Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), Female

The Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH), Female test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.

Brief Description: The Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) test measures the level of AMH in the blood. AMH is a hormone produced by the granulosa cells in the developing ovarian follicles of the ovaries. It plays a crucial role in female reproductive health and is used as a marker of ovarian reserve, which refers to the quantity and quality of a woman's remaining eggs.

Also Known As: AMH Test, AMH Hormone Test, Mullerian-inhibiting hormone Test, MIH Test, Mullerian Inhibiting Factor Test, MIF Test, Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Test, MUS Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test ordered?

When a woman's ovarian function, reproductive concerns, especially when considering assisted reproduction techniques like in vitro fertilization, or when a health practitioner wishes to evaluate her chances of entering menopause, an AMH test may be recommended.

When a woman shows indications and symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome, AMH may be ordered.

AMH may be ordered on a regular basis for a woman with AMH-producing ovarian cancer to check therapy effectiveness and recurrence.

When an infant's genitalia is ambiguous or when a male child's testicles have not descended properly, an AMH test may be ordered.

What does an Anti-Mullerian Hormone blood test check for?

Anti-Müllerian hormone is a hormone generated by male and female reproductive tissues, including the testicles and ovaries. The role of AMH, as well as the amount generally present, varies by gender and age. This test detects the presence of AMH in the blood.

AMH is produced by the testicles early in the development of a baby boy, limiting the development of female reproductive organs while boosting the development of other male reproductive organs. AMH levels in boys stay high until adolescence, when they begin to decline.

AMH levels are low in girls, allowing for the development of female reproductive structures. Young females' AMH levels remain low until adolescence, when the ovaries begin to manufacture it and levels rise. AMH will then gradually decrease in women during their reproductive years, eventually becoming undetectable after menopause.

AMH is essential for a woman during her reproductive years. A female contains roughly one million eggs at birth, which normally decline to about 500,000 during infancy. Only a small percentage of these leftover eggs will mature into follicles, one at a time throughout a woman's monthly menstrual cycle. During the process of egg maturation and release, AMH exerts a balancing influence on the monthly cyclical actions of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. This follicular expansion is reflected in the amount of AMH present.

The AMH level has been demonstrated in studies to be effective in assessing a woman's remaining egg maturation potential and her chances of conceiving. During the childbearing years, AMH decreases gradually, reduces considerably as menopause approaches, and is essentially undetectable after menopause. The level of AMH can be used to assess a woman's current reproductive status and anticipate the beginning of menopause.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, a disorder affecting the ovaries, has been linked to elevated AMH levels. This syndrome causes unusually excessive levels of AMH to be produced by the extra follicles.

In the fetus, AMH is also important for sexual distinction. A developing fetus might develop either male or female reproductive organs throughout the first several weeks of pregnancy. The two testicles present in a baby boy produce AMH and androgens, which limit the development of female reproductive organs while promoting the growth of other male reproductive organs. Both male and basic female organs may develop if a significant amount of AMH is not accessible or lacking during this process. A baby with ambiguous genitalia may not be recognized as male or female right away.

Some ovarian cancers have high levels of AMH. If the hormone is produced by a tumor, the AMH test can be used as a tumor marker to track therapy effectiveness and check for recurrence.

Lab tests often ordered with an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test:

When an AMH test is ordered, it's typically part of a broader evaluation of female fertility and reproductive health. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:

  1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH):

    • Purpose: To measure levels of FSH and LH, hormones crucial for the regulation of the menstrual cycle and ovarian function.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Elevated FSH or altered FSH/LH ratios can indicate reduced ovarian reserve or function, and are important for assessing fertility.
  2. Estradiol (E2):

    • Purpose: To measure the level of estradiol, a form of estrogen produced by the ovaries.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate ovarian function and, in conjunction with FSH, assess ovarian reserve and response to fertility treatments.
  3. Thyroid Function Test:

    • Purpose: To assess thyroid function.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Thyroid dysfunction can affect menstrual cycles and fertility.
  4. Prolactin:

    • Purpose: To measure the level of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Elevated prolactin levels can disrupt menstrual cycles and ovulation.
  5. Progesterone:

    • Purpose: To measure the level of progesterone, a hormone produced after ovulation.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To confirm ovulation and assess the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
  6. Vitamin D Level:

    • Purpose: To measure the level of vitamin D.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Emerging research suggests that vitamin D may play a role in reproductive health and ovarian function.

These tests, when ordered alongside an AMH test, provide a comprehensive view of a woman’s reproductive health and fertility potential. They are crucial for diagnosing and managing conditions affecting fertility, understanding ovarian reserve, and planning appropriate fertility treatments or interventions. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual’s symptoms, age, medical history, and fertility goals.

Conditions where an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test is recommended:

The AMH test is primarily used to assess fertility potential and ovarian reserve in the following situations:

  1. Infertility: When a woman is having difficulty conceiving, the AMH test can help evaluate her ovarian reserve and guide fertility treatments.

  2. Fertility Treatments: Prior to assisted reproductive techniques like IVF, the AMH test is used to predict the response to ovarian stimulation and the number of eggs that may be retrieved.

  3. Menopause: In women experiencing menopause, the AMH levels decrease, indicating the depletion of ovarian follicles and reduced fertility.

How does my health care provider use an Anti-Mullerian test?

Anti-Müllerian hormone is not a commonly requested test, but it can be helpful in some situations.

AMH is a hormone made by the reproductive organs. Its function and the amount that is generally present varies by gender and age.

An AMH test, along with other hormone tests like estradiol and FSH, may be ordered for women of reproductive age to determine how much time they have left to conceive. These tests can also be used to assess ovarian function and possibly forecast when menopause will occur.

AMH may be ordered for a woman who will be having assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization; the amount of AMH present is linked to her potential treatment response. A low amount of AMH indicates a poor ovarian response, implying that fewer eggs will be recovered following ovarian stimulation. It's usually ordered in conjunction with additional hormone lab tests and a transvaginal ultrasound scan for this purpose.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome can be diagnosed with an AMH test. Because there are more follicles present, AMH may be raised.

AMH levels are elevated in several ovarian malignancies. If the hormone is initially increased, the test can be used as a tumor marker to assess therapy response and track recurrence.

An AMH test, together with chromosome testing, hormone testing, and sometimes imaging scans, may be requested to help establish the sex of an infant with external genitals that are not distinctly male or female.

What do my Anti Mullerian Hormone test results mean?

A low quantity and quality of eggs with diminishing fertility during a woman's reproductive years may suggest a poor number and quality of eggs, resulting in minimal or less responsiveness to IVF treatment. It could also mean that the ovaries aren't working properly.

A decrease in AMH level and/or a severe fall in AMH could indicate the start of menopause. AMH levels that are negative to low in a female are normal during childhood and after menopause.

Although an elevated level of AMH is frequently associated with PCOS, it is not diagnostic of the illness. Increased AMH may potentially signal a greater or even excessive reactivity to IVF, necessitating a modification of the treatment.

When AMH is used to track the progress of an AMH-producing ovarian cancer, a decrease in AMH suggests a positive response to treatment, whereas an increase could indicate cancer recurrence.

Most Common Questions About the Anti-Mullerian Hormone test:

Understanding the Anti-Mullerian Hormone Test

What is the Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) test?

The AMH test measures the level of Anti-Mullerian Hormone in the blood. This hormone is produced by cells in the ovaries and is a good indicator of ovarian reserve, which is the remaining supply of eggs a woman has.

Why is the AMH test important?

The AMH test is essential as it provides information about a woman's fertility potential or egg count. It is often used in the assessment of ovarian function, particularly in the context of assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF.

When is an AMH test recommended?

An AMH test is typically recommended for women seeking fertility treatment or those interested in understanding their fertility status. It may also be used to aid in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or primary ovarian insufficiency.

Can the AMH test predict menopause?

While the AMH test can provide an estimate of the remaining egg supply, it cannot accurately predict when a woman will reach menopause, as the rate at which women lose eggs can vary widely.

Interpreting AMH Test Results

What do high levels of AMH in the test results indicate?

High AMH levels often indicate a high ovarian reserve, which generally signifies a greater fertility potential. However, excessively high levels could suggest PCOS, a common hormonal disorder affecting women of reproductive age.

