The Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) test contains 1 test with 21 biomarkers.
Description: The Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) test is a widely used blood test that provides valuable insights into a patient's overall health and helps evaluate the function of various organs and systems in the body. It measures a comprehensive set of chemical substances in the blood, including electrolytes, kidney and liver function markers, glucose, and protein levels. The CMP test offers a comprehensive overview of the body's metabolic state and aids in diagnosing and monitoring various conditions.
Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: 9-12 hours fasting is preferred.
Average Processing Time: 1 to 2 days
When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:
A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) test may be ordered in several situations to assess a patient's health:
Routine Health Check-ups: Doctors often include a CMP test as part of routine check-ups to assess overall health, screen for underlying conditions, and establish a baseline for future comparisons.
Evaluation of Organ Function: The CMP test provides valuable information about the function of vital organs such as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. It helps detect abnormalities or diseases affecting these organs, such as liver disease, kidney dysfunction, or diabetes.
Monitoring Medications or Treatments: Patients undergoing certain medications or treatments, such as those that may impact liver or kidney function, require regular monitoring through CMP tests to ensure the treatments are well-tolerated and effective.
Investigation of Symptoms: When patients present with symptoms like fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, frequent urination, or unexplained weight loss, a CMP test can aid in identifying potential underlying causes or imbalances.
What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for?
The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed.
The following tests are included in the CMP:
Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels.
Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin
Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder.
Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage.
AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage.
Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body.
Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.
Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function.
Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth.
Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.
Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.
Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage.
Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells.
Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells.
Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin.
Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy.
Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells.
Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood.
Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function.
Sodium: this is a measure of sodium in your blood's serum. Sodium is a vital mineral for nerve and muscle cell function.
Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage.
Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test:
- Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
- Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
- Lipid Panel
- Vitamin B12 and Folate
- Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
- Sed Rate (ESR)
- C-Reactive Protein
Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended:
A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) test can assist in diagnosing and monitoring various conditions or diseases, including:
Liver Diseases: The CMP helps identify liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or liver damage due to alcohol abuse or medication toxicity.
Kidney Diseases: Abnormalities in kidney function markers on the CMP test can indicate conditions like chronic kidney disease, kidney infections, or kidney stones.
Diabetes or Glucose Imbalances: The CMP provides crucial information on blood glucose levels, aiding in the diagnosis and management of diabetes or identifying glucose imbalances.
Electrolyte Imbalances: Abnormal levels of electrolytes detected by the CMP can indicate conditions such as dehydration, kidney dysfunction, or hormonal disorders.
Commonly Asked Questions:
How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test?
Health care providers use the results of a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) test to:
Diagnose Medical Conditions: Abnormalities in CMP test results can help healthcare providers diagnose various conditions such as liver disease, kidney dysfunction, diabetes, or electrolyte imbalances.
Monitor Treatment Effectiveness: Regular CMP tests allow healthcare providers to monitor the impact of treatments or medications on organ function, glucose control, or electrolyte balance.
Evaluate Overall Health: The CMP test provides a comprehensive snapshot of the patient's metabolic state and aids in evaluating overall health, identifying potential risk factors, and guiding further investigations if necessary.
By effectively utilizing the results of a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) test, healthcare providers can diagnose conditions, monitor treatment progress, and make informed decisions regarding patient care and management.
What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean?
The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests.
Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients.
Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis.
Is there anything else I should know?
A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted.
What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other?
The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.
Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio:
The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range.
If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.
As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79.