Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Lab Tests and health information

CAD is the most common type of heart disease. Learn more about risk factors, symptoms, and how you can get lab tests for coronary artery disease here. Check out our lab panels to understand your risk for coronary artery disease. These lab panels can provide a complete picture of the various factors impacting your risk of heart disease. The tests for coronary artery disease can give you an accurate reading of your risk of heart and blood vessel disease, with results sent confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours. Order from Ulta Lab Tests today!


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Cardio IQ® ASCVD Risk Panel with Score 

This panel provides the 10-year and lifetime risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) using lipid results with anthropomorphic data and family history. 
The ASCVD risk assessment is recommended in the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults.

IMPORTANT: For risk calculations to be performed, the following patient-specific information must be provided and recorded at the time of specimen collection:

  • Age: Years 
  • Gender: M (for male) or F (for female) 
  • Height Feet: Feet 
  • Height Inches: Inches 
  • Weight: lbs 
  • Race-African American: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Systolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure: mmHg
  • Treatment for High B.P.: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Diabetes Status: Y (for yes) or N (for no)
  • Parental History of Diab: Y (for yes) or N (for no) 
  • Smoking Status: Y (for Yes) or N (for no)

 

 


  • Apolipoprotein A-1, Cardio IQ™
  • Cardio IQ(R) Homocysteine
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LP PLA2 ACTIVITY
  • hs-CRP, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipid Panel, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein (a), Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility, Cardio IQ™
  • Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma

 


  • Apolipoprotein A-1, Cardio IQ™
  • Cardio IQ(R) Homocysteine
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LP PLA2 ACTIVITY
  • Fibrinogen Antigen, Nephelometry, Cardio IQ™
  • hs-CRP, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipid Panel, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein (a), Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility, Cardio IQ™
  • Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma

  • Apolipoprotein A-1, Cardio IQ™
  • Cardio IQ(R) Homocysteine
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LP PLA2 ACTIVITY
  • CARDIO IQ(R) MYELOPEROXIDASE (MPO)
  • hs-CRP, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipid Panel, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein (a), Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility, Cardio IQ™
  • Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma

  • Apolipoprotein A-1, Cardio IQ™
  • Cardio IQ(R) Homocysteine
  • CARDIO IQ(R) LP PLA2 ACTIVITY
  • CARDIO IQ(R) MYELOPEROXIDASE (MPO)
  • Fibrinogen Antigen, Nephelometry, Cardio IQ™
  • hs-CRP, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipid Panel, Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein (a), Cardio IQ™
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility, Cardio IQ™
  • Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma

Description: Ion Mobility Lipoprotein Fractionation is a test that uses a gas-phase technology to separate the lipid particles by size. As each particle is separated, they are counted.

Also Known As: LDL Particle Testing, LDL-P Test, LDL Subclass Test, sdLDL Test, LDL Fractionations Test, LDL Particle Size Test, LDL Particle Number Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting preferred, but not required

When is a Lipoprotein Fractionation test ordered?

When someone has a personal or family history of early cardiovascular disease, this testing may be ordered as part of an overall evaluation of cardiac risk, especially if the person does not have typical cardiac risk factors like high cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high triglyceride, low HDL cholesterol, smoking, obesity, inactivity, diabetes, and/or hypertension.

When a person with elevated LDL-P and/or a high proportion of tiny, dense LDL particles has undertaken cholesterol-lowering treatment or lifestyle adjustments, the healthcare practitioner may conduct LDL lipoprotein subfraction testing, as well as other lipid tests, to assess treatment success.

Although LDL-P is not typically suggested as a screening test, some healthcare practitioners are using it in conjunction with a battery of other cardiac risk tests to evaluate a person's overall risk of getting CVD.

What does a Lipoprotein Fractionation blood test check for?

Low-density lipoproteins are lipid-transporting particles that travel throughout the body. Protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules are all present in each particle. As they move through the bloodstream, their makeup changes. Lipoprotein particles range in size from large and fluffy to small and dense, depending on which molecules are eliminated and which are added. The relative amounts of particles with different characteristics in the blood are determined by LDL particle testing. Subfractionation testing is a term used to describe this process.

Traditional lipid testing determines the amount of LDL cholesterol in the blood but does not assess the number of LDL particles. Increased numbers of small, dense LDL particles have been linked to inflammation and are more likely to produce atherosclerosis than fewer light, fluffy LDL particles, according to some research. Researchers believe that the existence of an elevated quantity of sdLDL could be one of the reasons why some people have heart attacks while having relatively low total and LDL cholesterol levels.

The number of sdLDL particles in a person's blood is determined in part by genetics, in part by sex, and in part by lifestyle and overall health. Increased levels of sdLDL are linked to certain diseases and disorders, like as diabetes and hypertension.

By examining a person's triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, it is usually able to estimate whether they have a high amount of sdLDL particles. Typically, these tests are done as part of a lipid profile. People with high triglycerides and low HDL-C have higher levels of sdLDL. More sdLDL is connected with a triglyceride level greater than 120 mg/dL and an HDL-C level less than 40 mg/dL in men and less than 50 mg/dL in women.

Other lipoprotein particles, such as HDL and VLDL, can also be subfractionated, however these tests are generally utilized in research settings and are not discussed on this page.

Lab tests often ordered with a Lipoprotein Fractionation test:

  • Lipid Panel
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Direct LDL
  • Apolipoprotein A-1
  • Apolipoprotein B
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Triglycerides
  • Homocysteine
  • Hs-CRP
  • VAP

Conditions where a Lipoprotein Fractionation test is recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Disease

How does my health care provider use a Lipoprotein Fractionation test?

Low-density lipoprotein particle testing determines the number, size, density, and/or electrical charge of LDL particles. It may be useful in determining cardiac risk in patients with a personal or family history of heart disease at a young age, particularly if their total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels are not markedly increased. LDL subfraction testing is usually done in conjunction with or after a lipid profile.

While the LDL-C test is a good predictor of cardiovascular disease risk for many people, research has indicated that certain persons with healthy LDL-C levels nonetheless have an increased risk of CVD. Similarly, even if their LDL-C is at a safe level, people with chronic diseases like diabetes may be at higher risk. The quantity of LDL particles and/or their size has been recommended as an additional factor to consider when assessing CVD risk in these populations. Lipoprotein subfraction testing may be done in these situations to further assess a person's CVD risk.

LDL-P is sometimes requested to see how well a treatment is working at reducing the quantity of tiny, dense LDL particles.

LDL subfraction testing has been employed in clinical settings, although VLDL or HDL subfraction testing is primarily used in research. This is because LDL cholesterol has been established as the key risk factor for heart disease, and LDL assessment has received increased attention in research and development.

What do my Lipoprotein Fractionation test results mean?

The method and reporting format utilized in an LDL-P test, as well as the person's total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL, and/or HDL cholesterol, are all reflected in the results. Because different methods divide subclasses based on different physical qualities, results may not be immediately comparable from one method to the next or from one laboratory to the next.

Usually, the result is evaluated in context of a lipid profile and the risk it implies:

  • If a person has a high number of mostly tiny, dense LDL and an elevated LDL-P, this result will enhance the person's risk of cardiovascular disease beyond the risk associated with total LDL.
  • If a person only has large, fluffy LDL and a low LDL-P, this discovery will not put them at any greater risk.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


CVD - 1. Low Heart Health Risk


CVD - 2. Moderate Heart Health Risk


CVD - 3. High Heart Health Risk


CVD - 4. High Heart Health Risk Plus


Description: Apo A1 is a blood test that measures that amount of Apolipoprotein A1 in the blood’s. This test is used to assess cardiovascular risk. Low levels of APO A1 are associated with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and are said to predict CAD better then triglycerides and HDL does.

Also Known As: Apo A1 Test, Apo A-1 Test, Apolipoprotein A-1 Test, A-1 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for at least 12 hours is required

When is an Apolipoprotein A1 test ordered?

