High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Lab Tests to Monitor the Impact of High Blood Pressure and health information

Do you have high blood pressure?

Find the right lab tests for hypertension to determine whether the cause is an underlying medical condition that can be resolved or controlled and to evaluate the status of your kidneys and organs to get a baseline of organ health and monitor the control of your blood pressure and organ status over time with Ulta Lab Tests. Learn about your health today!

High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a silent killer that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. The good news is there are lab tests for hypertension that can help determine the cause of your condition and monitor your progress. With regular testing, you'll be able to identify any underlying medical conditions and get them under control before they become serious problems. You'llYou'll also be able to keep an eye on your kidneys and organs, so you know how healthy they are at all times. This will help ensure that everything stays in tip-top shape as you work towards controlling your blood pressure with medication or other treatments.

It's important to find out what's causing your high blood pressure, so it doesn't get worse over time or affect other parts of your body, like the kidneys or liver. That way, if it turns out the problem is something simple like dehydration, lack of exercise, or stress, then you will be able to resolve it quickly without having to resort to medications with side effects that could harm more than just one organ system in our bodies. 

We offer over 2,000 lab tests; however, there are 15 tests we recommend to order if you suspect you're at risk for high blood pressure or want a range of general health indicators. If you're tired of waiting around at the doctor or have restrictive copays, our services can help. 

The process is simple. Select from the lab tests listed below that are right for you, have the test done at any one of thousands of different professional diagnostic testing centers, and review your test results typically in 1 to 2 days after your blood is collected. We'll notify you when they're ready, and you'll find everything you need in your private health portal. You can then share these results with your doctor or loved ones. 

When it comes to assessing your high blood pressure risk and status, it's better to know! 

Check out our guides for more information on lab tests to detect if high blood pressure is caused by an underlying medical condition and get a baseline reading of your kidney and organs' health.


Name Matches

CVD - 3. High Heart Health Risk


  • Apolipoprotein A1 + B [ 7018 ]
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) [ 10231 ]
  • hs-CRP [ 10124 ]
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios [ 19543 ]

Hypertension: 15 Blood Tests for Individuals With High Blood Pressure

  • Albumin (ALB) [ 223 ]
  • ApoE Genotype, Cardio IQ™ [ 90649 ]
  • Apolipoprotein A1 + B [ 7018 ]
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LIPOPROTEIN SUBFRACT, ION MOBILITY [ 92500 ]
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) [ 6399 ]
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) [ 10231 ]
  • Cortisol, Total [ 367 ]
  • Fibrinogen Activity, Clauss [ 461 ]
  • hs-CRP [ 10124 ]
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios [ 19543 ]
  • Lipoprotein (A) [ 34604 ]
  • LP PLA2 ACTIVITY [ 94267 ]
  • Microalbumin, 24-Hour Urine with Creatinine [ 15281 ]
  • TSH [ 899 ]
  • Urinalysis (UA), Complete [ 5463 ]
     

  • Albumin (ALB) [ 223 ]
  • ApoE Genotype, Cardio IQ™ [ 90649 ]
  • Apolipoprotein A1 [ 5223 ]
  • Apolipoprotein B [ 5224 ]
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LIPOPROTEIN SUBFRACT, ION MOBILITY [ 92500 ]
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LP PLA2 ACTIVITY [ 94218 ]
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) [ 6399 ]
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) [ 10231 ]
  • Cortisol, Total [ 367 ]
  • Fibrinogen Activity, Clauss [ 461 ]
  • hs-CRP [ 10124 ]
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios [ 19543 ]
  • Lipoprotein (a), Cardio IQ™ [ 91729 ]
  • TSH [ 899 ]
  • Urinalysis (UA), Complete [ 5463 ]

CVD - 1. Low Heart Health Risk


CVD - 2. Moderate Heart Health Risk


CVD - 4. High Heart Health Risk Plus


  • Apolipoprotein A1 + B [ 7018 ]
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LIPOPROTEIN SUBFRACT, ION MOBILITY [ 92500 ]
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) [ 6399 ]
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) [ 10231 ]
  • Fibrinogen Activity, Clauss [ 461 ]
  • hs-CRP [ 10124 ]
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios [ 19543 ]
  • Lipoprotein (A) [ 34604 ]

  • Apolipoprotein A1 + B [ 7018 ]
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LIPOPROTEIN SUBFRACT, ION MOBILITY [ 92500 ]
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) [ 6399 ]
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) [ 10231 ]
  • Cortisol, Total [ 367 ]
  • Fibrinogen Activity, Clauss [ 461 ]
  • hs-CRP [ 10124 ]
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios [ 19543 ]
  • Lipoprotein (A) [ 34604 ]
  • LP PLA2 ACTIVITY [ 94267 ]
  • Microalbumin, 24-Hour Urine with Creatinine [ 15281 ]
  • TSH [ 899 ]
  • Urinalysis (UA), Complete [ 5463 ]
     

  • Albumin (ALB) [ 223 ]
  • ApoE Genotype, Cardio IQ™ [ 90649 ]
  • Apolipoprotein A1 + B [ 7018 ]
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LIPOPROTEIN SUBFRACT, ION MOBILITY [ 92500 ]
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) [ 6399 ]
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) [ 10231 ]
  • Cortisol, Total [ 367 ]
  • Fibrinogen Activity, Clauss [ 461 ]
  • hs-CRP [ 10124 ]
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios [ 19543 ]
  • Lipoprotein (A) [ 34604 ]
  • LP PLA2 ACTIVITY [ 94267 ]
  • Microalbumin, 24-Hour Urine with Creatinine [ 15281 ]
  • TSH [ 899 ]
  • Urinalysis (UA), Complete [ 5463 ]
     

Serum albumin measurements are used in the monitoring and treatment of numerous diseases involving those related to nutrition and pathology particularly in the liver and kidney. Serum albumin is valuable when following response to therapy where improvement in the serum albumin level is the best sign of successful medical treatment. There may be a loss of albumin in the gastrointestinal tract, in the urine secondary to renal damage or direct loss of albumin through the skin. More than 50% of patients with gluten enteropathy have depressed albumin. The only cause of increased albumin is dehydration; there is no naturally occurring hyperalbuminemia

Determination of aldosterone is useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of primary aldosteronism, selective hypoaldosteronism, edematous states, and other conditions of electrolyte imbalance

Most Popular

Description: Aldosterone is a blood test often ordered to test patients with low potassium or high blood pressure.

Also Known As: Aldosterone Plasma Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Aldosterone test ordered?

When someone has high blood pressure, a blood aldosterone test is generally requested, especially if the person also has low potassium. Even if potassium levels are within normal limits, testing may be necessary if hypertension develops at a young age or if standard drugs fail to control high blood pressure. Because primary aldosteronism is a potentially curable form of hypertension, it’s critical to catch it early and effectively treat it.

When a healthcare practitioner suspects adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease, aldosterone levels, along with additional testing, are occasionally recommended.

What does an Aldosterone blood test check for?

Aldosterone is a hormone that helps to maintain proper sodium and potassium levels in the circulation as well as regulate blood volume and blood pressure.

The adrenal glands, which are positioned on the top and outside portions of each kidney, create aldosterone. Aldosterone increases sodium retention and potassium elimination via the kidneys.

Aldosterone overproduction or underproduction can be caused by a number of factors. Because renin and aldosterone are so closely associated, they’re frequently examined jointly to figure out what’s causing an aberrant aldosterone level.

Lab tests often ordered with an Aldosterone test:

  • Electrolytes
  • Potassium
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Plasma Renin Activity

Conditions where an Aldosterone test is recommended:

  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Conn Syndrome

How does my health care provider use an Aldosterone test?

Aldosterone and renin tests are performed to determine whether the adrenal glands are producing enough aldosterone and to differentiate between potential causes of excess or insufficiency. Aldosterone can be detected in the blood or in a 24-hour urine sample, which determines how much aldosterone is excreted in the urine over the course of a day.

Primary aldosteronism, commonly known as Conn syndrome, is a condition that produces high blood pressure and can be detected with these tests. If the test is positive, stimulation and suppression testing can be used to further examine aldosterone production.

The highest levels of aldosterone are in the morning, and they fluctuate throughout the day. The position of the body, stress, and a number of prescribed medications all have an impact on them.

What do my aldosterone test results mean?

Conn syndrome is characterized by the adrenal glands overproducing aldosterone, which is usually caused by a benign tumor in one of the glands. A high aldosterone level causes increased salt reabsorption and potassium loss by the kidneys, resulting in an electrolyte imbalance. High blood pressure, headaches, and muscle weakness are signs and symptoms, especially if potassium levels are very low.

When someone has hypertension and their blood potassium is lower than usual, it's time to look for aldosteronism. Blood is drawn from both of the adrenal veins and tested to see whether there is a difference in the amount of aldosterone produced by both of the adrenal glands to establish whether only one or both are impacted.

Secondary aldosteronism, which is more prevalent than primary aldosteronism, is caused by anything other than an adrenal gland condition that causes excess aldosterone. Any disorder that restricts blood flow to the kidneys, lowers blood pressure, or lowers sodium levels could cause aldosteronism. Congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, kidney illness, and pregnancy toxemia can all cause secondary aldosteronism. It's also typical when you're dehydrated. The cause of aldosteronism is usually clear in these circumstances.

The most common cause of secondary aldosteronism is renal artery stenosis, which is a constriction of the blood arteries that supply the kidney. High aldosterone levels produce high blood pressure, which can be treated with surgery or angioplasty. A catheter is introduced via the groin and blood is collected straight from the veins draining the kidney to see if only one kidney is damaged. If one side's result is much higher than the other, this suggests that the artery is narrowed.

Adrenal insufficiency is the most common cause of low aldosterone. Dehydration, low blood pressure, a low salt level in the blood, and a high potassium level are all symptoms. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder in which babies lack an enzyme needed to create cortisol, can reduce aldosterone production in some circumstances.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Aldosterone and Renin tests are blood tests often ordered together to test patients with low potassium or high blood pressure.

Also Known As: Aldosterone Test, Renin Test, Aldosterone and Renin Ratio Test, Aldosterone and Renin Activity Test, PRA Test, Plasma Renin Activity Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test ordered?

When someone has high blood pressure, a blood aldosterone test and a renin test are generally requested together, especially if the person also has low potassium. Even if potassium levels are within normal limits, testing may be necessary if standard drugs fail to control high blood pressure or if hypertension develops at a young age. Because primary aldosteronism is a potentially curable form of hypertension, it’s critical to catch it early and effectively treat it.

When a healthcare practitioner suspects adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease, aldosterone levels, along with additional testing, are occasionally recommended. The aldosterone stimulation test, also known as ACTH stimulation, measures aldosterone and cortisol levels to identify whether a person has Addison disease, reduced pituitary function, or a pituitary tumor. After ACTH stimulation, a natural outcome is an increase in cortisol and an increase in aldosterone.

What does an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity blood test check for?

Aldosterone is a hormone that helps to maintain proper sodium and potassium levels in the circulation as well as regulate blood volume and blood pressure. Renin is an enzyme that regulates the production of aldosterone. The levels of aldosterone and renin in the blood and/or the amount of aldosterone in the urine are measured in these tests.

The adrenal glands, which are positioned on the top and outside portions of each kidney, create aldosterone. Aldosterone increases sodium retention and potassium elimination via the kidneys. Renin is a protein generated by the kidneys that regulates the activity of the hormone angiotensin, which stimulates the production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands.

Renin is released by the kidneys when blood pressure drops or the sodium chloride concentration in the tubules of the kidney decreases. Renin breaks down the blood protein angiotensinogen to produce angiotensin I, which is then transformed to angiotensin II by a second enzyme. Angiotensin II constricts blood vessels and increases the synthesis of aldosterone. Overall, this boosts blood pressure while maintaining appropriate salt and potassium levels.

Aldosterone overproduction or underproduction can be caused by a number of factors. Because renin and aldosterone are so closely associated, they’re frequently examined jointly to figure out what’s causing an aberrant aldosterone level.

Lab tests often ordered with an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test:

  • Electrolytes
  • Potassium
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Plasma Renin Activity

Conditions where an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test is recommended:

  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Conn Syndrome

How does my health care provider use an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test?

Aldosterone and renin tests are performed to determine whether the adrenal glands are producing enough aldosterone and to differentiate between potential causes of excess or insufficiency. Aldosterone can be detected in the blood or in a 24-hour urine sample, which determines how much aldosterone is excreted in the urine over the course of a day. Renin is always counted in milligrams per milliliter of blood.

Primary aldosteronism, commonly known as Conn syndrome, is a condition that produces high blood pressure and can be detected with these tests. If the test is positive, stimulation and suppression testing can be used to further examine aldosterone production.

The highest levels of aldosterone and renin are in the morning, and they fluctuate throughout the day. The position of the body, stress, and a number of prescribed medications all have an impact on them.

