The Protein S Functional Blood Test test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.
The Protein S Functional (also known as Protein S, Activity) test assesses protein activity to determine its ability to regulate blood clotting and screen for an excessive clotting disease.
This Protein S Functional test measures protein S activity to evaluate if they regulate blood clotting appropriately and to screen for a potential blood clotting issue.
This Protein S Functional test can be ordered to assess protein S activity to see whether blood clotting is being adequately regulated and to check for potential blood clotting disorders. Blood clot formation is controlled by the interaction of proteins S and C. Hemostasis, also referred to as bleeding, takes place when a blood vessel is damaged. In order to restrict blood loss until the blood artery has healed, platelets, which are blood cells, team up with proteins S and C (coagulation factors) to create a clot at the wound. For a stable clot to form, there must be enough platelet count, and coagulation factors and each must be in good working order.
A deficiency or malfunction of these proteins may result in excessive blood clotting or a condition known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Deep vein thrombosis may begin in the arms or legs and move to the lungs, causing a potentially fatal pulmonary embolism (PE).
An underlying health problem such as:
- Hepatic disease
- Renal disease
- Virulent diseases (HIV/AIDS).
- Use of Warfarin (Coumadin®)
- In certain cases, it may be a genetic disorder.
Protein S exists in two states, free and bound, but only the free form binds to protein C. Consequently, protein S deficits can be classified into three groups:
- Deficiency owing to insufficient quantity
- Deficiency owing to improper function
- Deficiency due to lower quantities of free protein S, but normal levels of total protein S
Individuals who have suffered excessive blood clots in unexpected areas or blood clots for unexplained reasons should consider ordering this test. This test can also assist in determining if the lower protein S activity is the result of a deficiency or a rare malfunction.
What does elevated Protein S activity indicate?
In most cases, elevated Protein S levels are clinically insignificant and not connected with medical issues. Activity and concentrations of protein C and Protein S antigens indicate normal clotting control. A low level of Protein S activity might result in abnormal or excessive blood coagulation.
What causes low Protein S activity?
Acquired Protein S deficiency is caused by a condition such as liver illness, nephrotic syndrome, some infections, oral contraceptives, vitamin K deficiency, surgery, or chemotherapy.
What is the severity of Protein S deficiency?
Individuals with modest Protein S deficiency are susceptible to developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the deep veins of the arms or legs. A pulmonary embolism, a potentially fatal blood clot, can result from a DVT that enters the bloodstream and lodges in the lungs (PE)
What is the functional test for protein S?
Protein S aids in blood coagulation regulation. A deficiency of this Protein or an issue with its function may lead to the formation of blood clots in veins. This test is also used to screen the relatives of individuals with known Protein S deficiency. This test is sometimes used to determine the cause of repeated miscarriages.
What should your levels of Protein S be?
Typically, these percentage values should range between 60 and 150. There may be minor variations between testing centers. Low amounts of protein S may raise the risk of blood clots, although high levels do normally not cause for worry.
Can a lack of Protein S induce a stroke?
In young populations, Protein S deficiency is an uncommon cause of recurrent ischemic stroke.
How can Protein S insufficiency be treated?
If you have Protein S deficiency but have never had a blood clot, you will likely not need therapy unless certain conditions apply. Heparin, warfarin, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran are anticoagulants that are commonly prescribed.
How does a protein deficiency manifest itself?
Protein insufficiency manifests as fatigue, weakness, hair loss, brittle nails, and dry skin. Protein deficit is particularly prevalent among vegans, vegetarians, individuals over the age of 70, and those with digestive disorders such as celiac disease and Crohn's disease.
Aspirin and protein S deficiency: can it help?
Many specialists recommend that women with Protein S deficiency, a history of fetal death, and severe or recurrent eclampsia get prophylactic-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) medication during pregnancy, with the LMWH prophylaxis continuing for 6 weeks postpartum.