Apolipoprotein A-I and B, as well as other lipid tests, may be ordered as part of a screening to identify a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apo A-I is a protein that plays a key function in lipid metabolism and is the most abundant protein in HDL, or "good cholesterol." Excess cholesterol in cells is removed by HDL, which transports it to the liver for recycling or elimination. Apo A-I levels tend to rise and fall with HDL levels, and apo A-I deficits are linked to an increased risk of CVD.

What does an Apolipoprotein A1 test check for?

Lipids are transported throughout the bloodstream by apolipoproteins, which mix with them. Lipoproteins are held together by apolipoproteins, which protect the water-repellent (hydrophobic) lipids at their core.

Lipoproteins are cholesterol or triglyceride-rich proteins that transport lipids throughout the body for cell absorption. HDL, on the other hand, is like an empty cab. It travels to the tissues to collect excess cholesterol before returning it to the liver. Cholesterol is either recycled for future use or eliminated in bile in the liver. The only mechanism for cells to get rid of excess cholesterol is by HDL reverse transport. It protects the arteries and, if enough HDL is present, it can even reverse the formation of fatty plaques, which are deposits caused by atherosclerosis and can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

The taxi driver is Apolipoprotein A. It permits HDL to be detected and bound by receptors in the liver at the end of the transport by activating the enzymes that load cholesterol from the tissues into HDL. Apolipoprotein A is divided into two types: apo A-I and apo A-II. Apo A-I has a higher prevalence than apo A-II. Apo A-I concentrations can be evaluated directly, and they tend to rise and fall in tandem with HDL levels. Deficiencies in apo A-I are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lab tests often ordered with an Apolipoprotein A1 test:

  • Apolipoprotein B
  • Cholesterol Total
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Homocysteine
  • hs-CRP
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility

Conditions where an Apolipoprotein A1 test is recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Angina
  • Coronary Heart Disease

How does my health care provider use an Apolipoprotein A1 test?

An apo B/apo A-I ratio can be determined by ordering both an apo A-I and an apo B test. To assess the risk of developing CVD, this ratio is sometimes used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

An apo A-I test may be ordered in the following situations:

Assist in the diagnosis of apo A-I deficiency caused by genetic or acquired diseases.

Assist those with a personal or family history of heart disease, high cholesterol, or triglycerides in their blood.

Keep track of how well lifestyle changes and lipid therapies are working.

An apo A-I test can be ordered in conjunction with an apo B test to determine the apo B/apo A-I ratio. This ratio is occasionally used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (which is sometimes included in a lipid profile) to assess the risk of developing CVD.

What do my Apolipoprotein A1 test results mean?

Low apo A-I levels are linked to low HDL levels and slowed elimination of excess cholesterol from the body. Low levels of apo A-I, as well as high levels of apo B, are linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

Deficiencies in apo A-I are caused by a number of hereditary diseases. Abnormal lipid levels, notably excessive amounts of low-density lipoprotein, are common in people with certain illnesses. They frequently have a higher rate of atherosclerosis. Low apo A-I levels are caused by several genetic diseases.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Apo A1 and B is a blood test that measures that amount of Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B in the blood’s serum along with the ratio between B/A1. This test is used to assess cardiovascular risk. Low levels of APO A1 are associated with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and are said to predict CAD better then triglycerides and HDL does.

Also Known As: Apo A1 and B Test, Apo A1 Test, Apo B Test, APOAB Test, Apolipoprotein B-100 Test, Apolipoprotein Evaluation Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for 12 hours is required.

When are Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests ordered?

Apolipoprotein A-I and B, as well as other lipid tests, may be ordered as part of a screening to identify a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apo A-I is a protein that plays a key function in lipid metabolism and is the most abundant protein in HDL, or "good cholesterol." Excess cholesterol in cells is removed by HDL, which transports it to the liver for recycling or elimination. Apo A-I levels tend to rise and fall with HDL levels, and apo A-I deficits are linked to an increased risk of CVD.

Apo B is a protein that plays a role in lipid metabolism and is the major protein component of lipoproteins including VLDL and LDL, popularly known as "bad cholesterol." Apo B concentrations are similar to LDL-C concentrations.

What does Apolipoprotein A1 and B blood tests check for?

Lipids are transported throughout the bloodstream by apolipoproteins, which mix with them. Lipoproteins are held together by apolipoproteins, which protect the water-repellent lipids at their core.

Lipoproteins are cholesterol or triglyceride-rich proteins that transport lipids throughout the body for cell absorption. HDL, on the other hand, is like an empty cab or taxi. It travels to the tissues to collect excess cholesterol before returning it to the liver. Cholesterol is either recycled for future use or eliminated in bile in the liver. The only mechanism for cells to get rid of excess cholesterol is by HDL reverse transport. It protects the arteries and, if enough HDL is present, it can even reverse the formation of fatty plaques, which are deposits caused by atherosclerosis and can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

Sticking with the taxi analogy, the driver is Apolipoprotein A. It permits HDL to be detected and bound by receptors in the liver at the end of the transport by activating the enzymes that load cholesterol from the tissues into HDL. Apolipoprotein A is divided into two types: apo A-I and apo A-II. Apo A-I has a higher prevalence than apo A-II. Apo A-I concentrations can be evaluated directly, and they tend to rise and fall in tandem with HDL levels. Deficiencies in apo A-I are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particles that transport dietary fats from the digestive system to tissue, primarily the liver, via the bloodstream. These dietary lipids are repackaged in the liver and combined with apo B-100 to create triglyceride-rich VLDL. This combo is similar to a taxi with a full load of passengers and apo B-100 as the driver. The taxi moves from place to place in the bloodstream, releasing one passenger at a time.

Triglycerides are removed from VLDL by an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase, which produces intermediate density lipoproteins first, then LDL. VLDL contains one molecule of apo B-100, which is kept as VLDL loses triglycerides and shrinks to become the cholesterol-rich LDL. Apo B-100 is detected by receptors on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. The absorption of cholesterol into cells is aided by these receptors.

LDL and apo B-100 transport cholesterol that is essential for cell membrane integrity, sex hormone generation, and steroid production. Excess LDL, on the other hand, can cause fatty deposits in artery walls, as well as blood vessel hardening and scarring. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty deposits restrict blood arteries. The risk of a heart attack increases as the atherosclerotic process progresses.

LDL-C levels, which are typically ordered as part of a lipid profile, tend to mimic Apo B-100 levels. Many experts believe that apo B levels will eventually show to be a more accurate predictor of CVD risk than LDL-C. Others disagree, believing that vitamin B is only a modestly superior choice and that it should not be used on a regular basis. The clinical utility of apo B, as well as other developing cardiac risk markers including apo A-I, Lp(a), and hs-CRP, is still unknown.

Lab tests often ordered with Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests:

  • Cholesterol Total
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Homocysteine
  • hs-CRP
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility

Conditions where Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests are recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Angina

How does my health care provider use Apolipoprotein A1 and B tests?

An apo B/apo A-I ratio can be determined by ordering both an apo A-I and an apo B test. To assess the risk of developing CVD, this ratio is sometimes used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

An apo A-I test may be ordered in the following situations:

Assist in the diagnosis of apo A-I deficiency caused by genetic or acquired diseases.

Assist those with a personal or family history of heart disease, high cholesterol, or triglycerides in their blood.

Keep track of how well lifestyle changes and lipid therapies are working.

An apo A-I test can be ordered in conjunction with an apo B test to determine the apo B/apo A-I ratio. This ratio is occasionally used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio to assess the risk of developing CVD.

As an alternative to non-HDL-C, Apo B levels may be ordered to assess the success of lipid treatment.

An apo B test may be conducted in rare circumstances to assist determine a genetic issue that causes apo B overproduction or underproduction.

What do my Apolipoprotein A1 and B test results mean?