What do my aldosterone and plasma renin activity test results mean?

Conn syndrome is characterized by the adrenal glands overproducing aldosterone, which is usually caused by a benign tumor in one of the glands. A high aldosterone level causes increased salt reabsorption and potassium loss by the kidneys, resulting in an electrolyte imbalance. High blood pressure, headaches, and muscle weakness are signs and symptoms, especially if potassium levels are very low.

When someone has hypertension and their blood potassium is lower than usual, it's time to look for aldosteronism. Blood is drawn from both of the adrenal veins and tested to see whether there is a difference in the amount of aldosterone produced by both of the adrenal glands to establish whether only one or both are impacted.

Secondary aldosteronism, which is more prevalent than primary aldosteronism, is caused by anything other than an adrenal gland condition that causes excess aldosterone. Any disorder that reduces blood flow to the kidneys, lowers blood pressure, or lowers sodium levels could cause it. Congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, kidney illness, and pregnancy toxemia can all cause secondary aldosteronism. It's also typical when you're dehydrated. The cause of aldosteronism is usually clear in these circumstances.

The most common cause of secondary aldosteronism is renal artery stenosis, which is a constriction of the blood arteries that supply the kidney. High renin and aldosterone levels produce high blood pressure, which can be treated with surgery or angioplasty. A catheter is introduced via the groin and blood is collected straight from the veins draining the kidney to see if only one kidney is damaged. If one side's result is much higher than the other, this suggests that the artery is narrowed.

Adrenal insufficiency is the most common cause of low aldosterone. Dehydration, low blood pressure, a low salt level in the blood, and a high potassium level are all symptoms. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder in which babies lack an enzyme needed to create cortisol, can reduce aldosterone production in some circumstances.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

 


Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II. Angiotensin II exerts a negative feedback control of renin release. Angiotensin II, along with direct renin, is useful in the classification of patients with hypertension.

The ATR1 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular risk. Substantial increase in the c allele frequency was observed among patients with severe hypertension, particularly among individuals carrying dd ACE genotype.

Description: Apo A1 is a blood test that measures that amount of Apolipoprotein A1 in the blood’s. This test is used to assess cardiovascular risk. Low levels of APO A1 are associated with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and are said to predict CAD better then triglycerides and HDL does.

Also Known As: Apo A1 Test, Apo A-1 Test, Apolipoprotein A-1 Test, A-1 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for at least 12 hours is required

When is an Apolipoprotein A1 test ordered?

Apolipoprotein A-I and B, as well as other lipid tests, may be ordered as part of a screening to identify a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apo A-I is a protein that plays a key function in lipid metabolism and is the most abundant protein in HDL, or "good cholesterol." Excess cholesterol in cells is removed by HDL, which transports it to the liver for recycling or elimination. Apo A-I levels tend to rise and fall with HDL levels, and apo A-I deficits are linked to an increased risk of CVD.

What does an Apolipoprotein A1 test check for?

Lipids are transported throughout the bloodstream by apolipoproteins, which mix with them. Lipoproteins are held together by apolipoproteins, which protect the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their core.

Lipoproteins are cholesterol or triglyceride-rich proteins that transport lipids throughout the body for cell absorption. HDL, on the other hand, is like an empty cab. It travels to the tissues to collect excess cholesterol before returning it to the liver. Cholesterol is either recycled for future use or eliminated in bile in the liver. The only mechanism for cells to get rid of excess cholesterol is by HDL reverse transport. It protects the arteries and, if enough HDL is present, it can even reverse the formation of fatty plaques, which are deposits caused by atherosclerosis and can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

The taxi driver is Apolipoprotein A. It permits HDL to be detected and bound by receptors in the liver at the end of the transport by activating the enzymes that load cholesterol from the tissues into HDL. Apolipoprotein A is divided into two types: apo A-I and apo A-II. Apo A-I has a higher prevalence than apo A-II. Apo A-I concentrations can be evaluated directly, and they tend to rise and fall in tandem with HDL levels. Deficiencies in apo A-I are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lab tests often ordered with an Apolipoprotein A1 test:

  • Apolipoprotein B
  • Cholesterol Total
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Homocysteine
  • hs-CRP
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility

Conditions where an Apolipoprotein A1 test is recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Angina
  • Coronary Heart Disease

How does my health care provider use an Apolipoprotein A1 test?

An apo B/apo A-I ratio can be determined by ordering both an apo A-I and an apo B test. To assess the risk of developing CVD, this ratio is sometimes used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

An apo A-I test may be ordered in the following situations:

Assist in the diagnosis of apo A-I deficiency caused by genetic or acquired diseases.

Assist those with a personal or family history of heart disease, high cholesterol, or triglycerides in their blood.

Keep track of how well lifestyle changes and lipid therapies are working.

An apo A-I test can be ordered in conjunction with an apo B test to determine the apo B/apo A-I ratio. This ratio is occasionally used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (which is sometimes included in a lipid profile) to assess the risk of developing CVD.

What do my Apolipoprotein A1 test results mean?

Low apo A-I levels are linked to low HDL levels and slowed elimination of excess cholesterol from the body. Low levels of apo A-I, as well as high levels of apo B, are linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

Deficiencies in apo A-I are caused by a number of hereditary diseases. Abnormal lipid levels, notably excessive amounts of low-density lipoprotein, are common in people with certain illnesses. They frequently have a higher rate of atherosclerosis. Low apo A-I levels are caused by several genetic diseases.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Apo A1 and B is a blood test that measures that amount of Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B in the blood’s serum along with the ratio between B/A1. This test is used to assess cardiovascular risk. Low levels of APO A1 are associated with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and are said to predict CAD better then triglycerides and HDL does.

Also Known As: Apo A1 and B Test, Apo A1 Test, Apo B Test, APOAB Test, Apolipoprotein B-100 Test, Apolipoprotein Evaluation Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for 12 hours is required.

When are Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests ordered?

Apolipoprotein A-I and B, as well as other lipid tests, may be ordered as part of a screening to identify a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apo A-I is a protein that plays a key function in lipid metabolism and is the most abundant protein in HDL, or "good cholesterol." Excess cholesterol in cells is removed by HDL, which transports it to the liver for recycling or elimination. Apo A-I levels tend to rise and fall with HDL levels, and apo A-I deficits are linked to an increased risk of CVD.

Apo B is a protein that plays a role in lipid metabolism and is the major protein component of lipoproteins including VLDL and LDL, popularly known as "bad cholesterol." Apo B concentrations are similar to LDL-C concentrations.

What does Apolipoprotein A1 and B blood tests check for?

