a year. A1c may be ordered quarterly when someone is first diagnosed with diabetes or if control isn't good.

What does a Hemoglobin A1c blood test check for?

Hemoglobin A1c, often known as A1c or glycated hemoglobin, is hemoglobin that has been attached to glucose. By assessing the proportion of glycated hemoglobin, the A1c test determines the average quantity of glucose in the blood during the previous 2 to 3 months.

Hemoglobin is a protein present inside red blood cells that transports oxygen.

Glycated hemoglobin is generated in proportion to the amount of glucose in the blood. Once glucose attaches to hemoglobin, it stays there for the duration of the red blood cell's life, which is usually about 120 days. The most common kind of glycated hemoglobin is known as A1c. A1c is created on a daily basis and is gradually removed from the bloodstream as older RBCs die and younger RBCs replace them.

This test can be used to detect and diagnose diabetes, as well as the risk of developing it. According to the American Diabetes Association's standards of medical care in diabetes, diabetes can be diagnosed using either A1c or glucose.

This test can also be used to track the progress of a diabetic patient's treatment. It aids in determining how well a person's glucose levels have been controlled over time by medication. An A1c of less than 7% suggests good glucose control and a lower risk of diabetic complications for the majority of diabetics for monitoring reasons.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hemoglobin A1c test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Glucose
  • Frucstosamine
  • Albumin
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Microalbumin w/creatinine
  • Lipid panel

Conditions where a Hemoglobin A1c test is recommended:

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes

How does my health care provider use a Hemoglobin A1c test?

Adults can use the hemoglobin A1c test to screen for and diagnose diabetes and prediabetes.

A fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test should be done to screen or diagnose diabetes in these instances.

The A1c test is also used to track diabetics' glucose control over time. Diabetics strive to maintain blood glucose levels that are as close to normal as feasible. This helps to reduce the risks of consequences associated with chronically high blood sugar levels, such as progressive damage to body organs such as the kidneys, eyes, cardiovascular system, and nerves. The result of the A1c test depicts the average quantity of glucose in the blood over the previous 2-3 months. This can help diabetics and their healthcare professionals determine whether the steps they're taking to control their diabetes are working or if they need to be tweaked.

A1c is a blood test that is usually used to help newly diagnosed diabetics identify how high their uncontrolled blood glucose levels have been in the previous 2-3 months. The test may be ordered multiple times throughout the control period, and then at least twice a year after that to ensure that good control is maintained.

What does my Hemoglobin A1c test result mean?

HbA1c levels is currently reported as a percentage for monitoring glucose control, and it is suggested that most diabetics try to keep their hemoglobin A1c below 7%. The closer diabetics can keep their A1c to the therapeutic objective of less than 7% without experiencing abnormally low blood glucose, the better their diabetes is controlled. The risk of problems rises as the A1c rises.

However, a person with type 2 diabetes may have an A1c goal set by their healthcare professional. The length of time since diagnosis, the presence of other diseases as well as diabetes complications, the risk of hypoglycemia complications, life expectancy, and whether or not the person has a support system and healthcare resources readily available are all factors that may influence the goal.

For example, a person with heart disease who has had type 2 diabetes for many years without diabetic complications may have a higher A1c target set by their healthcare provider, whereas someone who is otherwise healthy and newly diagnosed may have a lower target set by their healthcare provider as long as low blood sugar is not a significant risk.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.



Medical research shows that hormonal imbalances affect nearly 50% of women. Of those, 72% don’t know the root cause of their symptoms until much later. 

Hormone Testing for Women helps to take proactive control of your health. Did you know there are laboratory tests that can identify hormonal imbalances? Opting for hormone testing now can save you a significant amount of worry, concern, and wasted time down the road.

While there are countless lab tests designed to uncover myriad medical issues, today, we’re focusing in on your hormonal health. Join us as we share twelve lab tests that can give doctors a clear view of your hormone levels so you can designate a path forward.

Ready to learn more? Let’s get started!

What Is a Hormonal Imbalance?

Your body is comprised of various glands and tissues, all of which are part of your endocrine system. These glands deliver hormones throughout your body via your bloodstream. These are the chemicals that tell your organs what to do and when to do it.

Hormones are responsible for regulating some of your most critical bodily processes, including your:

  • Appetite
  • Metabolism
  • Heart rate
  • Sleep cycles
  • General mood
  • Stress and anxiety levels
  • Sexual capacity
  • Internal temperature

A hormonal imbalance means that your body is producing too much or too little of a given hormone, such as insulin, estrogen, progesterone, or any other hormone. If your levels are off by even a little, it can create a significant change that you may feel to a severe degree.

