The Antithrombin III Activity test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.
Brief Description: The Antithrombin III Activity test measures the activity of antithrombin, a protein in the blood that naturally inhibits clot formation. It's one of the primary inhibitors of clotting factor enzymes, particularly thrombin and Factor Xa. Adequate antithrombin levels are vital for controlling and balancing coagulation. The activity test provides insights into how well the antithrombin is functioning, rather than just its concentration in the blood.
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Plasma
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When and Why an Antithrombin III Activity Test May Be Ordered
An Antithrombin III Activity test may be ordered:
- When an individual has an unexplained thrombotic episode, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism.
- If someone has a family history of clotting disorders and is being evaluated for their risk of developing blood clots.
- In cases where recurrent miscarriages have occurred without a clear cause, to rule out clotting disorders as a factor.
- Before starting on certain anticoagulant therapies, particularly heparin, as antithrombin is crucial for heparin's effectiveness.
What an Antithrombin III Activity Test Checks For
The Antithrombin III Activity test checks for the functionality of antithrombin in the blood. It assesses how effectively antithrombin can inhibit clotting enzymes, indicating whether an individual has a normal ability to prevent excessive clotting.
Other Lab Tests Ordered Alongside an Antithrombin III Activity Test
To get a comprehensive understanding of a person's clotting balance or potential disorders, a doctor may order other tests along with the Antithrombin III Activity test:
- PT (Prothrombin Time) and APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time): To evaluate clotting pathways and check overall clotting function.
- Protein C and Protein S tests: These proteins also play a role in regulating clotting, and deficiencies can lead to increased clot risk.
- Factor V Leiden mutation and Prothrombin 20210 mutation tests: Genetic tests to check for specific inherited mutations that can increase clotting risk.
Conditions or Diseases Requiring an Antithrombin III Activity Test
Several conditions or situations might prompt the use of this test:
- Antithrombin III Deficiency: A hereditary or acquired condition that reduces the level or functionality of antithrombin, increasing the risk of clots.
- Liver Disease: Since antithrombin is produced in the liver, liver diseases can affect its levels.
- Nephrotic Syndrome: A kidney disorder that might result in loss of antithrombin in the urine.
- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC): A severe condition where small blood clots develop throughout the bloodstream.
How Health Care Providers Use the Results of an Antithrombin III Activity Test
The results of the Antithrombin III Activity test can provide crucial information about an individual's risk of developing blood clots:
- Normal levels: This typically means that the person's antithrombin activity is sufficient to help regulate coagulation.
- Decreased levels: This suggests a potential deficiency and an increased risk of clotting. The doctor may consider treatment with anticoagulant medication or further investigation to find the underlying cause.
Healthcare providers may also use the test results to monitor the effectiveness of treatment, particularly if antithrombin concentrates are being administered or if the patient is on anticoagulant therapy.
Most Common Questions About the Antithrombin III Activity test:
Purpose and Clinical Indications
Why is the Antithrombin III Activity test performed?
The Antithrombin III Activity test is performed to measure the activity of antithrombin, a protein that helps regulate blood clotting. By inhibiting certain clotting factors, antithrombin prevents excessive clotting, which can lead to thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.
How does Antithrombin III function in the body?
Antithrombin III functions as a primary inhibitor of thrombin and certain other clotting factors. When it binds to these clotting factors, it inactivates them, preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, which is a key step in blood clot formation. Therefore, Antithrombin III plays a critical role in maintaining a balance between bleeding and clotting.
Interpretation of Results
What do decreased levels of Antithrombin III activity indicate in the Antithrombin III Activity test results?
Decreased levels of Antithrombin III activity can suggest a higher risk of excessive clotting. This could be due to a hereditary deficiency, where a person is born with low levels of antithrombin, or an acquired deficiency, which could result from conditions like liver disease, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), or vitamin K deficiency.
What might elevated levels of Antithrombin III activity mean in the Antithrombin III Activity test results?
Elevated levels of Antithrombin III activity are less common and can be seen in certain conditions, such as after antithrombin supplementation or treatment. They may also be seen during certain stages of pregnancy, but it's less often associated with an increased clinical risk compared to decreased levels.
How is the Antithrombin III Activity test used in the management of patients on anticoagulant therapy?
For patients on anticoagulant therapy, especially heparin, the Antithrombin III Activity test is crucial. Heparin enhances the activity of antithrombin, making it more effective in inhibiting clotting factors. If a patient has a deficiency of antithrombin and is administered heparin, the drug may not be as effective. Thus, monitoring antithrombin levels in such patients ensures the effectiveness of heparin therapy.
How often should the Antithrombin III Activity test be done for those with known deficiencies?
For individuals with known antithrombin deficiencies, the frequency of the Antithrombin III Activity test varies based on clinical circumstances. Those who have had thrombotic events or are at a high risk might need more frequent monitoring, especially if they are on anticoagulant therapy. However, specific testing frequency should be individualized based on clinical judgment and the patient's history.
Relationships with Other Health Conditions
Are there specific conditions or diseases that affect Antithrombin III levels in the Antithrombin III Activity test?
Yes, various conditions can affect Antithrombin III levels. Liver disease can lead to decreased production of antithrombin, resulting in lowered levels. Nephrotic syndrome, a kidney condition, can lead to increased loss of antithrombin in urine. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a complex systemic thrombohemorrhagic disorder, can consume antithrombin, also leading to decreased levels. Other conditions, such as inflammatory disorders, certain infections, or post-surgical states, may also affect antithrombin levels.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.