Urinalysis (UA), Complete Most Popular

The Urinalysis (UA), Complete test contains 1 test with 27 biomarkers.

Brief Description: A Urinalysis Complete test is a laboratory examination of a urine sample that assesses various components of urine to provide information about a person's overall health and detect potential abnormalities.

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

Also Known As: Urine Test, Urine Analysis Test, UA Test, urine microscopic examination Test, Urinalysis Test, Complete Urinalysis Test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: Specimen should be collected mid-stream to minimize contamination and improve accuracy.

When is a Urinalysis Complete test ordered?

A Urinalysis Complete test may be ordered in several situations:

  1. Routine Health Check: It is often included as part of a routine health check-up to evaluate kidney function, screen for urinary tract infections, and assess overall health.

  2. Monitoring Chronic Conditions: For individuals with chronic conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or urinary tract disorders, regular urinalysis helps monitor the progression of the condition and assess the effectiveness of treatment.

  3. Diagnostic Tool: In cases where symptoms such as frequent urination, pain during urination, or blood in the urine are present, a Urinalysis Complete test aids in diagnosing the underlying cause.

What does a Urinalysis Complete test check for?

A urinalysis is a series of examinations done on urine that are physical, chemical, and microscopic. The tests identify and/or measure a number of elements in the urine, including cells, cellular fragments, and microbes. These elements include byproducts of healthy and unhealthy metabolism.

Urine is produced by the kidneys, two fist-sized organs located on either side of the spine near the base of the rib cage. The kidneys help the body regulate its water balance, filter wastes from the blood, and store proteins, electrolytes, and other molecules for later use. To get rid of everything unnecessary, urine travels from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder, and urethra before exiting the body. The color, amount, concentration, and content of urine will change slightly every time a person urinates due to the varied elements in urine, despite the fact that pee is normally yellow and clear.

By screening for components in the urine that aren't typically present and/or monitoring aberrant levels of specific substances, many illnesses can be caught early on. Glucose, bilirubin, protein, red and white blood cells, crystals, and germs are among examples. They could be present because of the following reasons:

  • The body responds to an elevated amount of the substance in the blood by attempting to remove the excess through urine.
  • There is a problem with the kidneys.
  • As with bacteria and white blood cells, there is a urinary tract infection present.

Three separate phases make up a full urinalysis:

  • The color and clarity of the urine are assessed using a visual examination.
  • Chemical examination, which determines the concentration of urine and tests for roughly 9 chemicals that provide useful information about health and disease.
  • Microscopic inspection that identifies and counts the different types of cells, casts, crystals, and other components found in urine, such as bacteria and mucus.

When abnormal results are found, or if a healthcare provider requests it, a microscopic analysis is usually performed.

It may be essential to repeat the test if the findings of a urinalysis are abnormal, and further other urine and blood tests may be needed to help establish a diagnosis, if the results are abnormal.

Lab tests often ordered with a Urinalysis Complete test:

When a Urinalysis Complete test is ordered, it might be part of a broader evaluation of urinary or systemic conditions. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside a Urinalysis Complete test:

  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC):

    • Purpose: To provide a broad picture of overall health and detect conditions such as anemia, infection, and inflammation.
    • Why Is It Ordered: A CBC can help identify underlying conditions that may affect or be affected by urinary system health, such as infections or systemic diseases.
  2. Kidney Function Test:

    • Purpose: To evaluate how well the kidneys are working.
    • Why Is It Ordered: These tests assess kidney function and can help diagnose kidney disease, which may be suggested by abnormal findings in a urinalysis.
  3. Electrolyte Panel:

    • Purpose: To measure the levels of key electrolytes in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Electrolyte imbalances can be indicative of kidney problems or other health issues, which might also be reflected in urinalysis results.
  4. Liver Function Test:

    • Purpose: To assess liver health, as liver diseases can impact the kidneys and other organs.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate for liver dysfunction, which can sometimes correlate with urinary abnormalities.
  5. Urine Culture:

    • Purpose: To grow and identify any bacteria present in the urine.
    • Why Is It Ordered: If a urinalysis indicates a possible infection (such as the presence of leukocytes or nitrites), a urine culture can confirm the infection and help guide appropriate antibiotic treatment.
  6. Urine Albumin with Creatinine Ratio:

    • Purpose: To quantify the amount of protein excreted in the urine.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess for proteinuria, which can be a sign of kidney disease, particularly in the context of diabetes or hypertension.
  7. Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c):

    • Purpose: To assess blood sugar control and diagnose diabetes.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Diabetes can cause kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) and may be suggested by the presence of glucose in the urine.
  8. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR):

    • Purpose: Non-specific markers of inflammation.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To detect systemic inflammation, which can sometimes be associated with kidney diseases or infections.
  9. Calcium, Phosphorus, and Uric Acid Levels:

    • Purpose: To assess the levels of these substances, which can form kidney stones.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To investigate or monitor for kidney stones, especially if there is a history of stones or related symptoms.

