The Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test contains 1 test with 4 biomarkers.
Description: The ApoE Genotype test is used to identify which Apolipoprotein E Genotype a patient has to determine the patient’s cardiovascular risk and lipid metabolism.
Also Known As: ApoE Cardiac Risk Test, ApoE Cardiovascular Disease Test, Apolipoprotein E Test, Apo E Test, ApoE Protein Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Whole Blood
Test Preparation: No preparation required
Average Processing Time: 6 to 7 days
When is an ApoE Genotype test ordered?
APOE genotyping is requested as a test to assess cardiovascular risk or lipid metabolism in those who have:
- Levels of cholesterol and triglycerides that are significantly increased and do not go down as a result of dietary and lifestyle adjustments
- A physician who is interested in determining whether a person may be more at risk for developing early heart disease because family members have APOE e2/e2
- Xanthomas, which are yellowish skin lesions, are suspected to be type III hyperlipoproteinemia by the medical professional.
What does an ApoE Genotype test check for?
A protein called apolipoprotein E aids in the movement of lipids through the blood. It can transfer lipids to cells for utilization or storage as well as extra lipid to the liver for excretion because it is recognized by particular cell surface receptors.
There are three genetic variants of the apoE protein, each of which has a slightly different structure. ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 are their names. While ApoE3 and ApoE4 bind strongly to those receptors, cell surface receptors do not identify ApoE2 very well. Since poor binding of ApoE2 to receptors impairs transport from blood to cells, patients with ApoE2 typically have higher blood lipid levels.
e2, e3, and e4 are three distinct genes that, respectively, code for ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4. Each parent contributes one allele to the individual. Homozygous individuals are those who inherit the same allele from both parents (e2/e2, e3/e3, or e4/e4). Heterozygous individuals are those who have multiple alleles, such as e2/e3, e2/e4, or e3/e4.
A person's DNA is examined as part of the APOE genotyping test to ascertain which APOE forms are present.
The most prevalent genotype of APOE, e3/e3, is regarded as "neutral." Disease risks are calculated in relation to the e3/e3 population.
A higher risk of atherosclerosis is linked to APOE e4, which is present in 25% of the population. When eating a diet high in saturated fat, individuals with certain genotypes may be prone to considerably higher levels of LDL-C and triglycerides.
Those who carry the APOE e2 allele typically have higher triglycerides but lower LDL-C values. Type III hyperlipoproteinemia/hyperlipidemia, a rare genetic condition that results in xanthomas, which are fatty yellow deposits on the skin, elevated triglyceride levels in the blood, and early-onset atherosclerosis, is also linked to APOE e2. With the e2/e2 genotype, type III hyperlipoproteinemia/hyperlipidemia only occurs in roughly 2% of individuals.
Lab tests often ordered with an ApoE Genotype test:
- Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility
- Lipid Panel
- Apolipoprotein A1
- Apolipoprotein B
- Lipoprotein (a)
Conditions where an ApoE Genotype test is recommended:
- Cardiovascular Disease
How does my health care provider use an ApoE Genotype test?
APOE genotyping is typically carried out in research settings, but it can also be applied in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis and management of increased lipid levels.
When a person exhibits symptoms suggestive of type III hyperlipoproteinemia, APOE testing may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the risk of the problem in other family members. This uncommon genetic condition results in xanthomas, which are fatty, yellowish skin deposits, elevated blood triglyceride levels, and early-onset atherosclerosis.
The APOE genotyping procedure has the potential to direct lipid therapy. Statins are typically regarded as the therapy of choice in situations of high cholesterol and triglyceride levels to lower the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The APOE genotype, however, has some bearing on the broad variation in response to these lipid-lowering medications. The full clinical utility of this kind of information is still not fully recognized at this time.
What do my ApoE Genotype test results mean?
Genotype e3/e3 of APOE is the most prevalent. Since APOE e3 is linked to "normal" lipid metabolism, it is possible that it has no hereditary bearing on the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease.
A higher risk of atherosclerosis is linked to APOE e4, which is present in 25% of the population. When eating a diet high in saturated fat, people with certain genotypes may be prone to considerably higher levels of LDL-C and triglycerides.
People who carry the APOE e2/e2 allele typically have higher triglycerides but lower LDL-C values. Type III hyperlipidemia and hyperlipoproteinemia are both linked to APOE e2. Although those who carry the APOE e2/e2 genotype are more likely to experience early vascular disease, they may never experience disease. If symptoms are present, e2/e2 can assist confirm type III hyperlipoproteinemia and APOE genotyping adds more information.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.