Stroke

Find the right stroke test with Ulta Lab Tests to screen for and monitor your cardiovascular health with an accurate reading of your results sent confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours. Order from Ulta Lab Tests today!


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To screen for APC-R associated with venous thromboembolic disorders.

Antinuclear antibodies are associated with rheumatic diseases including Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, CREST syndrome, and neurologic SLE. 

Reflex Information: If ANA Screen, IFA is positive, then ANA Titer and Pattern will be performed at an additional charge.



This test will aid physicians in the assessment of risk of atrial fibrilation and cardioembolic stroke.

Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity

Clinical Significance

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.


Cardiolipin Antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM)

  • Cardiolipin Antibody (IgA) 
  • Cardiolipin Antibody (IgG) 
  • Cardiolipin Antibody (IgM) 

Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome.


A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)


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Test for myocardial infarction and skeletal muscle damage. Elevated results may be due to: myocarditis, myocardial infarction (heart attack), muscular dystrophy, muscle trauma or excessive exercise

Clinical Significance

Bacterial sepsis constitutes one of the most serious infectious diseases. The detection of microorganisms in a patient's blood has importance in the diagnosis and prognosis of endocarditis, septicemia, or chronic bacteremia.

Includes

Aerobic culture, anaerobic culture. If culture is positive, identification will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87076 or 87106 or 87077 or 87140 or 87143 or 87147 or 87149).
Antibiotic susceptibilities are only performed when appropriate (CPT code(s): 87181 or 87184 or 87185 or 87186).


Factor V (Leiden) Mutation is a point mutation that causes resistance of Factor V protein degradation by activated protein C (APC). This mutation is associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis.

An increase in PAI-1 antigen is associated with an increased risk for post-operative venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and (probably) stroke. A severe deficiency of alpha-2 antiplasmin or PAI-1 antigen has been associated with bleeding. A shortened euglobulin lysis time correlates with a severe deficiency of alpha-2 antiplasmin or PAI-1 antigen. Elevations in fibrin monomer, fibrinogen degradation products, and D-dimer usually indicate vascular thrombosis (mainly venous) but are also associated with malignancy and infection. Conversely, a normal D-dimer and/or negative fibrin monomer suggests the absence of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli. Marked reduction in plasminogen has been associated with a prothrombotic state, and an elevated TPA level is a risk marker of coronary artery disease.

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Elevated levels of homocysteine are observed in patients at risk for coronary heart disease and stroke.

A lipid panel includes:Total cholesterol —this test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles.High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in HDL particles; often called "good cholesterol" because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal.Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called "bad cholesterol" because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Usually, the amount of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides.Triglycerides — measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles; most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) — calculated from triglycerides/5; this formula is based on the typical composition of VLDL particles.Non-HDL-C — calculated from total cholesterol minus HDL-C.Cholesterol/HDL ratio — calculated ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C.


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Clinical Significance

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.


Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are members of a family of antibodies with phospholipid specificity. LA may be defined as an immunoglobulin, IgG or IgM or a mixture of both, that interferes with one or more of the in vitro phospholipid (PL) dependent tests of coagulation. These antibodies are not associated with a hemorrhagic diathesis, but rather have been linked to thrombotic events. In addition to thrombosis other clinical complications have been associated with the presence of LA. These include strokes, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, livedo reticularis and a variety of obstetrical complications such as intrauterine fetal death, recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal growth retardation, early onset preeclampsia and chorea gravidarum.

Identifying patients who have metabolic syndrome and who are thus at higher risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease or stroke. Identifying patients who are insulin resistant (fasting insulin at or above the 75th percentile) and who are thus at higher risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, or liver disease. Monitoring of risk factors and insulin levels after life style change, medication use, or both.

Screening test for deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors other than Factors VII and XIII. The test is also used to monitor patients on heparin therapy.

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BNP is used to aid in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure. In contrast with BNP, a drug to treat left ventricular dysfunction does not interfere with the measurement of N-terminal pro-BNP.

