The Cardio IQ™ Lp-PLA2 (PLAC®) test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.
Description: The Cardio IQ LP PLA2 Activity test measures the activity of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (LP PLA2) in the blood. LP PLA2 is an enzyme produced by inflammatory cells in the body and is involved in the breakdown of phospholipids found in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The test is used as a marker of vascular inflammation and cardiovascular risk.
Also Known As: LpPLA2 Test, Ps-PLA2 Activity Test, Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Test, PAF-AH Test, PLAC Test, Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When is a Lp-PLA2 Activity test ordered?
A healthcare provider may order a Cardio IQ LP PLA2 Activity test as part of assessing a patient's cardiovascular risk profile. The test may be considered in individuals with the following:
High Cardiovascular Risk: Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or multiple risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and family history of heart disease.
Atypical Risk Factors: In some cases, patients may have risk factors that are not typically assessed by traditional lipid profile tests. The LP PLA2 test can offer additional information about inflammation and vascular health.
What does a Lp-PLA2 Activity blood test check for?
Lp-PLA2 is an enzyme that appears to play a role in blood vessel inflammation and is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis. This test determines the amount of Lp-PLA2 in the blood as well as its activity.
Lp-PLA2 has been demonstrated in recent research to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Increased levels of Lp-PLA2 were seen in many persons diagnosed with CHD and ischemic stroke in these investigations, regardless of other risk factors. These findings suggest that this relatively new test could be beneficial as one of an increasing number of cardiac risk markers for determining a person's CVD risk.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cardiovascular disease causes more deaths in the United States each year than any other cause. Both coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke are caused by the formation of unstable fatty plaque deposits in the arteries, which can cause blood vessel blockages and heart attacks or brain damage. High blood pressure, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, smoking, obesity, high cholesterol levels, elevated LDL, and decreased HDL are all risk factors linked to both illnesses.
CVD affects many people who have one or more of the generally recognized risk factors, but it also affects a large number of persons who have few or none of these risk factors. This has prompted researchers to hunt for new markers that could help them identify those who are at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.
A low level of chronic, systemic inflammation and blood vessel inflammation, in addition to the usual risk factors listed above, is thought to contribute to overall risk of developing CVD. The hs-CRP test is linked to systemic inflammation, and high levels are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The Lp-PLA2 test is linked to vascular inflammation, and high levels have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack or stroke.
Lab tests often ordered with a Lp-PLA2 Activity test:
- Lipid Panel
- Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility
- Lipoprotein Subfractionation
- Cholesterol Total
- LDL Cholesterol
- HDL Cholesterol
Related Conditions where a Lp-PLA2 Activity test is recommended:
The Cardio IQ LP PLA2 Activity test is particularly relevant for assessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as:
Atherosclerosis: The formation of plaques in the arterial walls, which can lead to reduced blood flow and potentially cause heart attacks or strokes.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Narrowing of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, increasing the risk of heart attacks.
How does my health care provider use a Lp-PLA2 Activity test?
The Lp-PLA2 test is sometimes used to determine a person's risk of coronary heart disease or suffering an ischemic stroke.
Lp-PLA2 is an enzyme that appears to play a role in blood vessel inflammation and is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis. Lp-PLA2 has been demonstrated in recent research to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.
The test is often used to assess someone who is at a moderate to high risk of CHD or stroke, as well as someone who has one or more other risk factors. When someone has normal or minimally raised lipid levels, borderline high blood pressure, or metabolic syndrome, it may be ordered.
To assess a person's level of underlying inflammation linked to CVD risk, a Lp-PLA2 test may be utilized in conjunction with a hs-CRP test. Unlike the hs-CRP test, the Lp-PLA2 test is unaffected by disorders other than CVD that can produce general inflammation, hence it can be used to diagnose inflammatory conditions like arthritis.
Lp-PLA2 is a relatively new test that is rarely requested, and its clinical utility has yet to be determined. Its purpose is to provide extra information rather than to replace cholesterol and other lipid monitoring.
Some academics are looking at whether lowering Lp-PLA2 levels can reduce the risk of CHD and ischemic stroke. If lowering Lp-PLA2 lowers the risk of CVD and stroke, the Lp-PLA2 test may be requested more regularly and used to track a person's response to treatment.
What do my Lp-PLA2 test results mean?
A highly elevated Lp-PLA2 level implies an increased chance of developing CHD or having an ischemic stroke, as well as providing extra information to a health practitioner about the examined person's overall risk.
A low or normal Lp-PLA2 level indicates that this factor does not add to the risk of CVD in the person being examined.
The test is a risk indicator, not a diagnosis of CHD or ischemic stroke. Many persons with high quantities will not get these symptoms, whereas others with normal concentrations may.
Most Common Questions About the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test:
Understanding the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity Test
What is the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test?
The Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test is a blood test that measures the activity of Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzyme that is associated with inflammation in the arteries and is considered a marker of atherosclerosis.
Why is the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test ordered?
The Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test is often ordered when a person is suspected to be at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, especially if they have one or more risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol levels, smoking, or a family history of heart disease.
What do the results of the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test mean?
