Diabetes Management

Diabetes Management Lab Testing and health information

Keep your diabetes in check with our Diabetes Management lab testing. Our key panels contain necessary lab tests designed for people with diabetes to measure and track their critical blood biomarkers that are impacted by diabetes. If you're diligent about monitoring your biomarkers, you can often avoid many complications that come with this disease. Take control of your health with Ulta Lab Tests.


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DC - Diabesity Panel

Identifying patients who have metabolic syndrome and who are thus at higher risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease or stroke. Identifying patients who are insulin resistant (fasting insulin at or above the 75th percentile) and who are thus at higher risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, or liver disease. Monitoring of risk factors and insulin levels after life style change, medication use, or both.

Diabetes Risk Panel with Score

• Assess risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus
• Identify lifestyle interventions and/or pharmacotherapy
• This test provides an 8-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is defined as a deficiency of insulin secretion. Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for greater than 90% of all diabetes cases, is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretion.

Type 2 diabetes frequently goes undiagnosed, because it has no classic symptoms of diabetes and it progresses slowly from a pre-diabetic state. 
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 37% of individuals that are greater than 20 years old and approximately  half of those are greater than 65 years old have pre-diabetes. These individuals are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes and are candidates for preventive therapy that include lifestyle modification, such as weight  loss, increased physical activity, and medication.

IMPORTANT: For risk calculations to be performed, the following patient-specific information must be provided and recorded at the time of specimen collection:

  • Age: Years 
  • Gender: M (for male) or F (for female) 
  • Height Feet: Feet 
  • Height Inches: Inches 
  • Weight: lbs 
  • Race-African American: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Systolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Treatment for High B.P.: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Diabetes Status: Y (for yes) or N (for no)
  • Parental History of Diab: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Smoking Status: Y (for Yes) or N (for no)

 




This panel is designed for individuals diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus whose kidney disease has advanced to Stage 3/4 impairment. The panel affords the opportunity to assess electrolytes, phosphorus, serum creatinine/eGFR, hemoglobin, microalbumin, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and vitamin D. The grouping of these tests, readily identifiable as elements that adhere to guideline recommendations, is intended to facilitate the ready adherence to professional society clinical practice guidelines. Components of the testing related to the Management of CKD in diabetes, as outlined in the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2013. These recommendations are in broad agreement with those published by the National Kidney Foundation and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

This panel is designed for individuals who have been newly diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus. This panel is also appropriate for individuals with diabetes receiving an annual visit. The panel affords the opportunity to assess fasting lipid levels, fasting glucose, HbA1C, liver function tests (albumin, total and direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, ALT, AST), UAE, spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, serum creatinine/ eGFR. The grouping of these tests, readily identifiable as elements that adhere to guideline recommendations, is intended to facilitate the ready adherence to professional society clinical practice guidelines. Components of the test related to comprehensive diabetes evaluation, as outlined in the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2013. These are in broad agreement with the guidelines written by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.

Cardio IQ® Diabetes and ASCVD Risk Panel with Scores - Includes:  Cardio IQ® Glucose; Cardio IQ® Hemoglobin A1c; Cardio IQ® Cholesterol, Total; Cardio IQ® HDL Cholesterol; Cardio IQ® Triglycerides; Cardio IQ® Non-HDL and Calculated Components; Cardio IQ® Risks and Personal Factors

If Triglyceride is >400 mg/dL, Cardio IQ® Direct LDL will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 83721).

Clinical Significance

The increasing prevalence of obesity has led to an epidemic of diabetes mellitus and related complications, including ASCVD. Prediction of the risk of ASCVD and of developing diabetes in the Cardio IQ® lab report will simplify and improve the communication of those risks to patients.

This panel provides the 10-year and lifetime risk of ASCVD events and the 8-year risk of developing diabetes. The lipid panel results will aid in the assessment of ASCVD. Assessment of 10-year risk of a first atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCVD) event is recommended by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults. These guidelines recommend initiating statin therapy based on 10-year ASCVD risk score. Assessment of 8-year risk of developing diabetes mellitus is based on laboratory test results with anthropomorphic data and family history. This algorithm was developed in the Framingham cohort, and is intended to aid in the identification of patients at risk for developing diabetes, permitting pharmacological or lifestyle interventions.

IMPORTANT: For risk calculations to be performed, the following patient-specific information must be provided and recorded at the time of specimen collection:

  • Age: Years 
  • Gender: M (for male) or F (for female) 
  • Height Feet: Feet 
  • Height Inches: Inches 
  • Weight: lbs 
  • Race-African American: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Systolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Treatment for High B.P.: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Diabetes Status: Y (for yes) or N (for no)
  • Parental History of Diab: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Smoking Status: Y (for Yes) or N (for no)

Cardio IQ® Diabetes Risk Panel with Score - 

Includes
Cardio IQ® Glucose; Cardio IQ® Hemoglobin A1c; Cardio IQ® Cholesterol, Total; Cardio IQ® HDL Cholesterol; Cardio IQ® Triglycerides; Cardio IQ® Non-HDL and Calculated Components; Cardio IQ® 8 Year Diabetes Risk

If Triglyceride is >400 mg/dL, Cardio IQ® Direct LDL will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 83721).

Clinical Significance

Permit the assessment of serum glucose levels and lipid levels and the prediction of the 8-year future risk of developing diabetes mellitus in patients without diabetes mellitus.

• Assess risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus
• Identify lifestyle interventions and/or pharmacotherapy
• This test provides an 8-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is defined as a deficiency of insulin secretion. Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for greater than 90% of all diabetes cases, is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and an inadequate compensatory insulin secretion.

Type 2 diabetes frequently goes undiagnosed, because it has no classic symptoms of diabetes and it progresses slowly from a pre-diabetic state. 

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 37% of individuals that are greater than 20 years old and approximately  half of those are greater than 65 years old have pre-diabetes. These individuals are at high risk for progression to type 2 diabetes and are candidates for preventive therapy that include lifestyle modification, such as weight  loss, increased physical activity, and medication.

IMPORTANT: For risk calculations to be performed, the following patient-specific information must be provided and recorded at the time of specimen collection:

  • Age: Years 
  • Gender: M (for male) or F (for female) 
  • Height Feet: Feet 
  • Height Inches: Inches 
  • Weight: lbs 
  • Race-African American: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Systolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Treatment for High B.P.: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Diabetes Status: Y (for yes) or N (for no)
  • Parental History of Diab: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Smoking Status: Y (for Yes) or N (for no)

Description: Hemoglobin A1c is the protein Hemoglobin found in red blood cells, but with glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin A1c is used to check for and monitor diabetes as it shows average blood glucose levels over the past 2 to 3 months.

Also Known As: A1c Test, HbA1c Test, Glycohemoglobin Test, Glycated Hemoglobin Test, Glycosylated Hemoglobin Test, HbA1c Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hemoglobin A1c test ordered?

A1c may be requested as part of a routine physical examination or when a practitioner suspects a patient of having diabetes due to characteristic signs or symptoms of high blood sugar, such as:

  • Increased thirst and fluid intake
  • Increased urination
  • Increase in hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Vision is hazy
  • Infections that take a long time to heal

Adults who are overweight and have the following additional risk factors may consider doing the A1c test:

  • Physically inactive
  • Diabetes in a first-degree relative
  • Race/ethnicity that is at high risk such as African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders
  • Blood pressure that is high
  • A lipid profile that is abnormal.
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome 
  • Cardiovascular disease 
  • Insulin resistance and other conditions links to insulin resistance

People who have not been diagnosed with diabetes but have been assessed to be at an increased risk of developing diabetes should have their A1c levels tested at least once a year.

Monitoring

The A1c test may be performed 2 to 4 times a year, depending on the type of diabetes a person has, how well their diabetes is controlled, and the healthcare provider's recommendations. If diabetics are fulfilling treatment goals and have stable glycemic control, the American Diabetes Association advises A1c testing at least twice a year. A1c may be ordered quarterly when someone is first diagnosed with diabetes or if control isn't good.

What does a Hemoglobin A1c blood test check for?

Hemoglobin A1c, often known as A1c or glycated hemoglobin, is hemoglobin that has been attached to glucose. By assessing the proportion of glycated hemoglobin, the A1c test determines the average quantity of glucose in the blood during the previous 2 to 3 months.

Hemoglobin is a protein present inside red blood cells that transports oxygen.

Glycated hemoglobin is generated in proportion to the amount of glucose in the blood. Once glucose attaches to hemoglobin, it stays there for the duration of the red blood cell's life, which is usually about 120 days. The most common kind of glycated hemoglobin is known as A1c. A1c is created on a daily basis and is gradually removed from the bloodstream as older RBCs die and younger RBCs replace them.

This test can be used to detect and diagnose diabetes, as well as the risk of developing it. According to the American Diabetes Association's standards of medical care in diabetes, diabetes can be diagnosed using either A1c or glucose.

This test can also be used to track the progress of a diabetic patient's treatment. It aids in determining how well a person's glucose levels have been controlled over time by medication. An A1c of less than 7% suggests good glucose control and a lower risk of diabetic complications for the majority of diabetics for monitoring reasons.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hemoglobin A1c test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Glucose
  • Frucstosamine
  • Albumin
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Microalbumin w/creatinine
  • Lipid panel

Conditions where a Hemoglobin A1c test is recommended:

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes

How does my health care provider use a Hemoglobin A1c test?

Adults can use the hemoglobin A1c test to screen for and diagnose diabetes and prediabetes.

A fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test should be done to screen or diagnose diabetes in these instances.

The A1c test is also used to track diabetics' glucose control over time. Diabetics strive to maintain blood glucose levels that are as close to normal as feasible. This helps to reduce the risks of consequences associated with chronically high blood sugar levels, such as progressive damage to body organs such as the kidneys, eyes, cardiovascular system, and nerves. The result of the A1c test depicts the average quantity of glucose in the blood over the previous 2-3 months. This can help diabetics and their healthcare professionals determine whether the steps they're taking to control their diabetes are working or if they need to be tweaked.

A1c is a blood test that is usually used to help newly diagnosed diabetics identify how high their uncontrolled blood glucose levels have been in the previous 2-3 months. The test may be ordered multiple times throughout the control period, and then at least twice a year after that to ensure that good control is maintained.

What does my Hemoglobin A1c test result mean?

HbA1c levels is currently reported as a percentage for monitoring glucose control, and it is suggested that most diabetics try to keep their hemoglobin A1c below 7%. The closer diabetics can keep their A1c to the therapeutic objective of less than 7% without experiencing abnormally low blood glucose, the better their diabetes is controlled. The risk of problems rises as the A1c rises.

However, a person with type 2 diabetes may have an A1c goal set by their healthcare professional. The length of time since diagnosis, the presence of other diseases as well as diabetes complications, the risk of hypoglycemia complications, life expectancy, and whether or not the person has a support system and healthcare resources readily available are all factors that may influence the goal.

For example, a person with heart disease who has had type 2 diabetes for many years without diabetic complications may have a higher A1c target set by their healthcare provider, whereas someone who is otherwise healthy and newly diagnosed may have a lower target set by their healthcare provider as long as low blood sugar is not a significant risk.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


Description: A Urinalysis complete test is a urine test that is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases urinary tract infections and kidney disorders.

Also Known As: Urine Test, Urine Analysis Test, UA Test, urine microscopic examination Test, Urinalysis Test, Complete Urinalysis Test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Urinalysis Complete test ordered?

A urinalysis test may be ordered when a person undergoes a routine wellness examination, is admitted into a hospital, will have surgery, or is having a prenatal checkup.

When a person visits a doctor with symptoms of a urinary tract infection or another urinary system ailment, such as kidney disease, a urinalysis will almost certainly be prescribed. The following are some possible signs and symptoms:

  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Backache
  • Urination that is painful or occurs frequently
  • Urine with blood in it

Testing may also be conducted at regular intervals to track the progress of a condition.

What does a Urinalysis Complete test check for?

A urinalysis is a series of examinations done on urine that are physical, chemical, and microscopic. The tests identify and/or measure a number of elements in the urine, including cells, cellular fragments, and microbes. These elements include byproducts of healthy and unhealthy metabolism.

Urine is produced by the kidneys, two fist-sized organs located on either side of the spine near the base of the rib cage. The kidneys help the body regulate its water balance, filter wastes from the blood, and store proteins, electrolytes, and other molecules for later use. To get rid of everything unnecessary, urine travels from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder, and urethra before exiting the body. The color, amount, concentration, and content of urine will change slightly every time a person urinates due to the varied elements in urine, despite the fact that pee is normally yellow and clear.

By screening for components in the urine that aren't typically present and/or monitoring aberrant levels of specific substances, many illnesses can be caught early on. Glucose, bilirubin, protein, red and white blood cells, crystals, and germs are among examples. They could be present because of the following reasons:

  • The body responds to an elevated amount of the substance in the blood by attempting to remove the excess through urine.
  • There is a problem with the kidneys.
  • As with bacteria and white blood cells, there is a urinary tract infection present.

Three separate phases make up a full urinalysis:

  • The color and clarity of the urine are assessed using a visual examination.
  • Chemical examination, which determines the concentration of urine and tests for roughly 9 chemicals that provide useful information about health and disease.
  • Microscopic inspection that identifies and counts the different types of cells, casts, crystals, and other components found in urine, such as bacteria and mucus.

When abnormal results are found, or if a healthcare provider requests it, a microscopic analysis is usually performed.

It may be essential to repeat the test if the findings of a urinalysis are abnormal, and further other urine and blood tests may be needed to help establish a diagnosis, if the results are abnormal.

Lab tests often ordered with a Urinalysis Complete test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Lipid Panel
  • CMP
  • TSH
  • Urine Culture
  • Bilirubin Fractionated
  • Glucose

Conditions where a Urinalysis Complete test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Pregnancy
  • Hematuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Kidney Stones

How does my health care provider use a Urinalysis Complete test?

A urinalysis is a series of tests that can diagnose a variety of disorders. It can be used to screen for and/or diagnose a variety of illnesses, including urinary tract infections, renal abnormalities, liver diseases, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders, to name a few.

Urinalysis may be used in conjunction with other tests, such as urine albumin, to monitor the progress of treatment in patients with diseases or conditions like diabetes or kidney disease.

What do my urinalysis complete test results mean?

There are numerous ways to interpret the results of a urinalysis. Unusual results are a warning sign that something isn't right and needs further testing.  To connect the urinalysis results with an individual's symptoms and clinical findings and to look for the causes of aberrant findings, other targeted tests must be done, such as a complete blood count, metabolic panel, or urine culture.

It is more likely that a problem must be addressed the higher the concentration of the atypical component, such as noticeably increased levels of protein, glucose, or red blood cells. On the other hand, the outcomes do not inform the medical professional as to what led to the finding or whether it is a transient or ongoing sickness.

A normal urinalysis does not rule out the possibility of disease. Early in a disease process, some persons will not release elevated amounts of a drug, and others will release them irregularly throughout the day, which means they could be overlooked by a single urine sample. Small amounts of substances may be undetectable in very dilute urine.

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Brief Description: An Insulin test is a blood test that measures the insulin levels in the blood's serum. It is a measurement that is heavily used in patients with diabetes.

Also Known As: Fasting Insulin Test, Insulin Assay Test, Insulin Serum Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: 9 Hours Fasting Required

When is an Insulin test ordered?

Insulin levels are most commonly ordered after a low glucose result or when someone has acute or chronic symptoms of hypoglycemia.  Hypoglycemia can cause the following symptoms:

  • Sweating
  • Palpitations
  • Hunger
  • Brain fox
  • Hazy vision
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting

Seizures and loss of consciousness are common in severe instances.

While low blood glucose can cause these symptoms, they can also be caused by other illnesses.

When a person has or is suspected of having insulin resistance, an insulin test may be performed. People with type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, prediabetes or cardiac disease, or metabolic syndrome may fall into this category.