Dietary supplements containing biotin may interfere in assays and may skew results to be either falsely high or falsely low. For patients receiving the recommended daily doses of biotin, draw samples at least 8 hours following the last biotin supplementation. For patients on mega-doses of biotin supplements, draw samples at least 72 hours following the last biotin supplementation.


Screening test for abnormalities of coagulation factors that are involved in the extrinsic pathway. Also used to monitor effects of Warfarin therapy and to study patients with hereditary and acquired clotting disorders.

Useful in differentiating inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and as an index of disease severity. CRP is also useful in monitoring inflammatory disease states.



Stroke is a condition caused by the sudden blockage or diminished blood supply to a part of the brain.  This changes/affects body functions controlled by the part of the brain, hence reduced response or no response to stimulation at all. Stroke mainly happens when/if these brain cells do not get oxygen and nutrients made available by the fresh supply of blood. Body cells, and brain cells may get inflamed or even die if they do not get enough oxygen and nutrients, one of the reasons why stroke leaves one permanently disabled.  

Statistics show that more than 129,000 Americans die from stroke each year, with approximately 795,000 people suffering new or recurrent stroke annually. This makes stroke the 5th leading cause of death in the United States. 65% of all stroke-related deaths occur in women. In addition to causing long-term disability in most survivors, at least 25% of them are at risk of suffering another stroke within five years. 

Types of Stroke  

  • Ischemic: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for more than 87% of reported cases. It is mainly caused by a blocked artery to the brain (thrombotic stroke). This can occur as a result of a blood clot in a narrow artery, or if the clot (in other parts of the body) breaks off and travels to the brain, commonly known as an embolic stroke. 
  • Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when/if a blood vessel ruptures, causing breeding in and around the brain. This could be as a result of a head injury (from an accident) or aneurysms. Aneurysms occur as a result of high blood pressure or a genetic defect.  This is the most dangerous type of stroke, which almost always leads to death.  

Risk Factors 

The most common risk factors include: 

  • Diabetes mellitus  
  • High blood pressure  
  • Dangerously high cholesterol levels  
  • Age (seniors have a risk)  
  • Hereditary genetics  
  • Race (African Americans have a higher risk of stroke when compared to Caucasians)  
  • Sex (more men suffer a stroke as compared to women, while more women succumb to it quickly)  
  • Sickle cell anemia   
  • Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome  
  • Leading an unhealthy lifestyle (lack of exercise, drug abuse, and unhealthy eating habits)   

Signs and Symptoms

Most people will have one or more mini strokes, commonly known as TIAs (Transient Ischemic Attacks), before having an actual one. These mini strokes should serve as a warning and a reason to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Symptoms of stroke can be persistent, with TIAs fading off within no time. The most common symptoms of TIA or Stroke include:  

  • Severe, unexplained headache  
  • Trouble talking, sudden loss of speech, and difficulties understanding what is being said  
  • Sudden loss of coordination, balance, and trouble walking  
  • Paralysis of the leg, arm, or face (on one side of the body), sudden weakness and numbness 
  • Unexpected difficulties in seeing with one or both eyes and blurred vision.   

Tests  

Doctors mainly use non-laboratory testing for stroke diagnosis. These include several imaging tests, a neurological and physical exam. Researchers are, however, in the process of finding laboratory tests that could be used in stroke diagnosis, screening, treatment, and management. Stroke biomarkers may also come in handy in the future.  

Some of the feasible biomarkers that could be used in risk assessment include N-methyl-D-aspartate neuroreceptors (NMDAR), Lp-PLA2, and NT-PRoBNP. Antibodies to metalloproteinases (MMPs) and NR2A/2B are potential candidates for stroke diagnosis as well. A panel of biomarkers could be used in both risk assessment and diagnostic tools for stroke. All these are, however, in the research stage, hence, yet to be tested.  

Some lab tests may also be ordered to assess a patient’s risk. These include:  

More tests may be required to identify situations that could increase your risk. These include: