The Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test contains 1 test with 4 biomarkers.
Brief Description: The Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test is a sophisticated genetic assay that delves into the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene, a key player in lipid metabolism. This advanced test provides critical insights into an individual's genetic predisposition to certain cardiovascular conditions and plays a pivotal role in shaping tailored preventive strategies.
Also Known As: ApoE Cardiac Risk Test, ApoE Cardiovascular Disease Test, Apolipoprotein E Test, Apo E Test, ApoE Protein Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Whole Blood
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When is an ApoE Genotype test ordered?
APOE genotyping is requested as a test to assess cardiovascular risk or lipid metabolism in those who have:
- Levels of cholesterol and triglycerides that are significantly increased and do not go down as a result of dietary and lifestyle adjustments
- A physician who is interested in determining whether a person may be more at risk for developing early heart disease because family members have APOE e2/e2
- Xanthomas, which are yellowish skin lesions, are suspected to be type III hyperlipoproteinemia by the medical professional.
What does an ApoE Genotype test check for?
A protein called apolipoprotein E aids in the movement of lipids through the blood. It can transfer lipids to cells for utilization or storage as well as extra lipid to the liver for excretion because it is recognized by particular cell surface receptors.
There are three genetic variants of the apoE protein, each of which has a slightly different structure. ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 are their names. While ApoE3 and ApoE4 bind strongly to those receptors, cell surface receptors do not identify ApoE2 very well. Since poor binding of ApoE2 to receptors impairs transport from blood to cells, patients with ApoE2 typically have higher blood lipid levels.
e2, e3, and e4 are three distinct genes that, respectively, code for ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4. Each parent contributes one allele to the individual. Homozygous individuals are those who inherit the same allele from both parents (e2/e2, e3/e3, or e4/e4). Heterozygous individuals are those who have multiple alleles, such as e2/e3, e2/e4, or e3/e4.
A person's DNA is examined as part of the APOE genotyping test to ascertain which APOE forms are present.
The most prevalent genotype of APOE, e3/e3, is regarded as "neutral." Disease risks are calculated in relation to the e3/e3 population.
A higher risk of atherosclerosis is linked to APOE e4, which is present in 25% of the population. When eating a diet high in saturated fat, individuals with certain genotypes may be prone to considerably higher levels of LDL-C and triglycerides.
Those who carry the APOE e2 allele typically have higher triglycerides but lower LDL-C values. Type III hyperlipoproteinemia/hyperlipidemia, a rare genetic condition that results in xanthomas, which are fatty yellow deposits on the skin, elevated triglyceride levels in the blood, and early-onset atherosclerosis, is also linked to APOE e2. With the e2/e2 genotype, type III hyperlipoproteinemia/hyperlipidemia only occurs in roughly 2% of individuals.
Lab tests often ordered with an ApoE Genotype test:
- Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility
- Lipid Panel
- Apolipoprotein A1
- Apolipoprotein B
- Lipoprotein (a)
Conditions where an ApoE Genotype test is recommended:
The Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test is particularly valuable for individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, especially those influenced by lipid metabolism and genetics. It's recommended for people with a family history of heart disease, individuals with high cholesterol levels, and those seeking personalized guidance on preventive measures.
How does my health care provider use an ApoE Genotype test?
APOE genotyping is typically carried out in research settings, but it can also be applied in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis and management of increased lipid levels.
When a person exhibits symptoms suggestive of type III hyperlipoproteinemia, APOE testing may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the risk of the problem in other family members. This uncommon genetic condition results in xanthomas, which are fatty, yellowish skin deposits, elevated blood triglyceride levels, and early-onset atherosclerosis.
The APOE genotyping procedure has the potential to direct lipid therapy. Statins are typically regarded as the therapy of choice in situations of high cholesterol and triglyceride levels to lower the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The APOE genotype, however, has some bearing on the broad variation in response to these lipid-lowering medications. The full clinical utility of this kind of information is still not fully recognized at this time.
What do my ApoE Genotype test results mean?
Genotype e3/e3 of APOE is the most prevalent. Since APOE e3 is linked to "normal" lipid metabolism, it is possible that it has no hereditary bearing on the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease.
A higher risk of atherosclerosis is linked to APOE e4, which is present in 25% of the population. When eating a diet high in saturated fat, people with certain genotypes may be prone to considerably higher levels of LDL-C and triglycerides.
People who carry the APOE e2/e2 allele typically have higher triglycerides but lower LDL-C values. Type III hyperlipidemia and hyperlipoproteinemia are both linked to APOE e2. Although those who carry the APOE e2/e2 genotype are more likely to experience early vascular disease, they may never experience disease. If symptoms are present, e2/e2 can assist confirm type III hyperlipoproteinemia and APOE genotyping adds more information.
Most Common Questions About the Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test:
Functionality and Clinical Relevance
What is the primary purpose of the Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test?
The Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test is designed to identify specific genetic variations in the ApoE gene. These variations are associated with differing risks for cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, as well as varied responses to dietary fats and certain medications. By knowing an individual's ApoE genotype, personalized strategies for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases can be devised.
How does the Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test contribute to understanding cardiovascular risks?
The ApoE gene provides instructions for making a protein that is important in metabolizing cholesterol and fats. Different variations or genotypes of this gene can affect the way the body processes cholesterol, thereby influencing the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The test helps in identifying these genotypes, thus giving a clearer picture of an individual's genetic predisposition to certain cardiovascular risks.
What is the clinical significance of identifying different ApoE genotypes?
There are several different genotypes one can have for the ApoE gene, notably E2/E2, E3/E3, E4/E4, E2/E3, E2/E4, and E3/E4. Each genotype has its associated risks and metabolic features. For example, individuals with the E4 variant may have an increased risk of high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Recognizing these genotypes can aid clinicians in creating a more targeted approach to patient care, including dietary recommendations and pharmacological treatments.
Genetic Implications and Interpretation
Can the Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test predict other health conditions beyond cardiovascular diseases?
While the primary focus of the test is to ascertain cardiovascular risks, ApoE genotypes, especially the E4 variant, have been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline. This makes the test valuable not just for cardiovascular assessment but also for neurocognitive health considerations.
What does it mean if an individual is found to have the E4 variant in the Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test?
Possession of the E4 variant of the ApoE gene, either from one (heterozygous) or both parents (homozygous), is associated with an increased risk of high cholesterol levels, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and Alzheimer's disease. It's essential to note that having the E4 variant does not guarantee the onset of these conditions but rather suggests a genetic predisposition. Lifestyle, environment, and other genetic factors also play crucial roles in disease manifestation.
How do ApoE genotypes influence response to dietary fats?
Different ApoE genotypes metabolize dietary fats differently. For example, individuals with the E4 genotype might experience a more significant rise in LDL (bad) cholesterol when consuming saturated fats compared to those with the E2 or E3 genotypes. Therefore, understanding one's ApoE genotype can guide dietary choices to optimize heart health.
Is it possible for family members to have different results in the Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test?
Yes, it's possible. The ApoE genotype is inherited, with one allele coming from each parent. Depending on the genotypes of the parents, siblings might inherit different combinations of alleles, leading to different ApoE genotypes.
Remember, while the Cardio IQ™ ApoE Genotype test provides valuable information on genetic predisposition, it is just one tool among many in assessing cardiovascular and overall health risks. Combining this genetic information with other clinical, lifestyle, and family history data allows for a comprehensive understanding of individual health risks and needs.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.