Lipids are transported throughout the bloodstream by apolipoproteins, which mix with them. Lipoproteins are held together by apolipoproteins, which protect the water-repellent lipids at their core.

Lipoproteins are cholesterol or triglyceride-rich proteins that transport lipids throughout the body for cell absorption. HDL, on the other hand, is like an empty cab or taxi. It travels to the tissues to collect excess cholesterol before returning it to the liver. Cholesterol is either recycled for future use or eliminated in bile in the liver. The only mechanism for cells to get rid of excess cholesterol is by HDL reverse transport. It protects the arteries and, if enough HDL is present, it can even reverse the formation of fatty plaques, which are deposits caused by atherosclerosis and can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

Sticking with the taxi analogy, the driver is Apolipoprotein A. It permits HDL to be detected and bound by receptors in the liver at the end of the transport by activating the enzymes that load cholesterol from the tissues into HDL. Apolipoprotein A is divided into two types: apo A-I and apo A-II. Apo A-I has a higher prevalence than apo A-II. Apo A-I concentrations can be evaluated directly, and they tend to rise and fall in tandem with HDL levels. Deficiencies in apo A-I are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particles that transport dietary fats from the digestive system to tissue, primarily the liver, via the bloodstream. These dietary lipids are repackaged in the liver and combined with apo B-100 to create triglyceride-rich VLDL. This combo is similar to a taxi with a full load of passengers and apo B-100 as the driver. The taxi moves from place to place in the bloodstream, releasing one passenger at a time.

Triglycerides are removed from VLDL by an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase, which produces intermediate density lipoproteins first, then LDL. VLDL contains one molecule of apo B-100, which is kept as VLDL loses triglycerides and shrinks to become the cholesterol-rich LDL. Apo B-100 is detected by receptors on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. The absorption of cholesterol into cells is aided by these receptors.

LDL and apo B-100 transport cholesterol that is essential for cell membrane integrity, sex hormone generation, and steroid production. Excess LDL, on the other hand, can cause fatty deposits in artery walls, as well as blood vessel hardening and scarring. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty deposits restrict blood arteries. The risk of a heart attack increases as the atherosclerotic process progresses.

LDL-C levels, which are typically ordered as part of a lipid profile, tend to mimic Apo B-100 levels. Many experts believe that apo B levels will eventually show to be a more accurate predictor of CVD risk than LDL-C. Others disagree, believing that vitamin B is only a modestly superior choice and that it should not be used on a regular basis. The clinical utility of apo B, as well as other developing cardiac risk markers including apo A-I, Lp(a), and hs-CRP, is still unknown.

Lab tests often ordered with Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests:

  • Cholesterol Total
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Homocysteine
  • hs-CRP
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility

Conditions where Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests are recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Angina

How does my health care provider use Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests?

An apo B/apo A-I ratio can be determined by ordering both an apo A-I and an apo B test. To assess the risk of developing CVD, this ratio is sometimes used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

An apo A-I test may be ordered in the following situations:

Assist in the diagnosis of apo A-I deficiency caused by genetic or acquired diseases.

Assist those with a personal or family history of heart disease, high cholesterol, or triglycerides in their blood.

Keep track of how well lifestyle changes and lipid therapies are working.

An apo A-I test can be ordered in conjunction with an apo B test to determine the apo B/apo A-I ratio. This ratio is occasionally used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio to assess the risk of developing CVD.

As an alternative to non-HDL-C, Apo B levels may be ordered to assess the success of lipid treatment.

An apo B test may be conducted in rare circumstances to assist determine a genetic issue that causes apo B overproduction or underproduction.

What do my Apolipoprotein A1 and B test results mean?

Low apo A-I levels are linked to low HDL levels and slowed elimination of excess cholesterol from the body. Low levels of apo A-I, as well as high levels of apo B, are linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

Deficiencies in apo A-I are caused by a number of hereditary diseases. Abnormal lipid levels, notably excessive amounts of low-density lipoprotein, are common in people with certain illnesses. They frequently have a higher rate of atherosclerosis. Low apo A-I levels are caused by several genetic diseases.

Raised apo B levels are linked to elevated LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels, and are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevations may be caused by a high-fat diet and/or a reduction in LDL clearance from the blood.

A direct cause of abnormal apo B levels is some hereditary diseases. Familial combined hyperlipidemia, for example, is an inherited condition that causes excessive cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Apolipoprotein B deficiency, also known as Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, is a relatively rare hereditary disorder that results in unusually low amounts of apo B.

A variety of underlying diseases and other factors might result in abnormal apo B levels.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Apolipoprotein B is a blood test that measures that amount of Apolipoprotein B in the blood’s serum. This test is used to assess cardiovascular risk.

Also Known As: Apo B Test, Apolipoprotein B-100 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Apolipoprotein B test ordered?

Apolipoprotein A-I and B, as well as other lipid tests, may be ordered as part of a screening to identify a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apo B is a protein that plays a role in lipid metabolism and is the major protein component of lipoproteins including VLDL and LDL, popularly known as "bad cholesterol." Apo B concentrations are similar to LDL-C concentrations.

What does an Apolipoprotein B blood test check for?

Lipids are transported throughout the bloodstream by apolipoproteins, which mix with them. Lipoproteins are held together by apolipoproteins, which protect the water-repellent lipids at their core.

Lipoproteins are cholesterol or triglyceride-rich proteins that transport lipids throughout the body for cell absorption. HDL, on the other hand, is like an empty cab. It travels to the tissues to collect excess cholesterol before returning it to the liver. Cholesterol is either recycled for future use or eliminated in bile in the liver. The only mechanism for cells to get rid of excess cholesterol is by HDL reverse transport. It protects the arteries and, if enough HDL is present, it can even reverse the formation of fatty plaques, which are deposits caused by atherosclerosis and can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particles that transport dietary fats from the digestive system to tissue, primarily the liver, via the bloodstream. These dietary lipids are repackaged in the liver and combined with apo B-100 to create triglyceride-rich VLDL. This combo is similar to a taxi with a full load of passengers and apo B-100 as the driver. The taxi moves from place to place in the bloodstream, releasing one passenger at a time.

Triglycerides are removed from VLDL by an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase, which produces intermediate density lipoproteins first, then LDL. VLDL contains one molecule of apo B-100, which is kept as VLDL loses triglycerides and shrinks to become the cholesterol-rich LDL. Apo B-100 is detected by receptors on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. The absorption of cholesterol into cells is aided by these receptors.