Low apo A-I levels are linked to low HDL levels and slowed elimination of excess cholesterol from the body. Low levels of apo A-I, as well as high levels of apo B, are linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

Deficiencies in apo A-I are caused by a number of hereditary diseases. Abnormal lipid levels, notably excessive amounts of low-density lipoprotein, are common in people with certain illnesses. They frequently have a higher rate of atherosclerosis. Low apo A-I levels are caused by several genetic diseases.

Raised apo B levels are linked to elevated LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels, and are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevations may be caused by a high-fat diet and/or a reduction in LDL clearance from the blood.

A direct cause of abnormal apo B levels is some hereditary diseases. Familial combined hyperlipidemia, for example, is an inherited condition that causes excessive cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Apolipoprotein B deficiency, also known as Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, is a relatively rare hereditary disorder that results in unusually low amounts of apo B.

A variety of underlying diseases and other factors might result in abnormal apo B levels.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Apolipoprotein B is a blood test that measures that amount of Apolipoprotein B in the blood’s serum. This test is used to assess cardiovascular risk.

Also Known As: Apo B Test, Apolipoprotein B-100 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Apolipoprotein B test ordered?

Apolipoprotein A-I and B, as well as other lipid tests, may be ordered as part of a screening to identify a person's risk of cardiovascular disease.

Apo B is a protein that plays a role in lipid metabolism and is the major protein component of lipoproteins including VLDL and LDL, popularly known as "bad cholesterol." Apo B concentrations are similar to LDL-C concentrations.

What does an Apolipoprotein B blood test check for?

Lipids are transported throughout the bloodstream by apolipoproteins, which mix with them. Lipoproteins are held together by apolipoproteins, which protect the water-repellent lipids at their core.

Lipoproteins are cholesterol or triglyceride-rich proteins that transport lipids throughout the body for cell absorption. HDL, on the other hand, is like an empty cab. It travels to the tissues to collect excess cholesterol before returning it to the liver. Cholesterol is either recycled for future use or eliminated in bile in the liver. The only mechanism for cells to get rid of excess cholesterol is by HDL reverse transport. It protects the arteries and, if enough HDL is present, it can even reverse the formation of fatty plaques, which are deposits caused by atherosclerosis and can contribute to cardiovascular disease.

Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particles that transport dietary fats from the digestive system to tissue, primarily the liver, via the bloodstream. These dietary lipids are repackaged in the liver and combined with apo B-100 to create triglyceride-rich VLDL. This combo is similar to a taxi with a full load of passengers and apo B-100 as the driver. The taxi moves from place to place in the bloodstream, releasing one passenger at a time.

Triglycerides are removed from VLDL by an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase, which produces intermediate density lipoproteins first, then LDL. VLDL contains one molecule of apo B-100, which is kept as VLDL loses triglycerides and shrinks to become the cholesterol-rich LDL. Apo B-100 is detected by receptors on the surface of many different types of cells in the body. The absorption of cholesterol into cells is aided by these receptors.

LDL and apo B-100 transport cholesterol that is essential for cell membrane integrity, sex hormone generation, and steroid production. Excess LDL, on the other hand, can cause fatty deposits in artery walls, as well as blood vessel hardening and scarring. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty deposits restrict blood arteries. The risk of a heart attack increases as the atherosclerotic process progresses.

LDL-C levels, which are typically ordered as part of a lipid profile, tend to mimic Apo B-100 levels. Many experts believe that apo B levels will eventually show to be a more accurate predictor of CVD risk than LDL-C. Others disagree, believing that vitamin B is only a modestly superior choice and that it should not be used on a regular basis. The clinical utility of apo B, as well as other developing cardiac risk markers including apo A-I, Lp(a), and hs-CRP, is still unknown.

Lab tests often ordered with an Apolipoprotein B test:

  • Apolipoprotein A1
  • Cholesterol Total
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Homocysteine
  • hs-CRP
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility

Conditions where an Apolipoprotein B test is recommended:

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Angina

How does my health care provider use an Apolipoprotein B test?

An apo B/apo A-I ratio can be determined by ordering both an apo A-I and an apo B test. To assess the risk of developing CVD, this ratio is sometimes used instead of the total cholesterol/HDL ratio.