Identifying Signs of a Hormonal Imbalance

While you might know to equate hot flashes and mood swings to a hormonal imbalance, did you realize that brain fog and memory loss could also be symptoms?

While it’s common for your hormones to shift during various stages of your life, some of the most pronounced changes will occur around the following times:

  • Before or after your period
  • During pregnancy
  • During menopause

The specific symptoms you’ll notice will vary depending on the exact hormones or glands that are off-kilter. However, there are a few symptoms present across almost every type of hormonal imbalance. These include:

Weight Gain

Many women find that hormonal imbalances can contribute to weight gain, as well as the inability to lose weight effectively.

The hormones most often associated with this symptom include low levels of thyroxin, as well as heightened levels of:

Excessive Perspiration

Do you find that you tend to sweat more than you used to? It isn’t all in your imagination.

Some of your hormones are responsible for regulating your body temperature. When they’re imbalanced, it can cause you to perspire more easily. 

Hair Loss

On average, we lose between up to 100 strands of hair every day. While this is a normal amount, you might notice even more on your hairbrush in the morning. 

Again, your hormones could be to blame. This is especially likely if you’re suffering from a low thyroid function, which is known to cause hair loss.

Diminished Sex Drive

Your sex hormones are located in your ovaries. The two most responsible for regulating your sex drive include estrogen and progesterone.

When an imbalance strikes here, you could notice an uptick or decline in your libido.

Persistent Acne

Do you suffer from acne that only tends to pop up around your period? That’s hormonal acne, and high levels of androgens (testosterone) can exacerbate it.

Weakness and Fatigue

It’s normal to feel tired on occasion. However, if you find it difficult to stay alert and focused during the day, a hormonal imbalance might be at work.

Again, it’s worth getting your thyroid gland examined, especially if you’re experiencing fatigue alongside hair loss. Mis-aligned levels of the thyroid hormone thyroxin are linked to constant fatigue.

Muscle Mass Deterioration

You work hard in the gym. So, why aren’t you seeing results? Some hormones are linked to muscle mass, including:

When these levels drop too low, you could notice your muscle mass declining. 

Digestive Concerns

In the time between your periods, do you suffer from digestive issues that make every meal uncomfortable? If so, it might not be your food that’s making you feel ill.

Sex hormones, such as estrogens, play a significant role in digestive health. You’ll find them within the microflora of your gut, as well as your gastrointestinal (GI) tract. If they become imbalanced, it can lead to a host of digestive concerns, including:

  • Abdominal pain 
  • Constipation
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea

On a side note, this can also help explain why women are more prone to developing Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) than men!

Hot Flashes/Night Sweats

You go to bed freezing cold and wake up drenched. What gives?

The unfortunate reality is that both hot flashes and night sweats can occur as a result of a hormone imbalance. Hot flashes, in particular, are especially common in women going through perimenopause. 

This is a transition that occurs several years before real menopause sets in, usually starting in a woman’s early 50s. 

Other Signs and Symptoms

In addition to the most common symptoms listed above, a hormonal imbalance can also lead to the following conditions:

  • Constipation
  • Heavy, irregular, missed or frequent periods
  • Stopped periods
  • Vaginal dryness and itching
  • Skin hyperpigmentation
  • Face puffiness
  • Decreased or increased heart rate
  • Weakened muscles
  • Joint pain and swelling
  • Infertility
  • Depression
  • Anxiety or irritability

How Hormone Testing for Women Can Help

While there are some symptoms, such as hot flashes, that you can almost always associate with a hormonal imbalance, others make it more challenging to connect the dots.

That’s where a laboratory blood test, specifically a female hormone panel, comes in.

In years past, the process of obtaining one and completing one was complicated and costly at best, requiring an in-person visit to your doctor. 

Now, you can hop online and order the lab test you need, right from the comfort of your own home. Our platform makes the process a cinch.

You can search by the test category you prefer and see all of the available options, including the:

  • Savings
  • Test Count
  • Biomarker Count

Using this data, you can identify and order the tests that meet your needs and budget. Then, you’ll visit a nearby patient service center to complete the test and analyze your results online days later.

12 Common Hormone Testing for Women

Before you begin your search and compare your options, let’s take a look at 12 lab tests designed to help identify hormonal imbalances in women.

1. DHEA-S

This acronym stands for Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate. This is a weak male hormone (androgen) that adrenal glands produce in both men and women. 

What It Measures

DHEA-S test measures the level of this hormone in your blood. It is appropriate for women who appear to have too many male hormones.

Clinical Test Reference Range

Normal levels of  DHEA-S will vary depending on each individual’s sex and age. The average normal ranges for females measured in mcg/dL, as reported by Quest, are listed below.