LDL and apo B-100 transport cholesterol that is essential for cell membrane integrity, sex hormone generation, and steroid production. Excess LDL, on the other hand, can cause fatty deposits in artery walls, as well as blood vessel hardening and scarring. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty deposits restrict blood arteries. The risk of a heart attack increases as the atherosclerotic process progresses.

LDL-C levels, which are typically ordered as part of a lipid profile, tend to mimic Apo B-100 levels. Many experts believe that apo B levels will eventually show to be a more accurate predictor of CVD risk than LDL-C. Others disagree, believing that vitamin B is only a modestly superior choice and that it should not be used on a regular basis. The clinical utility of apo B, as well as other developing cardiac risk markers including apo A-I, Lp(a), and hs-CRP, is still unknown.

Lab tests often ordered with an Apolipoprotein B test:

  • Apolipoprotein A1
  • Cholesterol Total
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Homocysteine
  • hs-CRP
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility

Conditions where an Apolipoprotein B test is recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Angina

How does my health care provider use an Apolipoprotein B test?

An apo B/apo A-I ratio can be determined by ordering both an apo A-I and an apo B test. To assess the risk of developing CVD, this ratio is sometimes used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

As an alternative to non-HDL-C, Apo B levels may be ordered to assess the success of lipid treatment.

An apo B test may be conducted in rare circumstances to assist determine a genetic issue that causes apo B overproduction or underproduction.

What do my Apolipoprotein B test results mean?

Raised apo B levels are linked to elevated LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels, and are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevations may be caused by a high-fat diet and/or a reduction in LDL clearance from the blood.

A direct cause of abnormal apo B levels is some hereditary diseases. Familial combined hyperlipidemia, for example, is an inherited condition that causes excessive cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Apolipoprotein B deficiency, also known as Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, is a relatively rare hereditary disorder that results in unusually low amounts of apo B.

A variety of underlying diseases and other factors might result in abnormal apo B levels.

Is apoB a heart disease risk factor? 
The markers of particle number, apoB, or LDL particle number were better at predicting the risk of heart disease than LDL-C.

There are two major forms of Apolipoprotein B, B-100 and B-48. B-100, synthesized in the liver, is the major protein in VLDL, IDL, and LDL cholesterol. B-48, synthesized in the intestines, is essential for the assembly and secretion of chylomicrons. Patients with increased concentrations of Apolipoprotein B are at increased risk of atherosclerosis.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The BNP test measures levels of B-Type Natriuretic peptide in your blood plasma to detect heart failure.

Also Known As: Brain Natriuretic Peptide Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a B-Type Natriuretic Peptide test ordered?

When a person exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate heart failure, a doctor may request a BNP test.

When someone is in a crisis or has symptoms that could be due to heart failure, testing may be done in the emergency room to identify if they have heart failure or another medical problem.

When a person is being treated for heart failure, several BNP tests may be performed throughout time to track the effects of the treatment.

What does a B-Type Natriuretic Peptide blood test check for?

N-terminal propeptide and B-type natriuretic peptide are chemicals created and released when the heart is strained and working hard to pump blood. BNP and NT-proBNP tests are used to detect and evaluate heart failure by measuring their levels in the blood.

Because it was first discovered in brain tissue, BNP was given the name brain natriuretic peptide. The left ventricle of the heart is the primary producer of BNP. It has to do with blood volume and pressure, as well as the amount of work the heart has to do in pumping blood around the body. The heart produces small amounts of a precursor protein called pro-BNP on a regular basis. The enzyme corin then cleaves pro-BNP, releasing the active hormone BNP and an inactive fragment, NT-proBNP, into the bloodstream.

When the heart’s left ventricle is stretched, the levels of BNP and NT-proBNP generated rise dramatically. This signifies that the heart is working harder and having more difficulty keeping up with the needs of the body. This might happen as a result of heart failure or other disorders that affect the heart and circulatory system. The term “heart failure” can be deceptive. It doesn’t mean the heart has stopped beating; it simply indicates it isn’t pumping blood as efficiently as it should be. This reduced capacity will be reflected in an increase in circulating BNP or NT-proBNP.

Lab tests often ordered with a B-Type Natriuretic Peptide test:

  • Troponin I
  • Creatine Kinase (CK)
  • Myoglobin
  • Hs-CRP
  • NT-proBNP
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Electrolytes
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Conditions where a B-Type Natriuretic Peptide test is recommended:

  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Heart Disease
  • Angina
  • Heart Attack
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome

How does my health care provider use a B-Type Natriuretic Peptide test?

B-type natriuretic peptide testing is most commonly used to identify, diagnose, and assess the severity of heart failure. It can be used in conjunction with other cardiac biomarker tests to detect heart stress and damage, or it can be used in conjunction with lung function tests to differentiate between causes of shortness of breath. X-rays of the chest and an ultrasound test called echocardiogram may be used.

Heart failure can be misdiagnosed as other illnesses, and it can coexist with them. BNP levels can aid doctors in distinguishing between heart failure and other issues like pulmonary illness. Because the therapies are typically diverse and must be started as soon as possible, a precise diagnosis is critical.

Although BNP is commonly used to detect heart failure, an elevated level in those who have had an acute coronary syndrome implies a higher risk of repeat episodes. As a result, a health care provider can use BNP to assess the risk of a future cardiac attack in someone who has ACS.

What do my BNP test results mean?

Higher-than-normal results indicate that a person has heart failure, and the level of BNP in the blood is linked to the severity of the condition. BNP levels beyond a certain threshold are generally linked to a poor prognosis.

The person's symptoms are most likely caused by anything other than heart failure if the results are normal.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Basic Metabolic Panel is a blood test used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease.  

Also Known As: BMP, Chemistry Panel, Chemistry Screen, Chem 7, Chem 11, BMP Test, SMA 7, SMAC7, Basic Metabolic Test, Chem Test, Chem Panel Test 

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Serum 

Test Preparation: 9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Basic Metabolic Panel test ordered?  

A BMP may be requested as part of a standard physical examination. 

The panel is frequently ordered in hospital emergency rooms because its components provide vital information regarding a person's renal state, electrolyte and acid/base balance, blood glucose, and calcium levels. Significant changes in these test results can suggest serious issues such as renal failure, insulin shock or diabetic coma, respiratory distress, or abnormalities in heart rhythm. 

What does a Basic Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a 9-test panel that provides essential information to a health practitioner about a person's current metabolic status, including kidney health, blood glucose level, electrolyte and acid/base balance. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the BMP test: 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. Calcium is also used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Basic Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Insulin
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Basic Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes 
  • Kidney Disease 
  • Liver Disease 

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Basic Metabolic Panel test? 