What do low levels of AMH in the test results indicate?

Low AMH levels indicate a low ovarian reserve, suggesting that the woman's egg supply is diminished. This could indicate decreased fertility or approaching menopause.

Can AMH levels vary during a woman's menstrual cycle?

Unlike other fertility hormones, AMH levels remain relatively stable throughout the menstrual cycle, making it a reliable measure of ovarian reserve at any point in the cycle.

How are AMH levels interpreted in the context of age?

AMH levels naturally decline with age as a woman's ovarian reserve decreases. Therefore, a low AMH level is expected in older women, while a low AMH level in a younger woman might indicate decreased fertility potential.

The AMH Test and Specific Conditions

How does the AMH test relate to PCOS?

Women with PCOS often have higher than normal AMH levels due to an increased number of small follicles in their ovaries. Therefore, the AMH test can be used to support a diagnosis of PCOS.

How does the AMH test relate to primary ovarian insufficiency?

Women with primary ovarian insufficiency, a condition characterized by diminished ovarian function before the age of 40, often have lower than normal AMH levels. The AMH test can therefore aid in diagnosis.

Can the AMH test help predict success with IVF?

AMH is often used as a predictor for response to controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF, as women with higher AMH levels are more likely to produce more retrievable eggs. However, it's important to note that AMH level is just one of many factors influencing IVF success.

General Questions About the AMH Test

Can certain medications affect the AMH test results?

Yes, certain medications, particularly hormonal contraceptives, may affect AMH levels and therefore the test results. It's essential to discuss all medications you're taking with your healthcare provider before the test.

What is the relationship between AMH levels and pregnancy rates?

While AMH levels can give an indication of ovarian reserve, they are not a direct predictor of the chance of spontaneous pregnancy in a given menstrual cycle. However, they can be used to predict response to fertility treatments.

Can the AMH test be used to diagnose ovarian cancer?

The AMH test is not used to diagnose ovarian cancer. AMH may be produced by certain types of ovarian tumors, but it's not specific or sensitive enough to be a reliable cancer marker.

How do AMH levels change with age?

AMH levels naturally decline with age, beginning in a woman's late twenties and accelerating in the late thirties to early forties. AMH levels become undetectable after menopause.

Can men undergo the AMH test?

Yes, men also produce AMH, and it plays a role in male sexual development. The AMH test in men can aid in diagnosing certain conditions, such as persistent Müllerian duct syndrome.

How do conditions like endometriosis affect AMH levels?

Endometriosis can potentially lower AMH levels by damaging ovarian tissue. However, further research is needed to fully understand this relationship.

Can weight or BMI affect AMH levels?

Some research suggests that AMH levels may be lower in women with a high BMI, but more studies are needed to confirm this.

How does smoking affect AMH levels?

Smoking has been associated with lower AMH levels, suggesting it may accelerate the loss of eggs.

What are the limitations of the AMH test?

While the AMH test is a useful tool for assessing ovarian reserve, it does not provide a complete picture of a woman's fertility. Factors such as egg quality and other hormonal balances also play crucial roles.

Can the AMH test be used to confirm a diagnosis of menopause?

No, the AMH test cannot confirm menopause. While AMH levels decline as a woman approaches menopause, other tests, such as those for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol, are typically used to diagnose menopause.

Can the AMH test predict the likelihood of natural conception?

While lower AMH levels may suggest a reduced ovarian reserve, they do not definitively predict the likelihood of natural conception. Factors such as regularity of periods, age, and overall health are also important.

Can lifestyle changes improve AMH levels?

There is limited evidence suggesting that certain lifestyle changes, like maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking, may positively affect AMH levels. However, genetic factors and age are the primary determinants of AMH levels.

Can the AMH test detect early menopause?

The AMH test can detect diminished ovarian reserve, which could suggest the early approach of menopause. However, it can't accurately predict when menopause will occur.

How is the AMH test different from other fertility tests?

The AMH test is unique because it can be done at any time during the menstrual cycle and gives a direct measure of the ovarian reserve, which most other fertility tests can't provide.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE

*Process times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. The lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

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