Pregnancy Third Trimester (28 weeks to delivery)

Third Trimester Pregnancy Lab Tests and health information

Find the right blood test during pregnancy third trimester with Ulta Lab Tests to screen for and monitor your health. Get an accurate test results sent confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours. Order from Ulta Lab Tests today! 


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This test will identify approximately 90% of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) mutations in the Caucasian population, and 97% in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. For prenatal specimens, use test code 10226.

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Description: A Ferritin test is a blood test that measures Ferritin levels in your blood’s serum to evaluate the level of iron stored in your body.

Also Known As: Ferritin Serum Test, Ferritin Test, Ferritin Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Ferritin test ordered?

When a CBC test’s implies iron deficiency anemia due to small red blood cells or low hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, the ferritin test, and other iron tests, may be requested, even if other clinical symptoms have not yet arisen.

There are frequently no physical symptoms in the early stages of iron insufficiency. Symptoms rarely develop before hemoglobin falls below dangerous levels. However, when the iron deficit continues, symptoms emerge, prompting a doctor to order ferritin and other iron-related testing. The following are the most prevalent symptoms of iron deficiency anemia:

  • Chronic tiredness/fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Skin that is pale

Shortness of breath, ringing in the ears, sleepiness, and irritability may occur as iron levels are reduced. Chest pain, headaches, limb pains, shock, and even heart failure may occur as the anemia worsens. Learning impairments can occur in children. There are some symptoms that are specific to iron deficiency, in addition to the usual signs of anemia. Pica, a burning feeling in the tongue or a smooth tongue, ulcers at the corners of the mouth, and spoon-shaped finger- and toe-nails are only a few of the symptoms.

When iron overload is suspected, a ferritin level may be requested. Iron overload symptoms differ from person to person and tend to worsen over time. They are caused by an excess of iron in the blood and tissues. Among the signs and symptoms are:

  • Joint discomfort
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Loss of weight
  • Energy deficiency
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Suffering from a lack of sexual desire
  • Hair loss on the body
  • Congestive heart failure is an example of a cardiac issue

Other iron tests including a genetic test for hereditary hemochromatosis may be conducted to confirm the existence of iron excess.

What does a Ferritin blood test check for?

Ferritin is an iron-containing protein that stores iron in cells in its most basic form. The amount of total iron stored in the body is reflected in the little amount of ferritin released into the blood. This test determines how much ferritin is present in the blood.

About 70% of the iron consumed by the body is integrated into the hemoglobin of red blood cells in healthy humans. The remaining 30% is stored primarily as ferritin or hemosiderin, which is a combination of iron, proteins, and other elements. Hemosiderin and ferritin are typically found in the liver, although they can also be found in the bone marrow, spleen, and skeletal muscles.

Iron stores are depleted and ferritin levels fall when available iron is insufficient to meet the body's needs. This can happen owing to a lack of iron, poor absorption, or an increased need for iron, such as during pregnancy or if you have a condition that causes persistent blood loss. Before any indicators of iron shortage appear, significant loss of iron reserves may occur.

When the body absorbs more iron than it needs, iron storage and ferritin levels rise. Chronic iron absorption causes a gradual buildup of iron compounds in organs, which can eventually lead to organ malfunction and failure. Even on a typical diet, this happens in hemochromatosis, a hereditary disorder in which the body absorbs too much iron.

Lab tests often ordered with a Ferritin test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Transferrin
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Zinc Protoporphyrin

Conditions where a Ferritin test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Lead poisoning
  • Pregnancy
  • Restless Leg Syndrome

How does my health care provider use a Ferritin test?

The ferritin test is used to determine the amount of iron a person has in their body. To determine the existence and severity of iron shortage or iron overload, the test is sometimes ordered in conjunction with an iron test and a TIBC test.

One source of iron overload can be the use of iron supplements.

What does my ferritin lab test result mean?

Ferritin levels are frequently measured alongside other iron tests.

Ferritin levels are low in iron deficient people and high in people who have hemochromatosis or have had several blood transfusions.

Ferritin is an acute phase reactant that can be elevated in persons who have inflammation, liver illness, chronic infection, autoimmune disorders, or cancer. Ferritin isn't commonly utilized to detect or monitor these problems.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Ferritin, Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)

  • Ferritin
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)

Plasma glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders.

Plasma glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders.

Plasma glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders.

A value of >130 mg/dL indicates the need for a full diagnostic, 100 g. Dose, 3-hour glucose tolerance test performed in the fasting state. Plasma and serum glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasm.

A value of 140 mg/dL or greater indicates the need for a full diagnostic, gestational glucose tolerance performed in the fasting state to determine if the patient has gestational diabetes.

Postprandial glucose levels may be abnormally high in patients with gestational diabetes. If results are positive, and the patient is pregnant, a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test should be performed for confirmation of gestational diabetes.

A value of 130 mg/dL or greater indicates the need for a full diagnostic, gestational glucose tolerance performed in the fasting state to determine if the patient has gestational diabetes.

A value of 140 mg/dL or greater indicates the need for a full diagnostic, gestational glucose tolerance performed in the fasting state to determine if the patient has gestational diabetes.


Description: Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Qualitative is a test that will determine if there are Hep B antibodies present in the blood.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, Hep B Surface Antibody Test, Hep B Antibody Test, Hepatitis B Antibody Test, Hep B Surface Ab Test, HBV Antibody Test, HBV Surface Antibody Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test ordered?

When someone exhibits acute hepatitis-related signs and symptoms, a hepatitis B test may be requested to evaluate whether the symptoms are caused by HBV infection.

When the findings of normal testing, such as ALT and/or AST, are increased, hepatitis B tests may be performed as a follow-up. Since they may only cause minor symptoms that can be mistaken for the flu, acute forms of hepatitis can occasionally be identified in this way. Chronic hepatitis is more frequently found when routine test results are abnormal and more frequently has no symptoms.

When a person is at high risk for developing chronic hepatitis B, a test for hepatitis B surface antigen may be utilized for screening.

Hepatitis B tests may be run on a regular basis to check on persons with chronic hepatitis B infections. Since HBeAg may disappear on its own in certain individuals, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen measurements are often performed every six to twelve months. HBeAg and HBV DNA testing can be used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment in patients with chronic HBV.

What does a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test check for?

Hepatitis B tests look for chemicals that indicate a recent or past hepatitis B virus infection. While some tests look for viral proteins or antibodies created in response to an infection, others look for or assess the virus' genetic makeup. A person who has immunity as a result of prior exposure or who now has an active infection can be determined by the pattern of test findings.

The symptoms of hepatitis include inflammation and liver enlargement. It can be caused by a number of different things, one of which is virus infection. One of the five "hepatitis viruses" that have been found thus far is HBV. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E make up the remaining four.

Contact with blood or other bodily fluids from an infected person can transfer HBV. For instance, sharing needles for IV drug usage or having sex without protection can expose someone. Greater risk applies to people who reside in or travel to regions of the world where hepatitis B is common. Rarely, generally during or after birth, women might transmit the virus to their newborns. The virus cannot be spread by innocuous actions like shaking hands, coughing, or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood. It can also spread through the sharing of objects like toothbrushes or razors with an infected individual.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the United States since 1981, and starting in 1991, medical professionals there started immunizing newborns. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the virus is present in between 804,000 and 1.4 million Americans, the majority of whom are unaware that they are infected.

HBV infections can range in severity from a brief, mild form to a more dangerous, chronic variant that lasts for years. Serious side effects from persistent HBV can occasionally include cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Acute HBV infection, albeit potentially dangerous, typically goes away on its own in most adults. Children and infants are more likely than adults to have a persistent infection. 90% of newborns with HBV infection go on to acquire a chronic illness. Between 25% and 50% of children between the ages of one and five are at risk of acquiring chronic hepatitis. Only 6% to 10% of HBV infections that start after age five progress to chronic disease.

Most people with persistent infections won't show any symptoms. The signs and symptoms of acute infections are quite similar to those of other acute hepatitis types. Fever, exhaustion, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are among the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally when someone has acute hepatitis. It might not eliminate toxins or waste materials from the body, such bilirubin. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. Although tests like bilirubin or a liver panel can show a doctor that a patient has hepatitis, they cannot tell them what is causing it. The cause may be found with tests that look for hepatitis virus infection.

Testing for hepatitis B can be done in the absence of symptoms, to identify if an infection is acute or chronic, or to keep track of a chronic infection and how well therapy is working.

Lab tests often ordered with a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test:

  • Hepatitis A Antibody Testing
  • Hepatitis C Antibody Testing

Conditions where a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Disease

How does my health care provider use a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test?

Antibody generated in response to HBV surface antigen is detected by hepatitis B surface antibody test. It is used to determine the necessity for immunization or if a person has recovered from an infection and is immune. It can also arise from effective vaccination.

What do my Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test results mean?

If antibodies are not detected, it indicates that a person has not developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

If antibodies are detected, it indicates that a person has developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

Clinical Significance

The detection of anti-HBs is indicative of a prior immunologic exposure to the antigen or vaccine. To determine immune status as ≥10 mIU/mL as per CDC guidelines, please order Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative is a test that will determine if there are Hep B antibodies present in the blood.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, Hep B Surface Antibody Test, Hep B Antibody Test, Hepatitis B Antibody Test, Hep B Surface Ab Test, HBV Antibody Test, HBV Surface Antibody Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test ordered:

Hepatitis B antibody testing is generally ordered to determine immunity to Hepatitis B through the detection of antibodies in the blood. This testing is often requested for medical records related to school and healthcare professions.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative blood test check for?

Antibodies to the hepatitis B virus are detected in hepatitis B antibody tests, which indicate a past infection or immunization against the virus.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is disseminated through coming into touch with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who reside in or travel to places of the world where hepatitis B is common are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, generally during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing infants at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test:

  • Hepatitis A antibody test
  • Hepatitis C antibody test
  • Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin Fractionated
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • AST
  • ALT
  • Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Liver Disease

How does my health care provider use a Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test?

Antibody generated in response to HBV surface antigen is detected by hepatitis B surface antibody test. It is used to determine the necessity for immunization or if a person has recovered from an infection and is immune. It can also arise from effective vaccination.

What do my Hepatitis B antibody test results mean?

If antibodies are not detected, it indicates that a person has not developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

If antibodies are detected, it indicates that a person has developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hepatitis B Surface antigen test is a blood test that checks for hepatitis b antigen in your blood’s serum. If hepatitis B antigen is detected, confirmation testing will be performed.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, HBsAg Test, Hepatitis B Antigen Test, HBV Test, HBV Surface Antigen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS IS A REFLUX TEST - The price charged for this test is only for the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. ADDITIONAL CHARGE OF $39 WILL OCCUR FOR THE REFLUX CONFIRMATION if the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive.

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test ordered?

When someone develops signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis, hepatitis B tests may be conducted to see if they are caused by HBV infection.

When standard test findings such as ALT and/or AST are elevated, hepatitis B testing may be ordered as a follow-up. Acute varieties of hepatitis can sometimes be diagnosed this way since they only generate minor symptoms that are easily confused with the flu. Chronic hepatitis is more typically diagnosed when routine test results are abnormal and has no symptoms.

When someone falls into one of the high risk categories for chronic hepatitis B, a test for hepatitis B surface antigen may be utilized for screening.

Hepatitis B tests may be repeated on a regular basis to monitor persons who have chronic hepatitis B infections. Hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis Be antigen are normally evaluated every 6 months to a year since HBeAg can disappear on its own in certain persons. HBeAg and HBV DNA testing can be used to detect whether or not a patient is receiving effective treatment for chronic HBV.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen blood test check for?

Hepatitis B tests look for chemicals that indicate a present or former hepatitis B infection. Some tests look for viral antigen or antibodies produced in response to an infection, while others look for or analyse the virus's genetic material. A person with a current active infection or immunity as a result of earlier exposure can be identified by the pattern of test findings.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is transmitted through contact with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who live in or go to locations where hepatitis B is widespread are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, usually during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by exchanging razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Efficient hepatitis B vaccines have already been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing newborns at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Acute HBV infection, albeit potentially dangerous, normally goes away on its own in most adults. Infants and children are more likely than adults to get a persistent infection. Ninety percent of newborns affected with HBV will develop a chronic illness. Between the ages of one and five, the risk of having chronic hepatitis lowers to 25% to 50%. Only 6% to 10% of HBV illnesses become chronic in children over the age of five.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and hepatic enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Hepatitis B testing can be used to detect infection in the absence of symptoms, to establish whether an infection is acute or chronic, and to track the progress of a chronic infection and its treatment.

Lab tests often ordered with a a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test:

  • Hepatitis A Test
  • Hepatitis C Test
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin
  • AST
  • AST
  • GGT
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Disease
  • HIV

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis B Antigen test?

Hepatitis B viral tests can be used for a number of different reasons. Some tests look for antibodies produced in response to HBV infection, while others look for antigens produced by the virus and yet others look for viral DNA.

In most cases, one set of tests is used as an initial panel of tests to diagnose HBV infection or determine the reason of acute symptoms, while another set of tests may be performed after a diagnosis to track disease progression, detect chronic infection, and/or determine carrier status.

What do my Hepatitis B Surface antigen test results mean?

Hepatitis B tests can be requested alone, although they are frequently ordered in combination, depending on the purpose for testing. The results of the tests are usually compared. The significance of one test result may be influenced by the outcome of another. However, not everyone is subjected to all tests.