As an alternative to non-HDL-C, Apo B levels may be ordered to assess the success of lipid treatment.

An apo B test may be conducted in rare circumstances to assist determine a genetic issue that causes apo B overproduction or underproduction.

What do my Apolipoprotein B test results mean?

Raised apo B levels are linked to elevated LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels, and are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Elevations may be caused by a high-fat diet and/or a reduction in LDL clearance from the blood.

A direct cause of abnormal apo B levels is some hereditary diseases. Familial combined hyperlipidemia, for example, is an inherited condition that causes excessive cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Apolipoprotein B deficiency, also known as Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, is a relatively rare hereditary disorder that results in unusually low amounts of apo B.

A variety of underlying diseases and other factors might result in abnormal apo B levels.

Is apoB a heart disease risk factor? 
The markers of particle number, apoB, or LDL particle number were better at predicting the risk of heart disease than LDL-C.

There are two major forms of Apolipoprotein B, B-100 and B-48. B-100, synthesized in the liver, is the major protein in VLDL, IDL, and LDL cholesterol. B-48, synthesized in the intestines, is essential for the assembly and secretion of chylomicrons. Patients with increased concentrations of Apolipoprotein B are at increased risk of atherosclerosis.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: An AST blood test is a test that is used to screen for and diagnose liver disease.

Also Known As: Aspartate Aminotransferase Test, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase Test, SGOT Test Transaminase, Serum AST Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Aspartate Aminotransferase test ordered?

When someone undergoes a standard health examination, an AST test may be requested as part of a full metabolic panel.

When a person exhibits indications and symptoms of a liver problem, an AST test may be ordered along with numerous other tests.

Because many persons with minor liver damage have no signs or symptoms, AST may be ordered alone or in combination with other tests for people who are at an elevated risk for liver disease.

When AST is used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for people with liver disease, it may be ordered on a frequent basis during the course of treatment.

What does an Aspartate Aminotransferase blood test check for?

Aspartate aminotransferase is an enzyme found in cells all over the body, but especially in the heart and liver, as well as the kidneys and muscles to a lesser amount. AST levels in the blood are typically low in healthy people. AST is released into the bloodstream when liver or muscle cells are damaged. As a result, AST can be used to detect or monitor liver disease.

The liver is a critical organ found directly behind the rib cage in the upper right side of the abdomen. It is engaged in a variety of vital bodily functions. The liver aids in the digestion of nutrients, creates bile to aid in fat digestion, manufactures numerous vital proteins such as blood clotting factors, and breaks down potentially hazardous compounds into safe substances that the body may utilize or expel.

A variety of disorders can harm liver cells and cause AST levels to rise. The test is most effective in detecting liver damage caused by hepatitis, liver-toxic medications, cirrhosis, or alcoholism. AST, on the other hand, is not particular to the liver and can be elevated in diseases affecting other organs.

Alanine aminotransferase testing is frequently combined with an AST test. When the liver is injured, both of these enzymes become high in the bloodstream. A computed AST/ALT ratio can help distinguish between different types of liver injury and determine whether elevated levels are due to something else, such as a heart or muscle injury.

Lab tests often ordered with an Aspartate Aminotransferase test:

  • GGT
  • ALT
  • ALP
  • Bilirubin
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Albumin
  • Total Protein

Conditions where an Aspartate Aminotransferase test is recommended:

  • Liver Disease
  • Hepatitis
  • Jaundice
  • Alcoholism
  • Cirrhosis
  • Wilson Disease
  • Hemochromatosis

How does my health care provider use an Aspartate Aminotransferase test?

The aspartate aminotransferase blood test is commonly used to identify liver disease. It is frequently ordered in conjunction with alanine aminotransferase, another liver enzyme, or as part of a liver panel or comprehensive metabolic panel to screen for and/or diagnose liver problems.