These tests can provide comprehensive information about the health of the urinary system and other related body systems. They are particularly important for diagnosing and managing conditions that affect the kidneys and urinary tract. The specific tests chosen will depend on the individual's symptoms, medical history, and the results of the initial urinalysis.

Conditions where a Urinalysis Complete test is recommended:

A Urinalysis Complete test is useful for detecting and monitoring various conditions, including:

  1. Urinary Tract Infections: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur when bacteria enter the urinary system and multiply. Urinalysis can detect the presence of bacteria, white blood cells, or nitrites in the urine, indicating a UTI.

  2. Kidney Diseases: Conditions such as kidney stones, glomerulonephritis, or chronic kidney disease can be evaluated through urinalysis by assessing the presence of blood, protein, or abnormal cells in the urine.

  3. Diabetes: Urinalysis can detect glucose in the urine, which may indicate uncontrolled diabetes or high blood sugar levels.

  4. Liver or Gallbladder Issues: Bilirubin or other liver enzymes detected in the urine may suggest liver or gallbladder problems.

How does my healthcare provider use a Urinalysis Complete test?

Healthcare providers use the results of a Urinalysis Complete test to:

  1. Evaluate Kidney Function: Urinalysis provides information about kidney function, such as the filtration of waste products, reabsorption of essential substances, and urine concentration ability.

  2. Detect Infections: Urinalysis helps identify urinary tract infections or other urinary system infections by detecting the presence of bacteria, white blood cells

What do my urinalysis complete test results mean?

There are numerous ways to interpret the results of a urinalysis. Unusual results are a warning sign that something isn't right and needs further testing.  To connect the urinalysis results with an individual's symptoms and clinical findings and to look for the causes of aberrant findings, other targeted tests must be done, such as a complete blood count, metabolic panel, or urine culture.

It is more likely that a problem must be addressed the higher the concentration of the atypical component, such as noticeably increased levels of protein, glucose, or red blood cells. On the other hand, the outcomes do not inform the medical professional as to what led to the finding or whether it is a transient or ongoing sickness.

A normal urinalysis does not rule out the possibility of disease. Early in a disease process, some persons will not release elevated amounts of a drug, and others will release them irregularly throughout the day, which means they could be overlooked by a single urine sample. Small amounts of substances may be undetectable in very dilute urine.

Most Common Questions About the Urinalysis Complete test:

Understanding the Test

What is the Urinalysis Complete test?

The Urinalysis Complete test is a set of tests performed on a urine sample that can provide information about your overall health, detect disorders such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and diabetes, and screen for drug use.

What does the Urinalysis Complete test measure?

The Urinalysis Complete test evaluates several different components of the urine: physical characteristics (color, clarity), chemical composition (pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte esterase), and microscopic examination (red and white blood cells, epithelial cells, casts, crystals, bacteria).

Interpreting the Results

What can an abnormal result in the Urinalysis Complete test mean?

An abnormal urinalysis result can indicate various conditions, such as a urinary tract infection (indicated by bacteria, white blood cells, or nitrites), kidney disease (red blood cells, protein, or casts), or diabetes (glucose, ketones). However, an abnormal result may not always signify a definite health condition and may require further testing.

What does it mean if my Urinalysis Complete test shows protein in the urine?

Protein in the urine, or proteinuria, can indicate kidney disease or damage. It may also occur in conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or certain types of infections.

About the Test

Can certain medications or foods affect the results of the Urinalysis Complete test?

Yes, certain medications, vitamins, and foods can affect urinalysis results. For instance, Vitamin C can interfere with the glucose and nitrite tests, and certain medications can cause color changes in the urine. Be sure to tell your healthcare provider about any medications or supplements you are taking.

Can the Urinalysis Complete test detect pregnancy?

The standard Urinalysis Complete test doesn't specifically test for pregnancy. However, it may incidentally detect hCG, a hormone produced during pregnancy, if it is present in high enough levels in the urine. If pregnancy is suspected, a dedicated pregnancy test is more accurate.