After an insulinoma has been effectively removed, a health practitioner may arrange insulin and C-peptide testing to verify the effectiveness of treatment and subsequently order the tests on a regular basis to monitor for recurrence.

Periodic testing can also be performed to track the success of an islet cell transplant by determining the graft's insulin-producing capacity.

What does an Insulin blood test check for?

Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas' beta cells and stored there. It is necessary for the transfer and storage of glucose, the body's primary energy source. Insulin aids in the delivery of glucose from the bloodstream to cells, as well as the regulation of blood glucose levels and lipid metabolism. This test determines how much insulin is present in the blood.

The levels of insulin and glucose in the blood must be balanced. Carbohydrates are frequently broken down into glucose and other simple sugars after a meal. The blood glucose level rises, prompting the pancreas to produce insulin into the bloodstream. The amount of glucose in the blood reduces as it enters cells, and the amount of insulin released by the pancreas decreases.

If an individual is unable to produce enough insulin, or if the body's cells become resistant to its effects, glucose is unable to reach the majority of the body's cells, causing the cells to starve as blood glucose climbs to harmful levels. This can disrupt normal metabolic processes, leading to a variety of illnesses and difficulties, such as kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and eyesight and neurological issues.

Diabetes is a life-threatening illness characterized by excessive glucose levels and diminished insulin action. People with type 1 diabetes produce relatively little insulin, necessitating the use of insulin supplements. Insulin resistance is a common cause of type 2 diabetes, which worsens over time.

Insulin resistance occurs when the body is unable to respond to insulin's effects. The body makes up for this by manufacturing more of the hormone. Hyperinsulinemia and overstimulation of some insulin-sensitive tissues happen as a result of this. This process generates an imbalance in the connection between glucose and insulin over time, which, if left untreated, can lead to health problems affecting numerous regions of the body.

Insulin resistance can be present in people with polycystic ovary syndrome, prediabetes or cardiac disease, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the pituitary or adrenal glands, in addition to type 2 diabetes.

Hyperinsulinemia is most commonly seen in persons with tumors of the pancreatic islet cells or an excess of injected insulin, aside from insulin resistance. Low blood sugar is caused by hyperinsulinemia, which can cause sweating, hunger, palpitations, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, and fainting. Because the brain relies on blood glucose for energy, severe glucose deprivation caused by hyperinsulinemia can swiftly result in insulin shock and death.

Lab tests often ordered with an Insulin test:

  • Glucose
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • C-Peptide
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where an Insulin test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Insulin Resistance
  • PCOS
  • Metabolic Syndrome

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use an insulin test?

Insulin testing can be used for a variety of purposes. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas' beta cells and stored there. Insulin is a hormone that aids in the movement of glucose, the body's primary source of energy, from the bloodstream to the cells. Cells starve if a person produces too little insulin or is resistant to its effects. When someone produces too much insulin, such as when they have an insulin-producing tumor, symptoms of low blood glucose appear.

Insulin testing may be used to assist with the following:

  • Diagnose an insulinoma, confirm that the tumor was successfully removed, and/or keep an eye out for recurrence.
  • Determine the source of hypoglycemia in a person who has signs and symptoms.
  • Recognize insulin resistance.
  • In this instance, a C-peptide test may be used to monitor the quantity of insulin produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. As part of the conversion of proinsulin to insulin in the pancreas, the body produces both insulin and C-peptide at the same time. When a doctor wishes to know how much insulin is created by the body and how much comes from outside sources like insulin injections, both tests may be ordered. The C-peptide test indicates insulin produced by the pancreas, but the insulin test analyzes insulin from both sources.
  • Determine when a type 2 diabetic may need to supplement oral medications with insulin.

Insulin tests can be ordered in conjunction with glucose and C-peptide tests. In addition to the glucose tolerance test, insulin levels are sometimes employed. To assess insulin resistance, blood glucose and insulin levels are tested at pre-determined time intervals in this circumstance.

What do my Insulin test result mean?

Insulin levels must be reviewed in the context of other diagnostic tests and symptoms.

Insulin levels can be elevated with:

  • Acromegaly
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Use of medications such as corticosteroids, levodopa, and oral contraceptives
  • Intolerance to fructose or galactose
  • Insulinomas
  • Obesity
  • Insulin resistance, as seen in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

Insulin levels can be low with:

  • Diabetes 
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Chronic pancreatitis 
  • Pancreatic cancer

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: A Glucose test is a blood test used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor conditions that affect glucose levels such as prediabetes, diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia.

Also Known As: Fasting Blood Glucose Test, FBG Test, Fasting Blood Sugar Test, FBS Test, Fasting Glucose Test, FG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting required

When is a Glucose test ordered?

Diabetes screening is recommended by several health groups, including the American Diabetes Association and the United States Preventive Services Task Force, when a person is 45 years old or has risk factors.

The ADA recommends retesting within three years if the screening test result is within normal limits, but the USPSTF recommends testing once a year. Annual testing may be used to monitor people with prediabetes.

When someone exhibits signs and symptoms of high blood glucose, a blood glucose test may be conducted.

Diabetics are frequently asked to self-check their glucose levels multiple times a day in order to monitor glucose levels and choose treatment alternatives as suggested by their doctor. Blood glucose levels may be ordered on a regular basis, along with other tests such as A1c, to track glucose control over time.