If the findings of initial and follow-up testing suggest that a person has chronic hepatitis B, the individual may be treated with medication, and the effectiveness of that therapy can be tracked using HBe antigen and antibody tests, as well as HBV DNA tests.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity is a blood panel used to determine iron levels in your blood, your body’s ability to transport iron, and help diagnose iron-deficiency and iron overload.

Also Known As: Serum Iron Test, Serum Fe Test, Iron Binding Capacity Test, IBC Test, Serum Iron-Binding Capacity Siderophilin Test, TIBC Test, UIBC Test, Iron Lab Test, TIBC Blood test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test ordered?

When a doctor feels that a person's symptoms are caused by iron overload or poisoning, an iron and TIBC test, as well ferritin assays, may be done. These may include the following:

  • Joint discomfort
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Energy deficiency
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Suffering from a lack of sexual desire
  • Problems with the heart

When a child is suspected of ingesting too many iron tablets, a serum iron test is required to detect the poisoning and to determine its severity.

A doctor may also request iron and TIBC when the results of a standard CBC test are abnormal, such as a low hematocrit or hemoglobin, or when a doctor suspects iron deficiency based on signs and symptoms such as:

  • Chronic tiredness/fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Headaches
  • Skin that is pale

What does a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity blood test check for?

Iron is a necessary ingredient for survival. It is a vital component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that binds and releases oxygen in the lungs and throughout the body. It is required in small amounts to help form normal red blood cells and is a critical part of hemoglobin, the protein in RBCs that binds oxygen in the lungs and releases it as blood circulates to other parts of the body.

By detecting numerous components in the blood, iron tests are ordered to determine the quantity of iron in the body. These tests are frequently ordered at the same time, and the data are analyzed together to determine the diagnosis and/or monitor iron deficiency or overload.

The level of iron in the liquid component of the blood is measured by serum iron.

Total iron-binding capacity is a measurement of all the proteins in the blood that may bind to iron, including transferrin.

The percentage of transferrin that has not yet been saturated is measured by the UIBC. Transferrin levels are also reflected in the UIBC.

Low iron levels can cause anemia, resulting in a decrease in the production of microcytic and hypochromic RBCs. Large amounts of iron, on the other hand, might be hazardous to the body. When too much iron is absorbed over time, iron compounds build up in tissues, particularly the liver, heart, and pancreas.

Normally, iron is absorbed from food and distributed throughout the body by binding to transferrin, a liver protein. About 70% of the iron delivered is used in the synthesis of hemoglobin in red blood cells. The rest is stored as ferritin or hemosiderin in the tissues, with minor amounts being utilized to make other proteins like myoglobin and enzymes.

Insufficient intake, limited absorption, or increased dietary requirements, as observed during pregnancy or with acute or chronic blood loss, are all signs of iron deficiency. Excessive intake of iron pills can cause acute iron overload, especially in children. Excessive iron intake, genetic hemochromatosis, multiple blood transfusions, and a few other disorders can cause chronic iron overload.

Lab tests often ordered with a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Ferritin
  • Transferrin
  • Zinc Protoporphyrin

Conditions where a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis

How does my health care provider use a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test?

The amount of circulating iron in the blood, the capacity of the blood to carry iron, and the amount of stored iron in tissues can all be determined by ordering one or more tests. Testing can also assist distinguish between different types of anemia

The level of iron in the blood is measured by serum iron.

Total iron-binding capacity is a measurement of all the proteins in the blood that may bind to iron, including transferrin. The TIBC test is a useful indirect assessment of transferrin because it is the predominant iron-binding protein. In response to the requirement for iron, the body generates transferrin. Transferrin levels rise when iron levels are low, and vice versa. About one-third of the binding sites on transferrin are used to transport iron in healthy humans.

The reserve capacity of transferrin, or the part of transferrin that has not yet been saturated, is measured by UIBC. Transferrin levels are also reflected in the UIBC.

The iron test result, as well as TIBC or UIBC, are used to calculate transferrin saturation. It represents the proportion of transferrin that is iron-saturated.

Ferritin is the major storage protein for iron inside cells, and serum ferritin represents the quantity of stored iron in the body.

These tests are frequently ordered together, and the results can assist the doctor figure out what's causing the iron deficit or overload.

Additional information about iron

A balance between the quantity of iron received into the body and the amount of iron lost is required to maintain normal iron levels. Because a tiny quantity of iron is lost each day, a deficiency will develop if too little iron is consumed. In healthy persons, there is usually enough iron to prevent iron deficiency and/or iron deficiency anemia, unless they eat a bad diet. There is a greater need for iron in some circumstances. People who have persistent gut bleeding or women who have heavy menstrual periods lose more iron than they should and can develop iron deficiency. Females who are pregnant or breastfeeding lose iron to their babies and may develop an iron shortage if they do not consume enough supplemental iron. Children may require additional iron, especially during periods of rapid growth, and may suffer iron shortage.

Low serum iron can also arise when the body is unable to adequately utilize iron. The body cannot correctly utilize iron to generate additional red cells in many chronic disorders, particularly malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and chronic infections. As a result, transferrin production slows, serum iron levels drop because little iron is absorbed from the stomach, and ferritin levels rise. Malabsorption illnesses like sprue syndrome can cause iron deficiency.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


MMR (IgG) Panel (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) Titers - Includes Measles Antibody (IgG), Mumps Antibody (IgG), Rubella Immune Status

This panel provides presumptive evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella for purposes of routine vaccination, for students at post-high school educational institutions, and for international travelers.

The MMR (IgG) Panel is the perfect way to ensure that you are protected against measles, mumps, and rubella. This panel provides you with everything you need to know about your immunity to these diseases and will help you make sure that you are up-to-date on your vaccinations. The Measles Antibody (IgG), Mumps Antibody (IgG), and Rubella Immune Status are all included in this thorough panel, so you can rest assured that you are getting a complete picture of your health.

Order the MMR (IgG) Panel today, and be prepared for anything life throws your way.

What is MMR IgG titer?

The MMR (IgG) Panel is a blood test that measures the levels of antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella in your body. Antibodies are proteins that your immune system produces in reaction to infections. By measuring the levels of these antibodies in the blood, it is possible to assess whether or not an individual is immune to these diseases.

What does the MMR (IgG) Panel include?

This panel includes the Measles Antibody (IgG), Mumps Antibody (IgG), Rubella Immune Status, and Rubella Virus Genotype. The Measles Antibody (IgG) portion of the panel will tell you if you have immunity to measles. The Mumps Antibody (IgG) portion of the panel will tell you if you have immunity to mumps. The Rubella Immune Status portion of the panel will tell you if you are immune to rubella. The Rubella Virus Genotype is used to determine which type of rubella virus you have been infected with.

Why do I need the MMR (IgG) Panel?