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is used to evaluate a person's kidney function, electrolyte, acid/base balance, and blood glucose level, all of which are linked to their metabolism. It can also be used to keep track of hospitalized patients and persons with known illnesses like hypertension and hypokalemia. 

If a health practitioner wants to track two or more separate BMP components, the full BMP might be ordered because it contains more information. Alternatively, when monitoring, the healthcare provider may order specific tests, such as a follow-up glucose, potassium, or calcium test, or an electrolyte panel to track sodium, potassium, chloride, and CO2. If a doctor needs further information, he or she can request a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), which is a collection of 21 tests that includes the BMP. 

What do my Basic Metabolic Panel results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the BMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. 

Out-of-range results on any of the BMP's tests can be caused by a number of things, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related consequences. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

The results of the BMP components can be influenced by a range of prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide them with a thorough medical history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


Description: A hs-CRP or High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein test is a blood test used to accurately detect lower concentrations of the protein C-Reactive Protein. This test is used to evaluate your risk of cardiovascular and heart disease and to check for inflammation and many other issues.

Also Known As: hsCRP Test, Cardiac CRP Test, high sensitivity C-reactive protein Test, CRP Test for heart disease.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a hs-CRP test ordered?

There is currently no consensus on when to get an hs-CRP test. It may be beneficial for treatment purposes to order hs-CRP for those that have kidney disease, diabetes or inflammatory disorders.

It's possible that hs-CRP will be tested again to confirm that a person has persistently low levels of inflammation.

What does a hs-CRP blood test check for?

C-reactive protein is a protein found in the blood that rises in response to infection and inflammation, as well as after trauma, surgery, or a heart attack. As a result, it's one of numerous proteins referred to as acute phase reactants. The high-sensitivity CRP test detects low levels of inflammation in the blood, which are linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

According to the American Heart Association, CVD kills more people in the United States each year than any other cause. A number of risk factors have been related to the development of CVD, including family history, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, being overweight or diabetic, however a considerable number of people with few or no recognized risk factors will also acquire CVD. This has prompted researchers to investigate for new risk variables that could be causing CVD or could be used to identify lifestyle modifications and/or treatments that could lower a person's risk.

High-sensitivity CRP is one of an increasing number of cardiac risk markers that may be used to assess an individual's risk. According to certain research, monitoring CRP with a highly sensitive assay can assist identify the risk level for CVD in persons who appear to be healthy. CRP levels at the higher end of the reference range can be measured with this more sensitive test. Even when cholesterol levels are within an acceptable range, these normal but slightly elevated levels of CRP in otherwise healthy persons might indicate the future risk of a heart attack, sudden cardiac death, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Lab tests often ordered with a hs-CRP test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Lipid Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lp-Pla2
  • Glucose

Conditions where a hs-CRP test is recommended:

  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Stroke

How does my health care provider use a hs-CRP test?

A test for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein can be used to assess a person's risk of cardiovascular disease. It can be used in conjunction with a lipid profile or other cardiac risk markers, such as the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 test, to provide further information regarding the risk of heart disease.

CRP is a protein that rises in the bloodstream as a result of inflammation. A continuous low level of inflammation, according to studies, plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis, the narrowing of blood vessels caused by the build-up of cholesterol and other lipids, which is typically linked to CVD. The hs-CRP test successfully detects low levels of C-reactive protein, indicating low but chronic inflammation, and so aids in predicting a person's risk of developing CVD.

Some specialists believe that high-sensitivity CRP is a good test for assessing CVD, heart attacks, and stroke risk, and that it can help in the evaluation process before a person gets one of these health problems. Some experts believe that combining a good marker for inflammation, such as hs-CRP, with a lipid profile is the best way to predict risk. This test has been recommended by several organizations for persons who are at a moderate risk of having a heart attack in the following ten years.

What does my hs-CRP test result mean?

Even when cholesterol levels are within an acceptable range, high levels of hs-CRP in otherwise healthy people have been found to predict an elevated risk of future heart attacks, strokes, sudden cardiac death, and/or peripheral arterial disease.

Higher hs-CRP concentrations indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, while lower values indicate a lower risk. Individuals with hs-CRP values at the high end of the normal range are 1.5 to 4 times more likely than those with low levels of hs-CRP to have a heart attack.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: A Calcium test is a blood test that is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a wide range of medical conditions.

Also Known As: Ca Test, Serum Calcium Test, Calcium Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Calcium test ordered?

A blood calcium test is frequently requested during a general medical evaluation. It's usually part of the comprehensive metabolic panel or the basic metabolic panel, two sets of tests that can be done during an initial evaluation or as part of a routine medical checks.

Many people do not experience symptoms of high or low calcium until their levels are dangerously high or low.

When a person has certain types of cancer, kidney illness, or has had a kidney transplant, calcium monitoring may be required. When someone is being treated for abnormal calcium levels, monitoring may be required to determine the effectiveness of medications such as calcium or vitamin D supplements.

What does a Calcium blood test check for?

Calcium is one of the most plentiful and vital minerals in the human body. It is required for cell signaling as well as the proper operation of muscles, nerves, and the heart. Calcium is essential for blood clotting as well as bone growth, density, and maintenance. This test determines how much calcium is present in the blood.

Calcium is found complexed in the bones for 99 percent of the time, while the remaining 1% circulates in the blood. Calcium levels are closely monitored; if too little is absorbed or consumed, or if too much is lost through the kidney or stomach, calcium is removed from bone to keep blood concentrations stable. Approximately half of the calcium in the blood is metabolically active and "free." The other half is "bound" to albumin, with a minor proportion complexed to anions like phosphate, and both of these forms are metabolically inactive.

Blood calcium can be measured using two different tests. The free and bound forms of calcium are measured in the total calcium test. Only the free, physiologically active form of calcium is measured in the ionized calcium test.

Lab tests often ordered with a Calcium test:

  • Phosphorus
  • Vitamin D
  • Magnesium
  • PTH
  • Albumin
  • Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

Conditions where a Calcium test is recommended:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Thyroid Disease
  • Alcoholism
  • Malnutrition
  • Parathyroid Diseases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Multiple Myeloma

How does my health care provider use a Calcium test?

A blood calcium test is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of bone, heart, nerve, kidney, and tooth disorders. If a person has signs of a parathyroid disease, malabsorption, or an overactive thyroid, the test may be ordered.

A total calcium level is frequently checked as part of a standard health check. It's part of the comprehensive metabolic panel and the basic metabolic panel, which are both collections of tests used to diagnose or monitor a range of ailments.