Unless they show early symptoms or have had gestational diabetes in a prior pregnancy, pregnant women are routinely screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. If a woman is at risk of type 2 diabetes, she may be tested early in her pregnancy, according to the American Diabetes Association. When a woman has type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes, her health care provider will normally order glucose levels to monitor her condition throughout the duration of her pregnancy and after delivery.

What does a Glucose blood test check for?

A fasting glucose test measures glucose. Glucose is the major energy source for the body's cells and the brain and nervous system's only source of energy. A consistent supply must be provided, and a somewhat constant level of glucose in the blood must be maintained. The glucose level in the blood can be measured using a variety of methods. 

Fruits, vegetables, breads, and other carbohydrate-rich foods are broken down into glucose during digestion, which is absorbed by the small intestine and circulated throughout the body. Insulin, a hormone generated by the pancreas, is required for the use of glucose for energy production. Insulin promotes glucose transport into cells and instructs the liver to store surplus energy as glycogen for short-term storage or triglycerides in adipose cells.

Normally, blood glucose rises slightly after you eat or drink, and the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the blood, the amount of which is proportional to the size and substance of the meal. The level of glucose in the blood declines as glucose enters the cells and is digested, and the pancreas responds by delaying, then ceasing the secretion of insulin.

When blood glucose levels fall too low, such as between meals or after a strong activity, glucagon is released, which causes the liver to convert some glycogen back into glucose, so boosting blood glucose levels. The level of glucose in the blood remains pretty steady if the glucose/insulin feedback loop is working appropriately. When the balance is upset and the blood glucose level rises, the body strives to restore it by boosting insulin production and removing excess glucose through the urine.

Several diseases can cause the equilibrium between glucose and pancreatic hormones to be disrupted, resulting in high or low blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common cause. Diabetes is a collection of illnesses characterized by inadequate insulin production and/or insulin resistance. Untreated diabetes impairs a person's ability to digest and utilize glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed when the body is unable to produce any or enough insulin. People with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant and may or may not be able to produce enough of the hormone.

Organ failure, brain damage, coma, and, in extreme situations, death can result from severe, sudden fluctuations in blood glucose, either high or low. Chronically high blood glucose levels can harm body organs like the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels, and nerves over time. Hypoglycemia can harm the brain and nerves over time.

Gestational diabetes, or hyperglycemia that exclusively arises during pregnancy, can affect some women. If left untreated, this can result in large babies with low glucose levels being born to these mothers. Women with gestational diabetes may or may not acquire diabetes later in life.

Lab tests often ordered with a Glucose test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Lipid Panel
  • Urinalysis Complete
  • TSH
  • CMP
  • Insulin
  • Microalbumin
  • Fructosamine
  • C-Peptide

Conditions where a Glucose test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Pancreatic Diseases
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a Glucose test?

The blood glucose test can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Detect hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
  • Screen for diabetes in those who are at risk before symptoms appear; there may be no early indications or symptoms of diabetes in some circumstances. As a result, screening can aid in detecting it and allowing treatment to begin before the illness worsens or complications emerge.
  • Aid in the detection of diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes.
  • Monitor your blood sugar levels and manage your diabetes

Glucose levels should be monitored in those who have been diagnosed with diabetes.

Between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, glucose blood tests are performed to assess pregnant women for gestational diabetes. Pregnant women who have never been diagnosed with diabetes should be screened and diagnosed using either a one-step or two-step strategy, according to the American Diabetes Association and the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Other tests, including diabetic autoantibodies, insulin, and C-peptide, may be used in conjunction with glucose to assist in detecting the reason of elevated glucose levels, differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and assess insulin production.

What does my glucose test result mean?

High blood glucose levels are most commonly associated with diabetes, but they can also be caused by a variety of other diseases and ailments.

Hypoglycemia is defined by a drop in blood glucose to a level that triggers nervous system symptoms before affecting the brain. The Whipple triad is a set of three criteria for diagnosing hypoglycemia.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Measures 1,5 anhydroglucitol, a glucose derived carbohydrate whose urinary excretion varies inversely with mean blood glucose. 1,5 anhydroglucitol appears to integrate variation in mean blood glucose over a period of about two weeks.

Clinical Significance

Rheumatoid Arthritis Diagnostic IdentRA® Panel 2 - Early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ie, diagnosis before significant joint erosion occurs, is difficult. Psoriatic arthritis can also be difficult to diagnose clinically early in the disease process, and there are no specific biomarkers. The 14-3-3η (eta) protein is an emerging biomarker for RA and erosive psoriatic arthritis diagnosis. It may play a biologic role in the joint erosive process. Blood levels appear to be elevated in patients with RA, but not in other diseases including psoriasis, osteoporosis, gout, ulcerative colitis, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn disease, primary Sjögren syndrome, scleroderma, and multiple sclerosis. The 14-3-3η protein, used in conjunction with rheumatoid factor (RF) and cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody, may improve diagnostic sensitivity in the early diagnosis of RA. It may also help differentiate those with psoriatic arthritis joint damage from those without joint damage.


Excessive formation of ketone bodies (acetone) results in increased blood levels (ketonemia) and increased excretion in the urine (ketonuria). This condition is associated with a decreased availability of carbohydrates, such as dieting or decreased use of carbohydrates. Diabetes and alcohol consumption are common causes of ketoacidosis. Acetone is one ketone body formed from acetoacetate. Ingestion of isopropyl alcohol also leads to the formation of acetone.