The MMR (IgG) Panel is recommended for people who want to ensure that they are up-to-date on their vaccinations. This panel is also recommended for international travelers and for students at post-high school educational institutions.

What is MMR titer positive?

A positive MMR titer means that you have immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. A positive MMR titer is generally considered to be protective for life.

What is MMR titer negative?

A negative MMR titer means that you do not have immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. If you have a negative MMR titer, you should receive the MMR vaccine.

I have a positive MMR titer. Do I still need vaccinations?

Yes, you should still receive vaccinations even if you have a positive MMR titer. This is because the levels of antibodies in your body can decline over time, and you may no longer be protected against these diseases. Vaccinations will help to boost your immunity and help to keep you safe.

I have a negative MMR titer; what does that mean?

A negative MMR titer means that you do not have immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella. You should receive the MMR vaccine if you have a negative titer. The MMR vaccine is an efficient and safe method of protection against many diseases.

What are the risks of the MMR (IgG) Panel?

There are no risks associated with this panel. This panel is a blood test that is performed using a small sample of blood.There is no discomfort or pain involved with this test.

How do I prepare for the MMR (IgG) Panel?

There is no preparation necessary for this panel. You can eat and drink normally before and after the test.

When will I get my results?

Your results will be available within 1-2 business days.

If you have any further questions about the MMR (IgG) Panel, please contact us at any time. We are here to help you and to ensure that you are getting the most accurate and up-to-date information possible.

How often do you need MMR titers?

It is generally recommended that you get an MMR titer test every five years or so to make sure that your immunity levels are still high. You may also need to get an MMR titer test more frequently if you are exposed to measles, mumps, or rubella. If you are unsure about how often you should get an MMR titer test, please speak to your doctor or healthcare provider.

 


Differentiation of glycosuria (glucose in the urine) and non-glucose reducing sugars, e.g., galactose found in the urine of infants afflicted with galactosemia.

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Description: RF is a blood test that is measures the amount of rheumatoid factor that is present in the blood’s serum. It is used along with other tests to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis.

Also Known As: RF Test, Rheumatoid Arthritis Factor Test

Collection Method: Blood Draws

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rheumatoid Factor test ordered?

When a person has RA signs and symptoms, an RF test may be ordered. Pain, warmth, swelling, and morning stiffness in the joints are common symptoms, as are nodules under the skin and, if the disease has progressed, signs of enlarged joint capsules and cartilage and bone loss on X-rays. When the first RF test is negative but the symptoms persist, the RF test may be repeated.

A cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody test may be ordered along with RF or if the RF result is negative to help diagnose RA in someone who has joint inflammation but does not yet fit the criteria for RA.

Additional autoimmune-related tests, such as an ANA, as well as other markers of inflammation, such as a CRP and Sed Rate, as well as a CBC to examine blood cells, may be ordered in addition to the RF test.

What does a Rheumatoid Factor blood test check for?

The autoantibody rheumatoid factor is an immunoglobulin M protein produced by the body's immune system. Autoantibodies attack a person's own tissues, mistaking them for "foreign" tissue. While the biological role of RF is unknown, its presence can be used to detect inflammatory and autoimmune activities. This test identifies and quantifies radiofrequency in the bloodstream.

The RF test is an important tool in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. A RF test will be positive in about 80% of people with RA. RF, on the other hand, can be found in persons with a range of different illnesses, including as Sjögren syndrome, as well as persistent bacterial, viral, and parasite infections, and some malignancies. It can be noticed in patients who have lung, liver, or kidney disease, and it can also be detected in a tiny percentage of healthy persons.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rheumatoid Factor test:

  • Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody
  • ANA
  • Sed Rate
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Immunoglobulins

Conditions where a Rheumatoid Factor test is recommended:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Autoimmune Disorders

How does my health care provider use a Rheumatoid Factor test?

The rheumatoid factor test is used to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and to distinguish it from other types of arthritis or diseases that generate similar symptoms.

While the clinical picture is critical in the diagnosis of RA, some signs and symptoms, particularly in the early stages of the disease, may not be present or follow a predictable pattern. Additionally, the signs and symptoms may not always be easy to distinguish because people with RA may also have other connective tissue disorders such Raynaud phenomenon, scleroderma, autoimmune thyroid problems, and systemic lupus erythematosus and present symptoms of these disorders. When RA is suspected, the RF test is one of several tools that can be used to aid determine a diagnosis.

What do my Rheumatoid Factor test results mean?

The results of the RF test must be interpreted in the context of a person's symptoms and medical history.

The presence of large amounts of RF in persons with symptoms and clinical indications of rheumatoid arthritis indicates that they are likely to develop RA. Higher RF levels are associated with a worse prognosis and more severe illness.

A negative RF test does not rule out the possibility of RA. Around 20% of persons with RA will have very low levels of RF or none at all. In these circumstances, a positive CCP antibody test can be utilized to confirm RA.

Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis tuberculosis, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, scleroderma, infectious mononucleosis, cancers such as leukemia and multiple myeloma, or disease of the liver, lung, or kidney may all produce positive RF test These other disorders are neither diagnosed or monitored with the RF test.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The RPR test is used to determine if a person has been infected with syphilis. An RPR can be used to monitor treatment for syphilis and the effectiveness of syphilis treatment. Syphilis testing is a two-part test. The first round of testing for syphilis is an RPR test. If these results come back positive, a second round of testing will be required. A positive RPR result will be followed by a second method that will be used to confirm the results. If the second syphilis test comes back positive, the affected person will be diagnosed with syphilis. If the second test comes back negative, it could mean that the first test is a false positive and more testing may be necessary.

Also Known As: Rapid Plasma Reagin with Reflex to Titer, Syphilis RPR, Syphilis Titer test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen must be followed by a specific treponemal antibody test (e.g., FTA-ABS):

A positive result on the second method confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

When is a Syphilis RPR test ordered?

When a person shows signs and symptoms of syphilis, a syphilis test may be done.

Regardless of symptoms, a person should be tested for syphilis if they:

  • Are being treated for gonorrhea or another sexually transmitted disease?
  • If a woman is pregnant, she should be seen during the first prenatal visit, then again in the third trimester and at the time of delivery if she is at high risk.
  • Are a man who has sex with other males; testing should be done at least once a year or every 3-6 months if the risk is significant.
  • Engages in high-risk sexual behavior, such as having intercourse with several partners without protection.
  • If you have HIV, you should get tested when you're initially diagnosed and then at least once a year after that; if you're at high risk, you should get tested more frequently.
  • Has one or more partners who have tested positive for syphilis
  • Officials from the Department of Public Health have told him or her that he or she has been exposed to an infected partner.

When a person has been treated for syphilis, the CDC recommends doing follow-up testing, such as assessing antibody levels, to ensure that the therapy was successful and the infection was cured.

What does a Syphilis RPR blood test check for?

Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is primarily spread during sexual activity, such as by direct contact with a syphilis sore. The majority of common syphilis tests can detect antibodies in the blood that were produced in response to a T. pallidum infection. Some less common methods can be used to locate the bacterium or its genetic components.

Syphilis is easily treated with medications, but if left untreated, it can cause serious health concerns. A mother who is afflicted can convey the disease to her unborn child, which can have serious and even fatal effects for the newborn.

With syphilis, there are numerous stages that can occur:

  • The primary stage of syphilis begins about 2-3 weeks following infection. One or more chancres emerge, usually on the body portion exposed to the chancre of the sexual partner, such as the penis or vaginal area. The chancre, on the other hand, is usually painless and may go unnoticed, especially if it is in the rectum or on the cervix, and it goes away within 4-6 weeks, mending whether or not the infected person is treated.
  • If primary syphilis is left untreated, secondary syphilis can develop anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months after the chancre initially emerges. It is characterized by a rough, red, and speckled skin rash that appears regularly on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet and does not itch. Fever, weariness, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, and body aches are some of the other symptoms that can occur.
  • Secondary syphilis can progress to a latent stage, during which an infected individual has no symptoms but still retains the infection, and this stage can remain for years if left untreated. If left untreated, roughly 15% of persons will develop late, or tertiary, syphilis issues. Bacteria can harm the heart, eyes, brain, neurological system, bones, joints, and practically any other component of the body in these situations. Neurosyphilis is a disease that affects the central nervous system. Tertiary syphilis can linger for years, leading to mental illness, blindness, other neurological issues, heart disease, and death in the ultimate stage.
  • If left untreated, syphilis progresses.

The basic and secondary stages of syphilis are the most contagious. About a third of the approximately 63,000 new cases of syphilis reported to the CDC in 2014 were main or secondary stage syphilis. Eighty-three percent of these cases included guys having intercourse with other men.

Antibiotics, usually penicillin, can be used to cure syphilis. Infections that have been acquired recently can be rapidly healed; however, someone who has been infected for more than a year may require prolonged therapy.

Lab tests often ordered with a Syphilis RPR test:

  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Trichomonas
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Syphilis RPR test is recommended:

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes 1
  • Herpes 2
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Syphilis RPR test?

Syphilis tests are used to detect and/or diagnose infection with the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis.

There are a variety of tests to choose from. The most common type of test is an antibody test.

Antibody tests identify antibodies in the blood and, occasionally, in the cerebrospinal fluid. Nontreponemal antibody test and treponemal antibody test are the two types of syphilis tests available. Syphilis screening can be done with any type, but it must be followed by a second test that employs a different approach to confirm a positive result and identify active syphilis:

Antibodies that aren't specifically directed towards the Treponema pallidum bacterium are detected by nontreponemal antibody testing. The body produces these antibodies when a person has syphilis, but they can also be produced in a variety of other situations. Because the tests are non-specific, false-positive findings can be produced by things like IV drug usage, pregnancy, Lyme disease, certain types of pneumonia, malaria, tuberculosis, or certain autoimmune disorders like lupus. A positive screening result must be double-checked with a more detailed test. Nontreponemal testing include the following:

RPR—in addition to screening, this test can be used to track syphilis therapy. Antibody levels are tested for this reason. When an initial test for treponemal antibodies is positive, it can also be used to confirm the existence of an active infection.

VDRL—in addition to blood, this test is largely used to identify neurosyphilis in the CSF.

Antibodies to T. pallidum are detected by treponemal antibody tests, which are blood tests. Because they are extremely specific for syphilis, they are unlikely to produce a positive result in other diseases. Once a person is infected and these antibodies form, they remain in the bloodstream for the rest of their lives. Nontreponemal antibodies, on the other hand, usually vanish within 3 years in a properly treated person. As a result, a positive treponemal screening result must be followed by a nontreponemal test in order to distinguish between an active infection and one that has been successfully treated in the past. FTA-ABS is a treponemal antibody test that is beneficial after the first 3-4 weeks after exposure. It can be used to assess antibodies to T. pallidum in the CSF to assist diagnose neurosyphilis in addition to blood testing.

  • TP-PA—instead of FTA-ABS, this test is sometimes used because it is more specific and has less false positives.
  • Another confirmatory approach is MHA-TP, which is presently used considerably less frequently.
  • Immunoassays—Several automated tests have been developed in recent years, making them useful for screening applications.

What do my Syphilis test results mean?

A negative blood test indicates that there is most likely no infection. A negative screening test, on the other hand, simply states that there was no evidence of disease at the time of the test. Antibodies may not be detected for several weeks following bacterial contact. If a person is aware that he or she has been exposed, or if the risk of infection remains high, additional testing may be required. It is also critical for persons who are at a higher risk of contracting syphilis to get regular screening tests to check for infection.

A particular treponemal antibody test must be performed after a positive RPR or VDRL screen:

The infected person is diagnosed with syphilis once a positive result on the second method confirms the screening result.

A negative treponemal test result could indicate that the initial RPR or VDRL test was incorrectly positive. To discover the reason of the false positive, more testing and investigation may be conducted.

A treponemal antibody test, on the other hand, will be used as an initial test by a healthcare practitioner or laboratory. A positive result indicates the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood, but because treponemal antibodies stay positive even after an infection is treated, it does not indicate whether the person is now afflicted or has previously been infected. Nontreponemal antibodies found with an RPR, on the other hand, usually vanish after 3 years in a properly treated person. If the initial treponemal test is positive, an RPR can be used to determine whether the infection is active or past. A positive RPR in this scenario would establish that the person has been exposed to syphilis and, if not previously treated, has an ongoing infection or, if treatment occurred more than 3 years ago, possible re-infection.

The results of one or more RPR titers may be used to monitor treatment and/or determine if treatment was successful. Antibodies to syphilis should be decreased after therapy. If the RPR was 1:256 before therapy, a number of 1:16 after treatment would indicate a reduced amount of antibody. The affected person may have a persistent infection or was reinfected if the titer stays the same or rises. The results can also be transformed to a whole number or reported as dilutions.

Nontreponemal antibodies fade away over time after effective treatment, whereas treponemal antibodies remain in the blood for the rest of one's life.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Rubella test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgG antibodies, which may be present because of a previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Titer Test, Rubella Infections test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibodies test ordered?

When a woman is pregnant or planning to become pregnant, an IgG rubella test is ordered. It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibodies test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibodies test:

  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Rubella Antibodies test is recommended:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibodies test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella antibodies test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Rubella IgM test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgM antibodies, which may be present because of an active infection.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Infection Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibody IgM test ordered?

It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever (mild)
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibody IgM blood test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibody IgM test:

  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Rubella Antibody IgM test is recommended:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibody IgM test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella Antibody IgM test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection (immune). A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: The Rubella test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgG antibodies, which may be present because of a previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Titer Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibody IgG test ordered?