  • <1 Month: 15-261
  • 1-6 Months: ≤74
  • 7-11 Months: ≤26
  • 1-3 Years: ≤22
  • 4-6 Years: ≤34
  • 7-9 Years: ≤92
  • 10-13 Years: ≤148
  • 14-17 Years: 37-307
  • 18-21 Years: 51-321
  • 22-30 Years: 18-391
  • 31-40 Years: 23-266
  • 41-50 Years: 19-231
  • 51-60 Years: 8-188
  • 61-70 Years: 12-133
  • ≥71 Years: 7-177

What an Imbalance Means

An increase or decrease in DHEA-S can be linked to various health conditions, including adrenal gland tumors and a malfunctioning pituitary gland. As such, your doctor should follow up with other test results to get to your underlying condition. 

In addition, high levels in your blood could lead to:

  • Stopped menstrual periods
  • Excessive body and facial hair
  • Persistent acne
  • Hair loss
  • Fertility issues

At the same time, if your levels of DHEA-S dip too low, you could experience:

  • Osteoporosis
  • Diabetes
  • Dementia
  • Diminished sex drive
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome

2. Estradiol (E2)

There is a particular group of steroids responsible for regulating your menstrual cycle and functioning as your main female sex hormones. This group includes the most predominant form of estrogen, called Estradiol, also referenced as Estradiol-17 Beta or E2. 

What It Measures

An Estradiol test measures the level of Estradiol in your blood.

As it’s produced mainly in your ovaries, doctors can analyze this hormonal activity to see if your organs are functioning as they should. 

Clinical Test Reference Range

Normal levels of Estradiol in women will vary depending on the menstrual cycle and age. The following Estradiol levels are considered normal for women, as reported by Quest.

  • Follicular Phase: 19-144 pg/mL
  • Mid-Cycle: 64-357 pg/mL
  • Luteal Phase: 56-214 pg/mL
  • Postmenopausal: ≤31 pg/mL

Normal levels for postmenopausal women should be lower than 10 pg/mL.

What an Imbalance Means

Elevated levels of Estradiol could signal early puberty, hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis, and other concerns.

Low levels could suggest menopause, Turner syndrome, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), hypopituitarism, and more.

3. Estrogens, Total

In addition to Estradiol, there are other forms of estrogen within your body.

For a more comprehensive look at your health, it’s smart to get a Total Estrogens blood test if you think this group of steroids is to blame for some of your symptoms.

What It Measures

Total Estrogens test measures the overall estrogen status in your blood. Because many estrogen hormones, including E1 and E2, fluctuate during your menstrual cycle and even through menopause, this test can be more reliable than an Estradiol one alone.

Clinical Test Reference Result Range Hormone Testing for Women

Your age and gender will determine the ideal amount of total estrogen you require. For women, lab specialists take your menstrual cycle into account when determining average ranges. These include:

  • Follicular Phase (First 1-12 days): 90 to 590 pg/ml
  • Luteal Phase (After ovulation): 130 to 460 pg/ml
  • Postmenopausal: 50 to 170 pg/ml

What an Imbalance Means

If you’re pregnant, keep in mind that this will have a significant effect on your estrogen levels. Your menstrual cycle timeline also comes into play.

Results that fall outside of the average range warrant a follow-up review. The same imbalance concerns present after an Estradiol test also apply in this case.

4. Estrone

In addition to estradiol and estriol, estrone is the third type of estrogen. While estradiol is the primary female sex hormone, estriol and estrone are the minor ones.

What It Measures

An Estrone test measures the level of estrone hormone present in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

The following estrone levels are considered average normal ranges for females, as reported by Quest.

Adult Women

  • Follicular Stage: 10-138 pg/mL
  • Luteal Stage: 16-173 pg/mL
  • Postmenopausal: ≤65 pg/mL

Pediatric Girls

  • Pre-pubertal (1-9 Years): ≤34
  • 10-11 Years: ≤72
  • 12-14 Years: ≤75
  • 15-17 Years: ≤188 

What an Imbalance Means

An imbalance of any of your estrogen hormones can signify a host of medical concerns.

While those listed under the Estradiol test results also apply in this case, elevated estrone levels have specifically been linked to breast and endometrial cancer growth.

5. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

The FSH hormone is responsible for successful pubertal development, along with the function of women’s ovaries and men’s testes.

Specifically, this hormone helps ovarian follicles develop. These follicles produce estrogen and progesterone and help regulate your menstrual cycle.

What It Measures

An FSH test measures the level of FSH found in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

The following FSH levels are considered average normal ranges for females, as reported by Quest.