A higher than normal level of Lp-PLA2 activity in the blood suggests an increased risk of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease or stroke.
Interpreting Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity Test Results
What does a high Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity result mean?
A high Lp-PLA2 activity level indicates increased inflammation in the arteries, which is associated with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. This could mean a higher risk of cardiovascular events, such as heart attack or stroke.
What does a low Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity result mean?
A low Lp-PLA2 activity level is generally considered a good sign, suggesting a lower level of arterial inflammation and potentially a lower risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity Test and Specific Health Conditions
How is the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test used in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases?
The Lp-PLA2 activity test can help in assessing the risk of developing atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. High levels of Lp-PLA2 suggest an increased risk of these conditions, and the test is used as part of a comprehensive risk assessment, in combination with other tests and risk factors.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be used to monitor treatment outcomes?
The Lp-PLA2 activity test is not typically used to monitor treatment outcomes, as changes in Lp-PLA2 levels may not directly correlate with changes in disease status or treatment effectiveness.
Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity Test and Treatment Considerations
How do the results of the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test influence the treatment plan?
If Lp-PLA2 levels are high, your healthcare provider may recommend lifestyle changes, like a healthier diet, regular exercise, and quitting smoking, to help lower your risk of cardiovascular disease. Depending on your other risk factors, medication may also be recommended.
How frequently should the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be repeated?
The frequency of the Lp-PLA2 activity test would depend on the individual's risk factors for cardiovascular disease and any changes in their health status or symptoms. Your healthcare provider would determine the need for repeat testing.
Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity Test and Other Diagnostic Tools
How does the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test relate to other tests for cardiovascular risk?
The Lp-PLA2 activity test is often used as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for cardiovascular disease, along with other tests such as cholesterol and triglyceride levels, blood pressure measurements, and possibly other inflammatory markers.
Can lifestyle changes impact the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test results?
Yes, lifestyle changes such as eating a heart-healthy diet, getting regular exercise, reducing alcohol intake, and quitting smoking can potentially reduce Lp-PLA2 levels and lower the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
What factors can influence the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test results?
Several factors can influence Lp-PLA2 activity, including age, sex, race, smoking status, and the presence of other diseases such as diabetes or kidney disease. Your healthcare provider would consider all these factors when interpreting your test results.
Understanding Advancements and Limitations
How does the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test relate to the overall risk of cardiovascular disease?
The Lp-PLA2 activity test is one tool that can help assess an individual's risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis. However, it's only one piece of the puzzle and must be considered in conjunction with other risk factors and tests.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test predict future cardiovascular events?
Higher levels of Lp-PLA2 activity have been associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular events. However, the test is not used alone for this purpose and should be used as part of a comprehensive risk assessment.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test provide insights into the stability of atherosclerotic plaques?
Some research suggests that high Lp-PLA2 activity levels may be associated with more unstable atherosclerotic plaques, which are more likely to rupture and cause a cardiovascular event. However, more research is needed to confirm this.
Can certain medications affect the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test results?
Yes, certain medications, including those used to treat high cholesterol, such as statins, can potentially lower Lp-PLA2 activity levels.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be used in conjunction with imaging tests?
Yes, the Lp-PLA2 activity test can be used along with imaging tests, such as a coronary artery calcium score or carotid artery ultrasound, to get a more complete picture of an individual's cardiovascular risk.
How does the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test compare to the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) test?
Both the Lp-PLA2 activity test and the hs-CRP test are used as markers of inflammation associated with cardiovascular disease. While both tests provide valuable information, they measure different aspects of inflammation and may be used together to assess cardiovascular risk.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be used to determine the severity of atherosclerosis?
While high levels of Lp-PLA2 suggest a higher risk of atherosclerosis, the test is not used to directly determine the severity of atherosclerosis. Imaging tests, such as angiography, are typically used for this purpose.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test provide insights into other aspects of cardiovascular health?
Lp-PLA2 activity is primarily associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk. It may not provide much insight into other aspects of cardiovascular health, such as heart rhythm abnormalities or valvular heart disease.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be used in monitoring the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications?
While lifestyle modifications can potentially reduce Lp-PLA2 activity and cardiovascular risk, the test is not typically used specifically to monitor the effectiveness of these changes. Your healthcare provider may use a variety of tests and assessments to evaluate this.
Can certain diseases affect the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test results?
Yes, diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and kidney disease can potentially increase Lp-PLA2 activity levels and may need to be considered when interpreting test results.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be used in studying the effects of certain interventions or treatments on cardiovascular risk?
Yes, in research settings, the Lp-PLA2 activity test can be used to study the effects of certain interventions or treatments on cardiovascular risk.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be used in risk stratification for patients with known cardiovascular disease?
Yes, the Lp-PLA2 activity test can be used as part of risk stratification in patients with known cardiovascular disease, alongside other tests and assessments.
Can the Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity test be used to assess cardiovascular risk in individuals with no apparent symptoms or known risk factors?
While the Lp-PLA2 activity test can be used to assess cardiovascular risk, it's typically used in individuals who have one or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It's generally not used in asymptomatic individuals with no known risk factors, as the benefits of testing in this group are not clear.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.