When a woman is pregnant or planning to become pregnant, an IgG rubella test is ordered. It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibody IgG blood test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibody IgG test:

  • Measles IgG Antibody
  • Mumps IgG Antibody
  • Varicella Zoster Virus IgG Antibody
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B Antibody
  • Hepatitis C Antibody

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella IgG Antibody test:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibody IgG test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella Antibody IgG test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Toxoplasma Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Clinical Significance

Toxoplasma Antibodies (IgG, IgM) - Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately 23% of the immunocompetent population are asymptomatic carriers of the parasite. The combination of high titers of IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondiiis consistent with infection in the last three months. High titers of IgG and low to medium titers of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii are consistent with infection in the last three to six months.

Reference Range(s)

Toxoplasma Antibody (IgG)

IU/mL           Interpretation

  • <7.20 Negative
  • 7.20-8.79 Equivocal
  • >8.79 Positive


Toxoplasma Antibody (IgM)

AU/mL.       Interpretation

  • <8.00 Negative
  • 8.00-9.99 Equivocal
  • >9.99 Positive

Toxoplasma Antibody (IgG) Screen for T gondii infection

Clinical Significance

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately 23% of the immunocompetent population are asymptomatic carriers of the parasite. High titers of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii can persist for years. Rising IgG titers after birth, in the absence of a placental leak, are consistent with neonatal infection.

Reference Range(s)                                                                                                                                       

  • <7.20 IU/mL  Negative
  • 7.20-8.79 IU/mL. Equivocal
  • >8.79 IU/mL. Positive


For women who engage in high-risk activities, such as intravenous drug use or unprotected sexual contact that can contribute to HIV or hepatitis B infection, it is highly advised that these women test for these infections during the third trimester of their pregnancies. Further, it is highly recommended (in fact, required in some states) to test or repeat the tests for sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia in the third trimester. 

A non-stress test (NST) may also be given to pregnant women. This is a non-invasive test performed after the 28th week to monitor health and look for indications of distress in high-risk pregnancies or babies past due. The test also measures the fetal heart rate concerning movement.  

When healthcare practitioners are concerned about how contractions affect fetal heart rate, what is known as a contraction stress test may be performed following the stress test. The process involves medication given to the woman to induce mild contractions (stress). Then, the heart rate of the fetus is monitored.  

Urine Screen for Glucose or Protein 

The expectant mother may be asked to provide a urine specimen at each prenatal visit throughout the first, second and third trimesters. Urine testing is typically conducted in the office using a dipstick when screening for glucose (sugar) or protein. Small levels of protein and glucose are normal in urine. However, high levels can represent a problem and may require further testing.  

Protein  

High levels of protein in urine could mean that there is kidney damage or disease. It could also mean that there is a transient elevation. This could be due to: 

  • Infection 
  • Emotional stress 
  • Physical stress 
  • Medication 

The additional tests needed to determine the cause include a complete urinalysisa 24-hour urine protein test, and urine culture (to identify any present yeast present or any bacteria).  

During the second and third trimesters, one particularly concerning condition, is preeclampsia (also known as toxemia or pregnancy-induced hypertension), which involves high blood pressure and excessive amounts of protein in the urine. It occurs in about eight percent of all pregnancies, and the symptoms include: 

  • Weight gain 
  • Swelling 
  • Vision changes 
  • Headaches  

The risk factors for preeclampsia include:

  • Pregnancy 
  •  Being pregnant with more than one child 
  • Women over the age of 40 
  • Teenagers 
  • African Americans 
  • Having diabetes 
  • Having kidney disease 
  • Having hypertension 

Preeclampsia can reduce air and nutrition getting to the infant through the placenta, which causes low birth weight or other serious issues. However, if preeclampsia is caught early enough by regularly checking urine protein levels and blood pressure, serious health problems can be managed for both the mother and the baby. 

Glucose 

A sign of undiagnosed diabetes existing in a mother could be high urine glucose levels. Gestational diabetes, which is a type of diabetes that can occur during pregnancy, is another sign. After a positive urine test for glucose, a confirmatory blood glucose test is typically conducted. A confirmatory blood glucose test is also routinely used to screen during the second trimester (24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy) for gestational diabetes.  

A Urine Culture, Used to Decide Bacteria in the Urine (First-time or Repeated.) 

Many organizations recommend pregnant women get screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria using a urine culture between 12 to 16 weeks gestation or at the first prenatal visit. These organizations include: 

  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 
  • The United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) 
  • The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) 
  • The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) 

It should be noted that the ACOG recommends the screening at the first prenatal visit and then repeated in the third trimester if you are relying on information from this specific organization. 

When large amounts of bacteria are found in a urine culture during pregnancy, it's known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. A woman with this condition will not experience any associated urinary tract infection, such as pain or urgency to urinate. Approximately 2 to 10 percent of American pregnant women have this condition. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to severe kidney infections and increase the risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery. It is advised that women suffering from asymptomatic bacteriuria seek appropriate antibiotic treatment. 

Group B Strep Screen  

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a common bacteria present as a part of the normal vagina flora and gastrointestinal areas of about 25 percent of women. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is not like Group A streptococcus, which causes strep throat.  

Group B streptococcus is not usually a problem unless it is present in the vagina during delivery. If the bacteria is present during delivery, the infection can spread to: 

  • · The uterus 
  • · The urinary tract 
  • · The amniotic fluid 
  • · The incision made during a cesarean 

As the baby passes through the mother's birth canal during delivery, the baby can inhale or ingest the group B strep bacteria.  

Within six hours of birth or as late as two months of age, the infant will display symptoms if an infant is infected. If left untreated, an infant can:

  • · Become septic 
  • · Develop pneumonia 
  • · Develop physician disabilities 
  • · Develop learning disabilities 
  • · Suffer hearing and vision loss 

To determine the risk of a pregnant woman infecting her infant at delivery, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends screening pregnant women for GBS between 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. To determine if Group B strep bacteria are present, within 24 to 48 hours, samples of the mother's vaginal and rectal areas are collected. If it is found that the bacteria is present, or if the mother goes into labor before testing is complete, it is recommended that the mother get antibiotics intravenously during her delivery.  

Throughout a woman's pregnancy, GBS bacteria can come and go. Therefore, it is not helpful to test for GBS early in the pregnancy. Testing at that time will not determine if it is present during labor or if it could spread to the baby during delivery. Testing late in the pregnancy (35 to 37 weeks) is what is useful for accuracy—also, treating with oral antibiotics before labor is not proven to stop GBS infections in newborns.  