  • Follicular Phase: 2.5-10.2 mIU/mL
  • Mid-Cycle Peak: 3.1-17.7 mIU/mL
  • Luteal Phase: 1.5-9.1 mIU/mL
  • Postmenopausal: 23.0-116.3 mIU/mL

What an Imbalance Means

High levels of FSH in your blood could be present during or after menopause. You could also experience elevation if you’re undergoing hormone therapy. In addition, too much FSH could also signal pituitary gland tumors, primary ovarian hypofunction, or Turner syndrome.

Low levels of FSH are linked to rapid weight loss, pituitary gland or hypothalamus inefficiencies, and pregnancy.

6. IGF-1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor)

IGF-1 is a hormone that’s naturally present in your blood. It regulates the effects of growth hormone (GH) in your body. In addition, normal IGF-1 and GH functions include bone and tissue growth.

What It Measures

An IGF-1 test measures the level of the IGF-1 hormone in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

Your age plays a major factor in your IGF-1 levels. The following IGF-1 levels are considered average normal ranges for females, as reported by Quest.

  • 18-19.9 Years: 108-548 ng/mL
  • 20-24.9 Years: 83-456 ng/mL
  • 25-29.9 Years: 63-373 ng/mL
  • 30-39.9 Years: 53-331 ng/mL
  • 40-49.9 Years: 52-328 ng/mL
  • 50-59.9 Years: 50-317 ng/mL
  • 60-69.9 Years: 41-279 ng/mL
  • 70-79.9 Years: 34-245 ng/mL
  • >80 Years: 34-246 ng/mL

What an Imbalance Means

Decreased serum levels of IGF-I could signal dwarfism caused by a deficiency of growth hormone (hypopituitarism). At the same time, elevated levels of IGF-1 are linked to acromegaly, or growth hormone excess.

7. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Luteinizing Hormone is associated with reproduction. It also helps stimulate your ovary to release an egg during ovulation. 

What It Measures

An LH test measures the amount of Luteinizing Hormone present in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

For females, the average LH range depends on where you are in your menstrual cycle. The following LH levels are considered average normal ranges for females, as reported by Quest.

  • Follicular Phase: 1.9-12.5 mIU/mL
  • Mid-Cycle Peak: 8.7-76.3 mIU/mL
  • Luteal Phase: 0.5-16.9 mIU/mL
  • Postmenopausal: 10.0-54.7 mIU/mL

What an Imbalance Means

Too-low LH levels are associated with malnutrition, anorexia, stress, and pituitary disorders.

Especially if you aren’t ovulating, elevated LH levels could signal menopause. High LH levels are also linked to pituitary disorders or polycystic ovary syndrome.

8. Pregnenolone

Consider Pregnenolone as the precursor to the rest of your body’s steroid hormones. All of your others, including testosterone and estrogen, stem from this “mother” hormone. 

What It Measures

Pregnenolone test measures the level of the Pregnenolone hormone present in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

For females, the average Pregnenolone range depends on your age. The following Pregnenolone levels are considered average normal ranges for females, as reported by Quest.

Adult

22-237 ng/dL

Pediatric

  • 1-59 Days: 68-1303 ng/dL
  • 60 Days-1 Year: ≤219 ng/dL
  • 2-6 Years: ≤140 ng/dL
  • 7-9 Years: ≤156 ng/dL
  • 10-12 Years: 15-220 ng/dL
  • 13-17 Years: 12-196 ng/dL

What an Imbalance Means

An increase or decrease of pregnenolone signifies an enzyme deficiency somewhere in your body’s steroid hormone production process. This test can also help detect rare forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) linked to a pregnenolone imbalance.

9. Progesterone

In women, progesterone is a hormone released by the corpus luteum in your ovary. It helps to regulate your menstrual cycle and assists in maintaining the early stages of pregnancy.

What It Measures

Progesterone test measures the level of progesterone hormone present in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

For females, the average progesterone range depends on your menstrual cycle: The following progesterone levels are considered average normal ranges for females, as reported by Quest.

Female

  • Follicular Phase: <1.0ng/mL
  • Luteal Phase: 2.6-21.5ng/mL
  • Postmenopausal: <0.5ng/mL

Pregnancy

  • First Trimester: 4.1-34.0ng/mL
  • Second Trimester: 24.0-76.0ng/mL
  • Third Trimester: 52.0-302.0ng/mL

What an Imbalance Means

High progesterone levels could signal pregnancy. In addition, they are also caused by ovarian cancer, adrenal cancer, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Low levels could signal a failure to ovulate, ectopic pregnancy, or miscarriage.