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The adiponectin ELISA assay quantitatively measures human adiponectin in serum. It has been shown that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance. Adiponectin appears to be a potent insulin enhancer linking adipose tissue and whole body glucose metabolism.


Description: Apo A1 and B is a blood test that measures that amount of Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B in the blood’s serum along with the ratio between B/A1. This test is used to assess cardiovascular risk. Low levels of APO A1 are associated with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and are said to predict CAD better then triglycerides and HDL does.

Also Known As: Apo A1 and B Test, Apo A1 Test, Apo B Test, APOAB Test, Apolipoprotein B-100 Test, Apolipoprotein Evaluation Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for 12 hours is required.

When are Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests ordered?

Apolipoprotein A-I and B, as well as other lipid tests, may be ordered as part of a screening to identify a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apo A-I is a protein that plays a key function in lipid metabolism and is the most abundant protein in HDL, or "good cholesterol." Excess cholesterol in cells is removed by HDL, which transports it to the liver for recycling or elimination. Apo A-I levels tend to rise and fall with HDL levels, and apo A-I deficits are linked to an increased risk of CVD.

Apo B is a protein that plays a role in lipid metabolism and is the major protein component of lipoproteins including VLDL and LDL, popularly known as "bad cholesterol." Apo B concentrations are similar to LDL-C concentrations.

What does Apolipoprotein A1 and B blood tests check for?

Lipids are transported throughout the bloodstream by apolipoproteins, which mix with them. Lipoproteins are held together by apolipoproteins, which protect the water-repellent lipids at their core.

Lipoproteins are cholesterol or triglyceride-rich proteins that transport lipids throughout the body for cell absorption. HDL, on the other hand, is like an empty cab or taxi. It travels to the tissues to collect excess cholesterol before returning it to the liver. Cholesterol is either recycled for future use or eliminated in bile in the liver. The only mechanism for cells to get rid of excess cholesterol is by HDL reverse transport. It protects the arteries and, if enough HDL is present, it can even reverse the formation of fatty plaques, which are deposits caused by atherosclerosis and can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

Sticking with the taxi analogy, the driver is Apolipoprotein A. It permits HDL to be detected and bound by receptors in the liver at the end of the transport by activating the enzymes that load cholesterol from the tissues into HDL. Apolipoprotein A is divided into two types: apo A-I and apo A-II. Apo A-I has a higher prevalence than apo A-II. Apo A-I concentrations can be evaluated directly, and they tend to rise and fall in tandem with HDL levels. Deficiencies in apo A-I are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particles that transport dietary fats from the digestive system to tissue, primarily the liver, via the bloodstream. These dietary lipids are repackaged in the liver and combined with apo B-100 to create triglyceride-rich VLDL. This combo is similar to a taxi with a full load of passengers and apo B-100 as the driver. The taxi moves from place to place in the bloodstream, releasing one passenger at a time.

Triglycerides are removed from VLDL by an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase, which produces intermediate density lipoproteins first, then LDL. VLDL contains one molecule of apo B-100, which is kept as VLDL loses triglycerides and shrinks to become the cholesterol-rich LDL. Apo B-100 is detected by receptors on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. The absorption of cholesterol into cells is aided by these receptors.

LDL and apo B-100 transport cholesterol that is essential for cell membrane integrity, sex hormone generation, and steroid production. Excess LDL, on the other hand, can cause fatty deposits in artery walls, as well as blood vessel hardening and scarring. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty deposits restrict blood arteries. The risk of a heart attack increases as the atherosclerotic process progresses.

LDL-C levels, which are typically ordered as part of a lipid profile, tend to mimic Apo B-100 levels. Many experts believe that apo B levels will eventually show to be a more accurate predictor of CVD risk than LDL-C. Others disagree, believing that vitamin B is only a modestly superior choice and that it should not be used on a regular basis. The clinical utility of apo B, as well as other developing cardiac risk markers including apo A-I, Lp(a), and hs-CRP, is still unknown.

Lab tests often ordered with Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests:

  • Cholesterol Total
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Homocysteine
  • hs-CRP
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility

Conditions where Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests are recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Angina

How does my health care provider use Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests?

An apo B/apo A-I ratio can be determined by ordering both an apo A-I and an apo B test. To assess the risk of developing CVD, this ratio is sometimes used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

An apo A-I test may be ordered in the following situations:

Assist in the diagnosis of apo A-I deficiency caused by genetic or acquired diseases.

Assist those with a personal or family history of heart disease, high cholesterol, or triglycerides in their blood.

Keep track of how well lifestyle changes and lipid therapies are working.

An apo A-I test can be ordered in conjunction with an apo B test to determine the apo B/apo A-I ratio. This ratio is occasionally used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio to assess the risk of developing CVD.

As an alternative to non-HDL-C, Apo B levels may be ordered to assess the success of lipid treatment.

An apo B test may be conducted in rare circumstances to assist determine a genetic issue that causes apo B overproduction or underproduction.

What do my Apolipoprotein A1 and B test results mean?

Low apo A-I levels are linked to low HDL levels and slowed elimination of excess cholesterol from the body. Low levels of apo A-I, as well as high levels of apo B, are linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

Deficiencies in apo A-I are caused by a number of hereditary diseases. Abnormal lipid levels, notably excessive amounts of low-density lipoprotein, are common in people with certain illnesses. They frequently have a higher rate of atherosclerosis. Low apo A-I levels are caused by several genetic diseases.

