Description: A Glucose test is a blood test used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor conditions that affect glucose levels such as prediabetes, diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia.
Also Known As: Fasting Blood Glucose Test, FBG Test, Fasting Blood Sugar Test, FBS Test, Fasting Glucose Test, FG Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: Fasting required
When is a Glucose test ordered?
Diabetes screening is recommended by several health groups, including the American Diabetes Association and the United States Preventive Services Task Force, when a person is 45 years old or has risk factors.
The ADA recommends retesting within three years if the screening test result is within normal limits, but the USPSTF recommends testing once a year. Annual testing may be used to monitor people with prediabetes.
When someone exhibits signs and symptoms of high blood glucose, a blood glucose test may be conducted.
Diabetics are frequently asked to self-check their glucose levels multiple times a day in order to monitor glucose levels and choose treatment alternatives as suggested by their doctor. Blood glucose levels may be ordered on a regular basis, along with other tests such as A1c, to track glucose control over time.
Unless they show early symptoms or have had gestational diabetes in a prior pregnancy, pregnant women are routinely screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. If a woman is at risk of type 2 diabetes, she may be tested early in her pregnancy, according to the American Diabetes Association. When a woman has type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes, her health care provider will normally order glucose levels to monitor her condition throughout the duration of her pregnancy and after delivery.
What does a Glucose blood test check for?
A fasting glucose test measures glucose. Glucose is the major energy source for the body's cells and the brain and nervous system's only source of energy. A consistent supply must be provided, and a somewhat constant level of glucose in the blood must be maintained. The glucose level in the blood can be measured using a variety of methods.
Fruits, vegetables, breads, and other carbohydrate-rich foods are broken down into glucose during digestion, which is absorbed by the small intestine and circulated throughout the body. Insulin, a hormone generated by the pancreas, is required for the use of glucose for energy production. Insulin promotes glucose transport into cells and instructs the liver to store surplus energy as glycogen for short-term storage or triglycerides in adipose cells.
Normally, blood glucose rises slightly after you eat or drink, and the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the blood, the amount of which is proportional to the size and substance of the meal. The level of glucose in the blood declines as glucose enters the cells and is digested, and the pancreas responds by delaying, then ceasing the secretion of insulin.
When blood glucose levels fall too low, such as between meals or after a strong activity, glucagon is released, which causes the liver to convert some glycogen back into glucose, so boosting blood glucose levels. The level of glucose in the blood remains pretty steady if the glucose/insulin feedback loop is working appropriately. When the balance is upset and the blood glucose level rises, the body strives to restore it by boosting insulin production and removing excess glucose through the urine.
Several diseases can cause the equilibrium between glucose and pancreatic hormones to be disrupted, resulting in high or low blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common cause. Diabetes is a collection of illnesses characterized by inadequate insulin production and/or insulin resistance. Untreated diabetes impairs a person's ability to digest and utilize glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed when the body is unable to produce any or enough insulin. People with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant and may or may not be able to produce enough of the hormone.
Organ failure, brain damage, coma, and, in extreme situations, death can result from severe, sudden fluctuations in blood glucose, either high or low. Chronically high blood glucose levels can harm body organs like the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels, and nerves over time. Hypoglycemia can harm the brain and nerves over time.
Gestational diabetes, or hyperglycemia that exclusively arises during pregnancy, can affect some women. If left untreated, this can result in large babies with low glucose levels being born to these mothers. Women with gestational diabetes may or may not acquire diabetes later in life.
Lab tests often ordered with a Glucose test:
- Complete Blood Count
- Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
- Hemoglobin A1c
- Lipid Panel
- Urinalysis Complete
Conditions where a Glucose test is recommended:
- Kidney Disease
- Insulin Resistance
- Pancreatic Diseases
Commonly Asked Questions:
How does my health care provider use a Glucose test?
The blood glucose test can be used for a variety of purposes, including:
- Detect hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
- Screen for diabetes in those who are at risk before symptoms appear; there may be no early indications or symptoms of diabetes in some circumstances. As a result, screening can aid in detecting it and allowing treatment to begin before the illness worsens or complications emerge.
- Aid in the detection of diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes.
- Monitor your blood sugar levels and manage your diabetes
Glucose levels should be monitored in those who have been diagnosed with diabetes.
Between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, glucose blood tests are performed to assess pregnant women for gestational diabetes. Pregnant women who have never been diagnosed with diabetes should be screened and diagnosed using either a one-step or two-step strategy, according to the American Diabetes Association and the US Preventive Services Task Force.
Other tests, including diabetic autoantibodies, insulin, and C-peptide, may be used in conjunction with glucose to assist in detecting the reason of elevated glucose levels, differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and assess insulin production.
What does my glucose test result mean?
High blood glucose levels are most commonly associated with diabetes, but they can also be caused by a variety of other diseases and ailments.
Hypoglycemia is defined by a drop in blood glucose to a level that triggers nervous system symptoms before affecting the brain. The Whipple triad is a set of three criteria for diagnosing hypoglycemia.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.