When a total calcium result is abnormal, it is interpreted as a sign of an underlying disease. Additional tests to assess ionized calcium, urine calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and PTH-related peptide are frequently performed to assist determine the underlying problem. PTH and vitamin D are in charge of keeping calcium levels in the blood within a narrow range of values.

Measuring calcium and PTH combined can assist identify whether the parathyroid glands are functioning normally if the calcium is abnormal. Testing for vitamin D, phosphorus, and/or magnesium can assist evaluate whether the kidneys are excreting the right amount of calcium, and measuring urine calcium can help detect whether additional deficits or excesses exist. The balance of these many compounds is frequently just as critical as their concentrations.

The total calcium test is the most common test used to determine calcium status. Because the balance between free and bound calcium is usually constant and predictable, it is a reliable reflection of the quantity of free calcium present in the blood in most cases. However, the balance between bound and free calcium is altered in some persons, and total calcium is not a good indicator of calcium status. Ionized calcium measurement may be required in certain cases. Critically sick patients, those receiving blood transfusions or intravenous fluids, patients undergoing major surgery, and persons with blood protein disorders such low albumin are all candidates for ionized calcium testing.

What do my Calcium test results mean?

The amount of calcium circulating in the blood is not the same as the amount of calcium in the bones.

A feedback loop including PTH and vitamin D regulates and stabilizes calcium uptake, utilization, and excretion. Conditions and disorders that disturb calcium control can induce abnormal acute or chronic calcium elevations or declines, resulting in hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia symptoms.

Total calcium is usually tested instead of ionized calcium since it is easier to do and requires no additional treatment of the blood sample. Because the free and bound forms of calcium make up about half of the total, total calcium is usually a decent depiction of free calcium. Because nearly half of the calcium in blood is bonded to protein, high or low protein levels might alter total calcium test findings. In these circumstances, an ionized calcium test is more appropriate for measuring free calcium.

A normal total or ionized calcium test, when combined with other normal laboratory findings, indicates that a person's calcium metabolism is normal and blood levels are properly managed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous potentially serious disorders associated with changes in body acid-base balance.

Cardio IQ® Lipoprotein Subfractionation, Ion Mobility

Clinical Significance

There is a correlation between increased risk of premature heart disease with decreasing size of LDL particles. Ion mobility offers the only direct measurement of lipoprotein particle size and concentration for each lipoprotein from HDL3 to large VLDL.

Includes

HDL Particle Number; LDL Particle Number; Non-HDL Particle Number; HDL, Small; HDL Large; LDL, Very Small-d; LDL, Very Small-c; LDL, Very Small-b; LDL, Very Small-a; LDL Small; LDL Medium; LDL, Large-b; LDL, Large-a; IDL, Small; IDL, Large; VLDL, Small; VLDL, Medium; VLDL, Large; LDL Pattern; LDL Peak Size

Patient Preparation

Fasting preferred

Methodology

Ion Mobility

 



High blood pressure is a perfect example of "silent but deadly." It doesn't show symptoms until later stages when it's already done significant harm to your health and body. 

 And to make it worse, high blood pressure is more common than ever, and due to in-clinic medical costs, people are going to the doctor less often - which means they don't get diagnosed or receive the proper monitoring and control.

One out of every three adults has high blood pressure in the US. Worried that you or a loved one are one of them? Read about risk factors and what affordable tests you can order to test your exposure below. 

High Blood Pressure Symptoms 

Like we said above, by the time you have noticeable symptoms, like the few below, your high blood pressure is doing significant damage to your body. 

You may have advanced high blood pressure and correlating health issues if you often have: 

  • Nosebleeds 
  • Unexplained stomach issues
  • Shortness of breath
  • Increased heart rate 
  • High cholesterol levels 

Since high blood pressure symptoms can lie dormant for so long, it's better to determine your diagnosis and risk as soon as possible. See if you identify with any of the risk factors for developing high blood pressure below. 

Risk Factors 

Risk factors don't determine whether or not you contract a disease. They're simply factors that make developing that disease more likely. 

These factors are also cumulative, meaning the more you have, the higher your risk is. If you find yourself represented in two or more elements below, order a screening test now. 

Age Sex 

Blood pressure rises with age. It's natural and expected, but something to keep an eye on. Men have a higher risk of high blood pressure than women before age 64, but women's risk starts to catch up around age 65.

Race 

Though many studies have suggested that high blood pressure in African Americans is due more to socioeconomic differences and stresses than differentiating physical characteristics, people of color are more likely to have high blood pressure and correlating complications. 

Family History 

Worried you're at risk for high blood pressure? Take a look at your family tree. Like many other biological conditions and illnesses, blood pressure risk can be passed from generation to generation. 

If you don't know about your parent's health and can't ask them, you can be the first generation to discover genetic risk. 

Being Overweight or Obese 

The more you weigh, the harder your body must work to complete daily and regulatory functions. High blood pressure is sensitive to stress, including the biological stresses being overweight puts on your systems. 

Losing weight is an effective way to lower high blood pressure and reduce the risk of developing it in the future. 

Not Being Active 

Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle go hand in hand. So, it shouldn't be surprising that not getting enough exercise, even if it's something as simple as walking, is related to high blood pressure. 

Eating better, losing weight, and moving around more are lifestyle changes that can reduce your risk.  

Smoking 

If you're an adult who smokes, you're at a higher risk for a large number of health issues. High blood pressure is one of them - even if it's second-hand smoke. 

If you've been looking for a reason to quit, here's another one: smoking is bad for your heart. 

A Sodium-Filled Diet 

Americans eat about 50% more sodium, on average, than is medically recommended. Salt causes your body to retain fluid, which raises your blood pressure. 

Eating more whole foods and cooking your meals is an excellent way to reduce sodium intake. 

Too Little Potassium 

Even if you were eating the recommended amount of salt, you're still putting yourself at risk if you're not getting enough potassium. 

Potassium helps the body process (get rid of) salt, and when there's not enough, sodium stays in the body, keeping your blood pressure higher for longer. 

Alcohol 

Having more than one drink a day for women and more than two a day for men can raise your risk of developing high blood pressure. 

Drink responsibly and make sure you watch your serving sizes - your heart health will thank you. 

Stress 

High blood pressure is directly related to high levels of stress. When you're stressed, your body essentially reverts to the primal fight-or-flight mode, which keeps you on high alert. 

Your body isn't made to stay in that highly-alert stage for more than a few minutes at a time without long periods of relaxation in between. 