10. Prolactin

Prolactin is the hormone that signals a woman’s body to create breast milk when she’s pregnant or breast-feeding. 

What It Measures

Prolactin test measures the level of Prolactin hormone present in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

For females, the following Prolactin levels are considered average normal ranges, as reported by Quest.

Adult Female

  • Non-Pregnant: 3.0-30.0 ng/mL
  • Pregnant: 10.0-209.0 ng/mL
  • Postmenopausal: 2.0-20.0 ng/mL

Stages of Puberty (Tanner Stages)

Female Observed

  • Stage I: 3.6.12.0 ng/mL
  • Stage II-III: 2.6-18.0 ng/mL
  • Stage IV-V: 3.2-20.0 ng/mL

What an Imbalance Means

High levels of Prolactin don’t necessarily mean a health issue. Your levels could be elevated if you ate before the test or were under stress when you took it.

Exorbitantly high results, on the other hand, could be a sign that you have a prolactinoma, a non-cancerous tumor in your brain’s pituitary gland. Low results mean that your pituitary gland isn’t working at full capacity, a condition that’s known as hypopituitarism.

11. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)

This is a protein that your liver creates. In both men and women, it binds tightly to three sex hormones (estrogen, dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone), carrying them throughout your blood.

What It Measures

An SHBG test measures the level of SHBG present in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

For females, the following SHBG levels are considered average normal ranges, as reported by Quest.

  • 3-9 Years: 32-158 nmol/L
  • 10-13 Years: 24-120 nmol/L
  • 14-17 Years: 12-150 nmol/L
  • 18-55 Years: 17-124 nmol/L
  • >55 Years: 14-73 nmol/L

What an Imbalance Means

High SHBG could be a sign of pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, or cirrhosis. If you’re undergoing oral estrogen administration or taking certain drugs, these conditions could raise your levels, as well.

Low SHBG could signify hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, and obesity.

12. Testosterone (Free and Total)

While it’s considered a male sex hormone, women do produce a small amount of testosterone in their ovaries and adrenal glands.

What It Measures

Testosterone test measures the level of testosterone present in your blood.

Clinical Test Reference Range

A Free Testosterone test measures the level of “free” or unattached testosterone in your blood. For females, the following free testosterone levels are considered average normal ranges, as reported by Quest.

  • 1-11 Years: ≤1.5 pg/mL
  • 12-13 Years: ≤1.5 pg/mL
  • 14-17 Years: ≤3.6 pg/mL
  • 18-69 Years: 0.2-5.0 pg/mL
  • 70-89 Years: 0.3-5.0 pg/mL
  • >89 Years: Not established

Total Testosterone test, on the other hand, measures the total level of testosterone in your blood. For females, the following total testosterone levels are considered average normal ranges, as reported by Quest.

  • 1-5 Years: ≤8 ng/dL
  • 6-7 Years: ≤20 ng/dL
  • 8-10 Years: ≤35 ng/dL
  • 11 Years: ≤40 ng/dL
  • 12-13 Years: ≤40 ng/dL
  • 14-17.9 Years: ≤40 ng/dL
  • ≥18 Years: 2-45 ng/dL

What an Imbalance Means

Women with high levels of testosterone may have PCOS. Low levels could be a sign of fertility problems, irregular menstrual periods, or osteoporosis.

13. Thyroid Hormone Lab Tests

We have focused on the 12 common Hormone Testing for Women in this article. However, equally important are your thyroid hormones.

Thyroid dysfunction can affect every part of your life, from your energy levels to your weight. Knowing which thyroid tests to ask for can help you identify any disorders you may have and may even help you catch cancer early. Check out our article on the 10 Key Thyroid Tests.

Your Stop for Complete Hormone Testing for Women

Now you know the 12 most common Hormone Testing for Women, While there are some symptoms, such as hot flashes, that you can almost always associate with a hormonal imbalance, others make it more challenging to connect the dots.. It’s important for you to get a baseline reading of each of your hormone biomarkers. Not only that, but you need to get tested regularly to track any changes that lead to a hormone imbalance.

By keeping a close eye on your hormone biomarkers, as you go through life, you can detect the impact of disruptions or discomfort from changing hormone levels. Make sure that you not only get routinely tested but to also discuss the results with your doctor.

If you need help understanding your hormones, we’d love to help. We offer these key Hormone Testing for Women as part of our selection of 1,500 lab tests, and we provide explanations on each biomarker.

You can select your lab tests, order directly online, choose a convenient patient service center near you, and review your test results typically in 1 to 2 days after your blood is collected.

Take charge of your health and get tested today at UltaLabTests.