Although ALT is more specific for the liver than AST and is more usually elevated than AST, both are regarded to be two of the most significant tests for detecting liver impairment. When AST is directly compared to ALT, an AST/ALT ratio is calculated. This ratio can be used to differentiate between different types of liver disease and hepatic harm from heart or muscle damage.

To assess which type of liver illness is present, AST levels are frequently compared to the results of other tests such as alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and bilirubin.

AST is frequently evaluated to monitor the treatment of people with liver disease, and it can be ordered alone or in combination with other tests.

AST is sometimes used to monitor persons who are receiving potentially hazardous drugs for the liver. If the person's AST levels rise, he or she may be moved to another medicine.

What do my AST test results mean?

Low AST levels in the blood are typical and anticipated.

Acute hepatitis and viral infections are the most common causes of very high AST values. AST values are normally elevated for 1-2 months after acute hepatitis, but they might take up to 3-6 months to recover to normal. AST levels can also be significantly high as a result of exposure to liver-toxic medications or other chemicals, as well as situations that produce reduced blood supply to the liver.

AST values are usually lower in chronic hepatitis, generally less than 4 times normal, and are more likely to be normal than ALT levels. With chronic hepatitis, AST levels typically fluctuate between normal and slightly elevated, so the test may be ordered repeatedly to detect the pattern. Other illnesses of the liver, particularly when the bile ducts are clogged, as well as cirrhosis and certain malignancies of the liver, can cause moderate increases. AST can also rise after a heart attack or a muscular damage, although to a far higher extent than ALT.

The AST test is frequently done in conjunction with the ALT test or as part of a liver panel. See the Liver Panel article for more information on AST values in relation to other liver tests.

The ALT level is usually greater than the AST level in most kinds of liver disease, and the AST/ALT ratio is low. There are a few exceptions: in alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease, and the first day or two of acute hepatitis or injury from bile duct obstruction, the AST/ALT ratio is frequently elevated. AST levels are generally substantially higher than ALT after cardiac or muscle injury, and they tend to stay higher than ALT for longer than they do after liver injury.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: An ALT test is a blood test that is used to screen for and diagnose liver disease.

Also Known As: Alanine Aminotransferase Test, Alanine Transaminase Test, GPT Test, SGPT Test, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Alanine Transaminase test ordered?

When a person undergoes a standard health examination, ALT may be ordered as part of a full metabolic panel.

When a person has signs and symptoms of a liver problem, a healthcare provider will usually prescribe an ALT test.

Because many people with minor liver damage have no signs or symptoms, ALT may be ordered alone or in combination with other tests for persons who are at an elevated risk for liver disease. With modest liver injury, ALT levels will rise even if there are no other symptoms.

ALT may be ordered on a frequent basis during the course of treatment to establish whether the medication is effective when it is used to monitor the treatment of persons with liver disease.

What does an Alanine Transaminase blood test check for?

Alanine aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in liver and kidney cells. It's also found in much lesser concentrations in the heart and muscles. This test determines the amount of ALT in your blood.

The enzyme ALT converts alanine, a protein amino acid, into pyruvate, an important intermediary in cellular energy production. ALT levels in the blood are low in healthy people. ALT is released into the bloodstream when the liver is injured, frequently before more evident indications of liver injury, such as jaundice, appear. As a result, ALT is a useful test for detecting liver disease early on.

The liver is a critical organ positioned directly behind the rib cage on the upper right side of the abdomen. It is engaged in a variety of vital bodily functions. The liver aids in the digestion of nutrients, creates bile to aid in fat digestion, produces a variety of essential proteins such as blood clotting factors and albumin, and breaks down potentially hazardous compounds into safe substances that the body may utilize or discard.

Damage to liver cells can be caused by a variety of factors, resulting in an elevation in ALT. The test is most useful for detecting damage caused by hepatitis or medications or other toxins that are harmful to the liver.

As part of a liver panel, ALT is frequently tested alongside aspartate aminotransferase, another liver enzyme. When the liver is injured, both ALT and AST levels rise, albeit ALT is more specific for the liver and may be the only one to rise in some circumstances. An AST/ALT ratio can be used to help distinguish between different types of liver injury and their severity, as well as to distinguish liver injury from heart or muscle damage.