Complete Blood Count (First-time or Repeated) 

complete blood count (CBC) tests the cells circulating in the blood. There are three kinds of cells suspended in plasma that blood consists of white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs). A CBC can be done before pregnancy, in the beginning, or one or more times during pregnancy to identify and stop problems. After baseline values are established from initial testing, results from follow-up testing can be compared to them to check for any changes that could indicate a health issue.  

Red Blood Cells 

When a woman is pregnant, her hemoglobin must be able to supply enough oxygen to both her and her fetus. Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds to oxygen in the lungs, spreads it throughout the body, and gives it to cells and tissues. A woman with insufficient red blood cells or hemoglobin is anemic.  

Lots of pregnant women will have some degree of anemia. Mild anemia can cause tiredness and weakness. But severe anemia in a pregnant woman can cause the fetus not to receive enough oxygen for normal development.  

During delivery, every woman loses a small amount of blood. This is typically not a problem, but even small amounts of blood loss can be dangerous to an anemic woman. Therefore, healthcare practitioners might want to determine the hemoglobin level in a pregnant woman's blood before delivering, which will assess the possible impact of the expected blood loss.  

White blood cells 

The purpose of white blood cells is to protect the body from infection and serve other immune functions. When a woman's white blood cells are involuted during pregnancy, it can help determine infections to treat and resolve before significant health problems occur for the mother or her baby.  

Platelets 

Special cell fragments in the blood are called platelets. They help to form clots to stop bleeding. Women who have low platelet counts or improperly functioning platelets are at risk of life-threatening bleeding during delivery. If a platelet count problem is identified, follow-up testing may be needed to create treatment options. 

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone if a Female Has Thyroid Disease History 

When a woman is pregnant, regular changes occur in the functioning of the many endocrine glands. However, it has a definite effect on the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland produces hormones, such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), essential to the mother's health and healthy fetus development.

If a female has thyroid conditions, she requires careful monitoring if she becomes pregnant. A healthcare practitioner may conduct tests for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to monitor a woman's thyroid function throughout her pregnancy. The pituitary, a small gland in the brain, creates TSH and responds to low T3 or T4 levels. If a woman is taking thyroid hormone replacement medication but still shows increased TSH levels, it may mean that the dose needs to be increased.  

It is advisable to screen women before pregnancy or during the first trimester for elevated TSH, even if there is no history of thyroid disease. A large percentage of women may have an underlying thyroid disorder that can cause issues during pregnancy. 

RBC Antibody Screen  

There are several blood types: 

  • AB 

Each blood type can also be Rh positive or negative. 

Every pregnant woman should know her blood type. [See Blood Typing for more information.] Both mother and child may experience problems if their blood types are not the same or if the mother is Rh-negative and the fetus is Rh-positive, resulting in a severe condition known as Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN). 

 The woman's immune system can create an Rh antibody that attaches to the Rh-positive antigens on her baby's red blood cells and sets them up for destruction. The first Rh-positive baby is not likely to become ill. However, the antibodies produced will affect future Rh-positive babies.  

An Rh-negative mother is less likely to develop this antibody if given the routine Rh immune globulin injection (rhogam) at about 28 weeks gestation. In addition, injections could be necessary during her pregnancy if she has chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, or an abdominal injury. Also, injections could be required after delivery if the baby is Rh-positive. Before a woman receives an injection, a screen for antibodies is done to ensure Rh antibodies are not already present. 

In addition, women who have had blood transfusions or had prior pregnancies could create an antibody to blood factors other than Rh that has the potential of harming an unborn baby. Getting an antibody screen during a woman's first trimester can determine if potentially harmful antibodies are present in the mother's blood. When a harmful antibody is present, if possible, the baby's father should be tested. This will determine if the father's blood has antigens that react with the mother's antibody. If there's a reaction, the fetus may also have the same antigens as the father. If the antibody reacts with the fetus', a healthcare practitioner should evaluate the mother's antibody level and the fetus for the length of the pregnancy. If there are signs that the fetus is becoming ill, it could mean that treatment before birth (such as intrauterine transfusion) or early delivery is required.  

Rh incompatibility has serious consequences. One of the most common causes of HDN is the incompatibility between the baby's ABO blood groups and the mother's. Therefore, you can't use the RBC antibody screen to see if HDN will occur because antibodies to the ABO blood groupings occur naturally. 

Fetal Fibronectin (fFn) for a Woman With Preterm Labor  

This test is given if a woman is between 22 to 25 weeks pregnant with premature labor symptoms to determine premature delivery risks. What is desired is an intervention to protect the preterm baby. 

Vaginal fluid or a cervical sample is collected and analyzed for fFN, a glycoprotein located between the lining of the uterus and the amniotic sac. There can be high levels because of other causes other than the risk of preterm delivery. Thus, a positive fFn result is not entirely reliable for preterm labor and delivery. Nevertheless, a negative fFN is highly determinative that preterm delivery won't occur within 7 to 14 days. Risks are present when treating a woman for premature labor. A negative fFn can eliminate unnecessary hospitalizations and drug therapies.  

Amniocentesis if Risk of Preterm Labor  

Amniocentesis  

While the procedure is conducted, a medical professional inserts a needle through the walls of the abdomen, uterus, and the thin-walled fluid sac surrounding the developing fetus. Amniotic fluid is withdrawn in a small amount. Inside the fluid is AFP created by the baby and fetal cells. A medical professional can test these fetal cells for genetic or chromosomal abnormalities. Based on family history, a gene analysis may be performed to check for the possibility of the child being born with a birth defect or hemoglobinopathy. Or research on the results of screening tests done on the parents (for cystic fibrosis, for example.). To complete the testing, approximately two weeks are needed.  

A slight risk exists with amniocentesis in this situation. The needle inserted into the amniotic sac could puncture the baby, which would cause a small amount of amniotic fluid leakage, an infection, or in rare situations, even a miscarriage could result in the pregnancy. 

 

Pre-eclampsia is among the more severe conditions that can impact women who are pregnant. This condition is diagnosed when a pregnant woman displays three different factors. The first is hypertension or high blood pressure. The second is proteinuria or protein in the urine output, and the third is swelling of her feet, hand, and/or face. In the most serious cases, there might even be evidence of liver and kidney damage, fluid accumulation in the lungs, and central nervous system disturbances. Pre-eclampsia rates among pregnant women range from 3 up to 7 percent, and it typically happens after week 20 of the pregnancy. 

Untreated pre-eclampsia can be very risky since it might hurt the physical organs of the mother’s body and also result in seizures. These seizures are known as eclampsia. If not treated immediately, they are typically fatal for both the mother and child. Both pre-eclampsia and eclampsia can result in premature delivery and low baby birth weight, either of which can result in health issues for the child. Also, placental abruption is another possibility, and this is where the placenta gets loose from its uterus prior to the birth of the baby, resulting in bleeding. 