Raised apo B levels are linked to elevated LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels, and are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevations may be caused by a high-fat diet and/or a reduction in LDL clearance from the blood.

A direct cause of abnormal apo B levels is some hereditary diseases. Familial combined hyperlipidemia, for example, is an inherited condition that causes excessive cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Apolipoprotein B deficiency, also known as Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, is a relatively rare hereditary disorder that results in unusually low amounts of apo B.

A variety of underlying diseases and other factors might result in abnormal apo B levels.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Basic Metabolic Panel is a blood test used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease.  

Also Known As: BMP, Chemistry Panel, Chemistry Screen, Chem 7, Chem 11, BMP Test, SMA 7, SMAC7, Basic Metabolic Test, Chem Test, Chem Panel Test 

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Serum 

Test Preparation: 9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Basic Metabolic Panel test ordered?  

A BMP may be requested as part of a standard physical examination. 

The panel is frequently ordered in hospital emergency rooms because its components provide vital information regarding a person's renal state, electrolyte and acid/base balance, blood glucose, and calcium levels. Significant changes in these test results can suggest serious issues such as renal failure, insulin shock or diabetic coma, respiratory distress, or abnormalities in heart rhythm. 

What does a Basic Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a 9-test panel that provides essential information to a health practitioner about a person's current metabolic status, including kidney health, blood glucose level, electrolyte and acid/base balance. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the BMP test: 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. Calcium is also used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Basic Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Insulin
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Basic Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes 
  • Kidney Disease 
  • Liver Disease 

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Basic Metabolic Panel test? 

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is used to evaluate a person's kidney function, electrolyte, acid/base balance, and blood glucose level, all of which are linked to their metabolism. It can also be used to keep track of hospitalized patients and persons with known illnesses like hypertension and hypokalemia. 

If a health practitioner wants to track two or more separate BMP components, the full BMP might be ordered because it contains more information. Alternatively, when monitoring, the healthcare provider may order specific tests, such as a follow-up glucose, potassium, or calcium test, or an electrolyte panel to track sodium, potassium, chloride, and CO2. If a doctor needs further information, he or she can request a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), which is a collection of 21 tests that includes the BMP. 

What do my Basic Metabolic Panel results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the BMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. 

Out-of-range results on any of the BMP's tests can be caused by a number of things, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related consequences. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

The results of the BMP components can be influenced by a range of prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide them with a thorough medical history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 



Did you know that one in ten people living in the United States of America have diabetes? Even further, one in three people has prediabetes. So, the odds are that you know someone that has diabetes as well as multiple people who have prediabetes.

In fact, you may be one of them.

And, if you do have diabetes or prediabetes, you need to make sure that you're managing your health through diabetes management tests. This means that you need to manage your blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and more.

As long as these levels remain stable, you should be able to carry on with a normal way of life.

To learn more about diabetes management and how you can build your own treatment plan, keep reading. This information could save your life. 

What Is Diabetes Management?

Diabetes management refers to the things that you can do to help control your blood glucose levels. Managing diabetes can be extremely stressful, especially if you have insulin resistance. It can seem like your body is fighting against you.

There are three pillars to diabetes management:

  1. Eat healthily
  2. Exercise often
  3. Lose excess pounds (if you are overweight or obese and not pregnant)

If you do develop diabetes, it's also important to take the medication that your physician has prescribed. This will help your body manage its blood glucose levels. In turn, you'll prevent complications that can come about with diabetes.

How Do I Manage My Diabetes?

While diet, exercise, and weight loss are the keys to diabetes management, it's also important to note what your body needs. This is why many physicians create individual diabetes treatment plans. What works for one person may not work for another.

So, if you're looking for a plan that's made just for you, you should talk to your physician about steps you can take to better your blood glucose. They may recommend specific foods and exercises that you can try.

Symptoms Diabetes Management Helps to Control

By managing your diabetes the right way, you can avoid the many complications that come with diabetes. Here are some of the most common complications that physicians see in diabetic patients:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Neuropathy (nerve damage)
  • Nephropathy (kidney damage)
  • Retinopathy (eye damage)
  • Foot pain that can progress into damage which may lead to amputation
  • Skin problems
  • Trouble hearing
  • Depression
  • Alzheimer's disease

The risk for these complications becomes greater in patients with uncontrolled blood sugar levels. So, by managing your diabetes, you're reducing your risk for all of these potential complications.

Risk Factors of Not Practicing Diabetes Management

If you don't manage your diabetes well, these complications could run rampant. Some diabetic patients have double foot amputations and develop diabetic ketoacidosis. They may lose the ability to walk due to neuropathy or lose the ability to see due to retinopathy.

When you first get diagnosed with diabetes, it may not seem like a big deal. But, without the right management and treatment, you could be harming yourself.

That's why it's so important to conduct regular diabetes management tests and meet with your doctor. Your physician can help guide you through lifestyle choices and changes that you may need to make. And, they can help you find the right medications that can help you and your body adjust to changing blood sugar levels.

What Lab Tests Can I Do To Determine If I'm Managing My Diabetes Well?

There are several testing options available to see how well you're managing your diabetes. It's important to note, however, that a medical professional should administer these tests. These are not kits you can administer yourself in your own home.

1. The A1C Test

This test shows your blood sugar level for the past three months. It shows a bigger picture of your diabetes management than a daily prick of your finger. If there are any issues with your results, it gives you and your doctor the opportunity to put a treatment plan in place.