Understanding the Implications

Can the Urinalysis Complete test be used to monitor certain medical conditions?

Yes, the Urinalysis Complete test can be used to monitor conditions that affect the kidneys or urinary system, such as diabetes, kidney disease, urinary tract infections, and certain types of systemic diseases.

What role do the kidneys play in the Urinalysis Complete test?

The kidneys play a vital role in the Urinalysis Complete test as they filter waste materials from the blood and maintain the body's electrolyte balance. The components measured in the urinalysis can provide information about how well the kidneys are performing these functions.

Risks and Precautions

Can the Urinalysis Complete test detect kidney disease?

Yes, the Urinalysis Complete test can help detect kidney disease. Protein, red blood cells, or casts in the urine can indicate kidney damage or disease. However, additional tests are usually required for a definitive diagnosis.

Can the Urinalysis Complete test provide information about my risk for urinary tract infections (UTIs)?

Yes, the Urinalysis Complete test can detect signs of a UTI, such as the presence of bacteria, white blood cells, or nitrites in the urine.

Dealing with Abnormal Results

What should I do if my Urinalysis Complete test shows abnormal results?

If your Urinalysis Complete test shows abnormal results, it's important to discuss these with your healthcare provider, who may recommend further testing to determine the cause of the abnormal results.

Are there ways to improve abnormal results in the Urinalysis Complete test?

The ways to improve abnormal results depend on the underlying cause. For instance, if the test detects a urinary tract infection, antibiotics might be prescribed. If kidney disease is suspected, management strategies could include diet changes, medications, or even dialysis in severe cases.

Interpreting the Test Results

How are the results of the Urinalysis Complete test interpreted?

Urinalysis results are interpreted by comparing the physical, chemical, and microscopic components of your urine to normal ranges. If any values fall outside these ranges, it could indicate a potential health problem that may require further investigation.

Understanding the Test with Other Conditions

How does the Urinalysis Complete test relate to the diagnosis of diabetes?

In diabetes, excess glucose not absorbed by the body is excreted in the urine. Thus, the Urinalysis Complete test can aid in the diagnosis of diabetes by detecting elevated levels of glucose in the urine. It can also help monitor the effectiveness of diabetes management.

Can the Urinalysis Complete test provide information about liver health?

Yes, bilirubin and urobilinogen, by-products of red blood cell breakdown processed by the liver, are measured in a urinalysis. If the liver is damaged or diseased, it may not process these substances effectively, leading to their presence in urine.

Role of Diet and Lifestyle

Can my diet affect the results of the Urinalysis Complete test?

Yes, diet can influence the results of a urinalysis. For instance, a high-protein diet can lead to higher urine pH and potentially more protein in the urine. Certain foods, such as beets or blackberries, can change the color of the urine.

Can dehydration impact the results of the Urinalysis Complete test?

Yes, dehydration can impact urinalysis results. It can increase the specific gravity measurement, indicating a higher concentration of substances inthe urine. It can also lead to more protein or electrolytes in the urine than normal.

Urinalysis in Different Populations

Do results of the Urinalysis Complete test differ between males and females?

In general, the results of the Urinalysis Complete test should not significantly differ between males and females. However, contamination from menstrual blood or vaginal secretions in females can sometimes interfere with the results.

Can the Urinalysis Complete test be used for drug screening?

Yes, while a standard Urinalysis Complete test does not analyze for drugs, a special type of urinalysis called a urine drug screen can be used to detect the presence of certain drugs or their metabolites.

The Importance of Discussion with Healthcare Provider

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before getting the Urinalysis Complete test?

Before the test, it's helpful to discuss your health history, symptoms, medications, and diet with your healthcare provider. Certain medications and foods can affect urinalysis results, and knowing your symptoms and health history can help your provider interpret your results.

What questions should I ask my healthcare provider after getting the Urinalysis Complete test?

You might ask about the implications of your results, whether you need further testing, and what steps you should take next, such as lifestyle changes or new medications.

Future Considerations

How often should the Urinalysis Complete test be repeated?

The frequency of Urinalysis Complete testing depends on your specific health situation. If you have a condition that requires monitoring, like diabetes or kidney disease, your provider may recommend regular testing.

What future medical tests might be needed if the Urinalysis Complete test reveals abnormal results?

If your Urinalysis Complete test results are abnormal, further testing may be needed to determine the cause. Depending on the results, this could include blood tests, imaging studies of the kidneys or urinary tract, or other specialized urine tests.

General

Can the Urinalysis Complete test tell me about my risk of kidney stones?