When you're overstressed or stressed often, it tires out your body and causes it to produce more of the stress hormone cortisol.

Cortisol is linked to high blood pressure, weight gain/the inability to lose weight, trouble sleeping, mental disorders, and many other unpleasant side effects. 

Making time to unwind and relax won't just reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure; it could change your life. 

Chronic Conditions 

If you have a chronic illness, such as diabetes, kidney disease, or sleep apnea (which are all correlated with being overweight or sedentary), you're at a higher risk of high blood pressure at well. 

Thankfully, those managing other chronic conditions are more likely to see their doctor often and get diagnosed or warned about blood pressure levels before the general public. It's a little bit of a silver lining. 

Do you have more than two of the risk factors above? Worried you already have or are at risk for high blood pressure? You can order tests from the comfort of your own home. 

Learn which tests to order (and what the results mean) below. 

Lab Tests for High Blood Pressure 

You can do things to lower your risk of developing high blood pressure and reduce already high levels - but you can't do them if you don't know! Get clued in by ordering your cardiovascular lab tests and knowing your health.

1. Lipid Panel with Ratios 

Lipids are fat-like substances in your body that make up and communicate between cells. This test takes a sample of the lipids in your blood and looks at the different levels of each type. 

While a lipid panel will give you a blood pressure reading like an arm cuff would, it will tell you if you have high cholesterol, which is correlated with high blood pressure and increases your risk of heart disease. 

2. Apolipoprotein B

Apo B is a substance that metabolizes other lipids (like cholesterol), helping them stay at healthy levels in your blood. Apo-B's deficiency shows a higher risk for high blood pressure and heart disease. 

Order this test if you have a family history of heart disease or suspect you do.

3. C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP)

This test is usually ordered in combination with other heart-disease-related tests and is associated with the amount of infection or inflammation in the blood. 

Those with atherosclerosis, which is a side effect of high cholesterol, are likely to have a high level of CRP, which gives doctors a reason to suspect high blood pressure risk. 

4. Lipoprotein Subfraction Analysis 

We've talked a little about lipids, and lipoproteins are similar but not identical. However, like lipids, they can educate us about heart disease and high blood pressure risks. 

This test uses gel electrophoresis to separate different lipoproteins found in the blood look at their sizes, levels, and classes. 

Results from this test can show heightened cholesterol levels (a blood pressure risk) and identifiers of other lipid disorders. 

5. Lipoprotein A 

This is another test to order if you have or suspect a family history of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, it's often ordered after a heart attack, stroke, or if your doctor suspects you have high cholesterol. 

It's often ordered in combination with a lipid panel or some of the tests above.  

6. Fibrinogen

If your doctor is worried about frequent nosebleeds (a progressed symptom of high blood pressure), your risk of life-threatening blood clots, or any bleeding disorders, they'll order a Fibrinogen test

It looks at the coagulation of your blood, how well it clots, and the amount of functional and dysfunctional Fribrinogen in your blood. 

Your test results will translate what these levels mean for your health included. 

7. CBC 

There are tens, if not hundreds, of reasons to order a CBC or a complete blood count test. It's a part of routine medical exams if your doctor suspects any blood-related disorders. 

That could be anything from cholesterol, anemia, unexplained inflammation, or tracking treatments for long-term diseases like HIV and cancer. 

Our test includes both platelets and differential counts, but not all do - so double check before you order; it'll save you money in the long run. 

8. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel 

No process in your body operates separately from another. That's to say that your metabolic hormones are relevant when assessing heart disease, just as they're relevant when looking at something separate, like unexplained weight gain. 

This panel will give you results, including 

  • Glucose
  • Calcium
  • Protein levels
  • Sodium
  • Potassium 
  • Carbon dioxide 
  • Kidney disease tests
  • Liver tests 
  • Electrolyte levels 

If you're going to get anyone a comprehensive test, this is the one to purchase. You're getting ten or more tests for the price of one, even if that price is higher than other tests on this list. 

If you recall, sodium levels, potassium levels, and kidney issues are all risk factors for developing high blood pressure. 

9. Apolipoprotein A1

There are two types of cholesterol. HDL is "good" or "protective," and LDL, which is a health risk. This test measures the amount of good cholesterol in your blood. 

Having more Apolipoprotein A1 is a protective factor, which can reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure. Order an APO AI screening here

10. Complete Urinalysis 

If your doctor suspects you have kidney issues related to high blood pressure, they'll order a urinalysis. This is one of the most uncomplicated and painless tests to order.

With this test, you can learn if you're at risk for kidney disorders and, therefore, high blood pressure.  

11. Cortisol

We touched on what cortisol does in the body above. It's a stress hormone, and it's related to a host of unpleasant health issues. 

Higher cortisol issues put you at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular problems, including (but not limited to) high blood pressure. Learn how you're managing your stress by ordering this total Cortisol test here. 

12. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone 

If you're experiencing shortness of breath and a rapid heart rate, it could be high blood pressure or hyperthyroidism. 

Running a TSH test will help figure out which of these likely causes are behind your symptoms, and your doctor can suggest treatment from there.

13. Lp-PLA2

Another lipid-related test, an LP-PLA2, tests your phospholipase A2 enzyme levels. Too much can be indicative of inflammation, especially atherosclerosis.

This is a general cardiovascular disease risk screening test, perfect for those wanting to learn about their general heart health, who don't have a specific disorder they want to test for in mind. Order this test here.

14. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio 

Albumin is a protein in your blood that gets filtered out in the kidneys. If your kidneys are functioning well and don't have kidney problems, diabetes, or high blood pressure, there should be almost none in your urine. 

Finding albumin in the urine is indicative of the above problems. Creatinine is a standard urine component, and normal levels suggest a healthy metabolic system. See how your kidneys are faring by testing your ALB levels now. 

15. APOE Genotyping 

APOE tests help us better understand how an individual's cardiovascular genetic factors are represented. 

The screening looks for different alleles (e2, e3, e4 on chromosome 19q3.2) genetic components related to cardiovascular disease risk, including high cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Ordering High Blood Pressure Tests Online 

There you have it, 15 tests you can order if you suspect you're at risk for high blood pressure or want a range of general health indicators. If you're tired of waiting around at the doctor or have restrictive copays, our services can help. 

The process is simple. You order the test online, have the test done at any one of thousands of different professional diagnostic testing centers, and review your test results typically in 1 to 2 days after your blood is collected. We'll notify you when they're ready, and you'll find everything you need in your private health portal. You can then share these results with your doctor or loved ones. 

It's better to know when it comes to assessing your high blood pressure risk and status!