2. A Foot Exam

Since extreme cases of diabetes can result in nerve damage and foot pain, a proper foot exam conducted by your doctor can be an effective diabetes management test.

Your diabetes specialist should be conducting this exam at every visit. Doing so can help to stop serious health issues before they start. These visits should be done as a supplement to a complete yearly foot exam.

The more in-depth annual foot exam will help to spot an infection before it becomes too dangerous. During this exam, your doctor will give you an X-ray that can tell if any sort of infection is spreading to your bone.

3. Diabetes Management Lab Panels

Ulta Lab Tests has prepared several diabetes management lab panels that contain subsets of the following tests to periodically monitor the health of individuals with diabetes.

  • Apolipoprotein A1 B
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • CBC (Includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Cystatin C with eGFR
  • GlycoMark®
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Insulin
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios
  • Microalbumin, Random Urine with Creatine

4. Kidney Function Tests

Damage to your kidneys results in the insufficient filtering of waste out of the body. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease. There are two tests your doctor should be conducted to assess your kidney performance.

The first is a urine albumin test. The test will show if your kidneys are starting to leak protein into your urine. This is an early sign of kidney disease.

The second test is a blood test to measure your creatine level. The amount of creatine in your blood increases as your kidneys begin to fail. A creatine level higher than 1.2 for women and 1.4 for men could signify early kidney problems.

5. Eye Exam

Diabetes can also lead to blindness in some patients. It can also increase your risk for eye issues in general. Problems such as glaucoma and damage to the retina are more common in people who live with diabetes.

Preventative maintenance is crucial. Regular eye exams are the best way to stop these problems before they start. Doctors recommend seeing an optometrist at least once a year.

When you see your doctor for your yearly exam, they should conduct a dilated exam on your eyes. This will open up your pupils so the doctor can examine your eye for any signs of retinopathy.

6. Blood Pressure Test

Your doctor should examine your blood pressure at every visit—even standard checkups. Normal blood pressure should have a reading of somewhere around 120/80.

If your blood pressure reading is higher than that, it could be an early warning sign of diabetes. A reading of 140/90 is the threshold for what medical professionals consider "high blood pressure."

About two-thirds of people with diabetes suffer from high blood pressure. Doctors also refer to this condition as hypertension. 

7. Fasting Plasma Glucose

The Fasting Plasma Glucose test requires you to abstain from eating or drinking eight hours before the test. When the doctor runs this test, your blood will be drawn. Then, your plasma (the fluid part of your blood) will be tested for glucose levels.

If the test results read 126 or more mg/dl of glucose, it could be an indication of Type II diabetes.

8. Oral Glucose Tolerance

To perform this test, your doctor will draw blood approximately 2 hours before you drink a large beverage containing glucose.

The goal here is for your doctor to be able to see the difference between the before and after glucose levels in your plasma. Getting this reading will help your doctor to determine how well your body is processing glucose.

If your reading comes back at 144 to 199 mg/dl you're in the pre-diabetic range. If your reading comes back at 200 mg/dl or higher, you're in the range for Type II diabetes.

Frequently Asked Questions About Diabetes Management

 Most people know about diabetes and what it is, but few people know about diabetes management. As a result, there are a lot of questions on the subject. Here are some of the most common questions. Hopefully, by answering these in this article, we've answered some of your questions and concerns as well.

Q: What Is An Appropriate Blood Sugar Level?

According to the American Diabetes Association, a reading between 80-130 is appropriate for your blood sugar level. 

Q: What Should My Diet Be Like with Diabetes?

Diabetes doesn't limit your diet. Sure, some things may elevate your blood sugar, but the key is to know portion control. Be aware of what you are putting on your plate.

We recommend consulting a dietician or nutritionist for more help with this subject. They can offer suggestions like carb counting or meal planning to help you with your diabetes management plan.

Q: Why Is My Blood Pressure Even Important?

Great question! You must keep your blood pressure in the range of a reading between 80-120, with adjustments with age. The reason is that once your blood pressure gets too high, it can begin to do damage to your veins and arteries.

As your veins and arteries become weaker, it can make you prone to more serious complications like a heart attack or stroke.

Q: Which Foods Have Carbs?

Carbs can show up in many forms. Vegetables, rice, dairy, cereals, milk, yogurt, bread, and pasta can all have carbs. Snack foods like potato chips, pretzels, cake, cookies, and candy can all have carbs as well.

It's important to do your research. When you're in the grocery store, be sure to check nutrition labels. They will give you a good indication of the carbohydrate count of foods you are purchasing.

Q: Can I Eat An Unlimited Amount of Sugar-Free Food?

Sugar-free foods are generally healthy. However, keep in mind that some of these foods can still be high in carbohydrates. They also tend to contain artificial sweeteners.

Carbs are an essential part of any diet. As a diabetic, you don't need to limit them entirely. You just need to make sure you're getting them from healthy sources.

Those sources would be fruit, whole grains, and low-fat dairies like milk and yogurt.

Where Can I Get Diabetes Management Tests? 

Ulta Lab Tests offers our diabetes management tests to be highly accurate and reliable, so you can make informed decisions about your health.

  • Secure and confidential results
  • No insurance or referral needed
  • Affordable pricing, including doctor's order
  • 100% satisfaction guarantee

Order your diabetes management lab tests today, and your results will be provided to you securely and confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours for most tests.