Pre-eclampsia might also develop into HELLP syndrome, which is another condition that is life-threatening. It’s known as HELLP given how it’s defined by a breakdown in red blood cells, known as Hemolysis, along with Elevated Liver enzymes, as well as a Low Platelet count. 

One in  200 females that have untreated pre-eclampsia wind up progressing to full eclampsia. The majority of eclampsia cases happen in either the third trimester of the pregnancy or in the 4 days following the delivery of the child. In rare cases, it can develop as much as 6 weeks following delivery. 

Pre-eclampsia can result in symptoms very similar to what happens in a normal pregnancy. Also troubling is the fact that some women who have pre-eclampsia demonstrate no symptoms whatsoever. Thus, it’s crucial for pregnant women to attend all their routine prenatal checkups. In these checkups, healthcare professionals do both physical exams and laboratory tests where they look for the ‘quiet’ signs of the condition, including protein output in the urine stream and high blood pressure. 

Currently Known Risk Factors 

Medical and scientific researchers are still attempting to ascertain the specific reasons why pre-eclampsia happens. On the other hand, there are certain risk factors that are already known.

They include but are not always limited to the following: 

  • Any prior pregnancies involving pre-eclampsia 
  • Any family history of there being pre-eclampsia 
  • First-time pregnancy 
  • Pregnancy past the age of 35 
  • Overweight to the point of obesity 
  • Carrying more than one baby 
  • Personal history of other conditions, which include migraine headaches, chronic hypertension, both type 1 and 2 diabetes, lupus, antiphospholipid syndrome, kidney disease, and/or a hypercoagulable state meaning higher tendencies for blood clots 

Signs/Symptoms 

Pre-eclampsia can be a very serious complication for a pregnant woman, and there might not be any obvious symptoms to it. When symptoms are present, it can seem as if they’re just typical pregnancy symptoms. For instance, swelling and weight gain can both indicate pre-eclampsia, and yet they’re also present during otherwise normal pregnancies too. Hypertension is another warning sign of pre-eclampsia, which often goes unnoticed up to the point it’s detected by healthcare practitioners during regular prenatal visits. 

If you have any of the symptoms or signs related to pre-eclampsia, or you notice any sudden changes during your pregnancy, then it’s crucial that you inform your healthcare provider immediately. They will then look for any other signs of this condition and also help monitor all your symptoms. Pre-eclampsia that goes untreated can be a very serious condition that can even prove fatal for both you and your child. Make sure you get to all your prenatal checkups, and also seek medical attention if and when symptoms arise. 

Pre-eclampsia symptoms might include the following: 

  • Sudden gains in weight of more than 2 pounds per week 
  • Edema, a sudden swelling of the face and hands 
  • Headaches of a persistent nature 
  • Changes in vision, including sensitivity to light, temporary loss of vision, blurry vision, and sensations of flashing light 
  • Bluish skin due to poor circulation 
  • Vomiting or nausea, particularly if it happens suddenly past mid-pregnancy 
  • Reduced output of urine 
  • Shortness of breath due to higher blood pressure or fluid buildup in the lungs 
  • Shoulder or stomach pain and pinching, particularly along the upper right side of the abdomen or if laying down on your right side, as these might demonstrate liver problems 

Some pre-eclampsia signs can be detected during physical examination. Should you experience any of these, seek out medical care immediately. 

They include the following: 

  • Elevated blood pressure 
  • Atypically strong leg reflexes, like when your healthcare practitioner uses a rubber hammer to tap your knee 
  • Shortness of breath, abdominal pain, severe headaches, and blurred vision are all very serious pre-eclampsia symptoms

Complications 

When left untreated, the condition of pre-eclampsia can result in very serious and even potentially life-threatening complications for both mother and child. 

Potential complications include the following: 

  • Eclampsia/seizure 
  • Rupture of the liver 
  • Stroke 
  • Low baby birth weight 
  • Placental abruption where the placenta gets loose from its uterus prior to the delivery of the baby, resulting in bleeding 
  • Women that have a personal history of pre-eclampsia have higher odds of developing: 
  • Cardiovascular disease 
  • Diabetes 
  • Kidney disease 

Testing Related to Pre-Eclampsia 

At the time of this writing, there’s not a single test for reliably identifying pre-eclampsia during early pregnancy. As such, the ACOG, or American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, suggests that, instead, healthcare practitioners conduct pre-eclampsia screening during the first trimester by getting a thorough medical history of women, and assessing for known risk factors. 

During a regular prenatal exam, healthcare practitioners lookout for symptoms and signs of pre-eclampsia, including atypical weight gain, swelling of the face and hands, and high blood pressure. During the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, there are urine tests for high volumes of protein, which can be a potential warning sign of pre-eclampsia. 

If you have any symptoms or signs of pre-eclampsia, then your healthcare provider is likely to conduct additional imaging and laboratory tests in an attempt to first diagnose the condition and secondly ascertain its level of severity. 

Laboratory Testing 

Proteinuria, or protein in urine output, was once thought of as a pre-eclampsia diagnostic sign. On the other hand, not every woman with the condition of pre-eclampsia actually has proteinuria. ACOG doesn’t recognize proteinuria as a required sign of pre-eclampsia diagnosis any longer. These days, healthcare practitioners also look for high blood pressure on top of proteinuria. They might also look for high blood pressure and one of many other symptoms or signs, including edema, serious vision changes, poor function in the liver or kidneys, and/or low platelet count. 

The following tests are useful in the diagnosis of the condition, ascertaining its severity, and keeping up with its progression: 

Urine protein to creatinine ratio and urine protein tests are used to detect elevated levels of protein in urine output. 

Uric acidserum creatinine, and BUN tests all measure and analyze kidney functions to find pre-eclampsia organ damage and frequent measurements to monitor the condition. 

AST (or aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (or serum alanine aminotransferase) are both liver function tests which look for elevated levels to indicate pre-eclampsia organ damage. 

CBC (or complete blood count) testing is ordered for detecting bloodstream changes like low platelet counts. 

PTT (or partial thromboplastin time) testing measures how long it takes for blood to clot, as pre-eclampsia might extend times for blood clotting. 

Antiphospholipid antibodies are looked for since this autoimmune disorder is a syndrome associated with a condition of pre-eclampsia, as well as other complications in pregnancy. Testing for such antibodies can ascertain if some autoimmune disorders might by underlying pre-eclampsia. 

HELLP syndrome can be a life-threatening variation of the condition of pre-eclampsia, as outlined earlier in this content. Should your healthcare provider suspect that you are afflicted with HELLP syndrome, then certain tests might happen, including: 

Total bilirubin, because elevated levels of this often indicate either red blood cell hemolysis or liver damage. 

Serum lactate dehydrogenase (or LD) testing looks for elevated LD levels that suggest cell or tissue damage, like the kind that happens when red blood cells breakdown. 

Peripheral blood smear testing examines red blood cells using a microscope to find abnormalities or damage.