Yes, the Urinalysis Complete test can help identify risk factors for kidney stones. For instance, high levels of certain substances in the urine, like calcium, oxalate, or uric acid, can contribute to stone formation.

Can the Urinalysis Complete test help diagnose autoimmune diseases?

In certain cases, yes. Some autoimmune diseases can cause changes in the urine, such as the presence of blood or protein, which can be detected with the Urinalysis Complete test. However, the urinalysis cannot diagnose these conditions by itself and would be used alongside other diagnostic tools.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Also known as: UA, Complete, Urinalysis UA Complete, Urine Analysis, Complete

Amorphous Sediment

Appearance

Bacteria

Bacteria are living things that have only one cell. Most bacteria won't hurt you - less than 1 percent of the different types make people sick. Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, and give the body needed vitamins. But infectious bacteria can make you ill. They reproduce quickly in your body. Many give off chemicals called toxins, which can damage tissue and make you sick. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli.

Bilirubin

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Calcium Oxalate Crystals

Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms envelope-shaped crystals. A major constituent of human kidney stones.

Casts

Urinary casts are cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states. They form in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts of nephrons, then dislodge and pass into the urine, where they can be detected by microscopy.

Color

Crystals

Abnormal crystals may appear in urine as a result of pathology or due to normal catabolism

Glucose

A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including those in the brain. The hormones insulin and glucagon help control blood glucose levels.

Granular Cast

The second-most common type of cast, granular casts can result either from the breakdown of cellular casts or the inclusion of aggregates of plasma proteins (e.g., albumin) or immunoglobulin light chains. Depending on the size of inclusions, they can be classified as fine or coarse, though the distinction has no diagnostic significance. Their appearance is generally more cigar-shaped and of a higher refractive index than hyaline casts. While most often indicative of chronic renal disease, these casts, as with hyaline casts, can also be seen for a short time following strenuous exercise

Hyaline Cast

Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles. Urinary casts may be made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, kidney cells, or substances such as protein or fat. The most common type of cast, hyaline casts are solidified Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein secreted from the tubular epithelial cells of individual nephrons. Low urine flow, concentrated urine, or an acidic environment can contribute to the formation of hyaline casts, and, as such, they may be seen in normal individuals in dehydration or vigorous exercise. Hyaline casts are cylindrical and clear, with a low refractive index,

Ketones

Ketones are substances produced in the liver when fat cells break down in the blood. A serum ketone test is a measurement of how many ketones are in the blood.

Leukocyte Esterase

Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection.

Nitrite

Occult Blood

The test looks for hidden (occult) blood in a specimen sample. It can find blood even if you cannot see it yourself.

Ph

Level of acid

Protein

Body fluids contain many different proteins that serve diverse functions such as transport of nutrients, removal of toxins, control of metabolic processes, and defense against invaders. Protein electrophoresis is a method for separating these proteins based on their size and electrical charge. When body fluids are separated by electrophoresis, they form a characteristic pattern of bands of different widths and intensities, reflecting the mixture of proteins present. This pattern is divided into five fractions, called albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma. In some cases, the beta fraction is further divided into beta 1 and beta 2. Albumin, which is produced in the liver, accounts for about 60% of the protein in the blood. "Globulins" is a collective term used to refer to proteins other than albumin. With the exception of the immunoglobulins and some complement proteins, most of the globulins are also produced in the liver. Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) is a method used to identify abnormal bands seen on serum, urine, or CSF protein electrophoresis, as to which type of antibody (immunoglobulin) is present.

Rbc

RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. How much oxygen your body tissues get depends on how many RBCs you have and how well they work.

Reducing Substances

Renal Epithelial Cells

Specific Gravity

Squamous Epithelial Cells

Transitional Epithelial

Triple Phosphate Crystals

Struvite stones (triple phosphate/magnesium ammonium phosphate) - about 10–15% of urinary calculi are composed of struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate, NH4MgPO4·6H2O).[44] Struvite stones (also known as "infection stones", urease or triple-phosphate stones), form most often in the presence of infection by urea-splitting bacteria

Uric Acid Crystals

Abnormal crystals may appear in urine as a result of pathology or due to normal catabolism

WBC

WBCs help fight infections. They are also called leukocytes. There are five major types of white blood cells: basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes (T cells and B cells), monocytes and neutrophils

YEAST

Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in your body. Usually, your immune system keeps yeast under control. If you are sick or taking antibiotics, it can multiply and cause an infection.
*Process times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. The lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

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