Lab tests often ordered with an Alanine Transaminase test:

  • AST
  • ALP
  • GGT
  • Bilirubin
  • Liver Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Albumin
  • Total Protein
  • Prothrombin Time
  • Hepatitis Panel General

Conditions where a an Alanine Transaminase test is recommended:

  • Liver Disease
  • Hepatitis
  • Jaundice
  • Cirrhosis
  • Alcoholism
  • Wilson Disease
  • Hemochromatosis

How does my health care provider use an Alanine Transaminase test?

The alanine aminotransferase test is commonly used to diagnose liver damage. It's frequently ordered as part of a liver panel or complete metabolic panel with aspartate aminotransferase to screen for and/or diagnose liver disease.

ALT is an enzyme found mostly in liver and kidney cells. ALT is released into the bloodstream when the liver is injured. As a result, ALT is a useful test for detecting liver disease early on.

Although ALT is more specific to the liver than AST, they are both considered to be two of the most significant tests for detecting liver impairment. When AST is directly compared to ALT, an AST/ALT ratio is calculated. This ratio can assist distinguish between different types of liver disease and identify cardiac or muscle harm.

To assess which type of liver illness is present, ALT values are frequently matched to the results of other tests such as alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and bilirubin.

ALT is frequently requested to monitor the therapy of people with liver disease to evaluate if it is effective, and it can be ordered alone or in combination with other tests.

What do my ALT test results mean?

A low ALT level in the blood is normal and anticipated. The most prevalent cause of ALT levels that are higher than normal is liver disease.

Acute hepatitis and viral infections are the most common causes of very elevated ALT values. ALT levels are normally elevated for 1-2 months after acute hepatitis, but they might take up to 3-6 months to return to normal. ALT levels may also be significantly raised as a result of exposure to liver-toxic medications or other chemicals, or in situations that produce reduced blood flow (ischemia) to the liver.

In chronic hepatitis, ALT levels are frequently less than four times normal. Because ALT levels in this scenario regularly fluctuate between normal and slightly elevated, the test may be ordered frequently to observe if a trend emerges. Other reasons of mild ALT elevations include bile duct obstruction, cirrhosis, heart damage, alcohol addiction, and liver cancers.

ALT is frequently used in conjunction with an AST test or as part of a liver panel. See the Liver Panel article for more information on ALT values in relation to other liver tests.

The ALT level is usually greater than the AST level in most forms of liver disorders, and the AST/ALT ratio is low. There are a few exceptions: in alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and heart or muscle injury, the AST/ALT ratio is frequently more than 1, and it may be greater than 1 for a day or two after the onset of acute hepatitis.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A hs-CRP or High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein test is a blood test used to accurately detect lower concentrations of the protein C-Reactive Protein. This test is used to evaluate your risk of cardiovascular and heart disease and to check for inflammation and many other issues.

Also Known As: hsCRP Test, Cardiac CRP Test, high sensitivity C-reactive protein Test, CRP Test for heart disease.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a hs-CRP test ordered?

There is currently no consensus on when to get an hs-CRP test. It may be beneficial for treatment purposes to order hs-CRP for those that have kidney disease, diabetes or inflammatory disorders.

It's possible that hs-CRP will be tested again to confirm that a person has persistently low levels of inflammation.

What does a hs-CRP blood test check for?

C-reactive protein is a protein found in the blood that rises in response to infection and inflammation, as well as after trauma, surgery, or a heart attack. As a result, it's one of numerous proteins referred to as acute phase reactants. The high-sensitivity CRP test detects low levels of inflammation in the blood, which are linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

According to the American Heart Association, CVD kills more people in the United States each year than any other cause. A number of risk factors have been related to the development of CVD, including family history, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, being overweight or diabetic, however a considerable number of people with few or no recognized risk factors will also acquire CVD. This has prompted researchers to investigate for new risk variables that could be causing CVD or could be used to identify lifestyle modifications and/or treatments that could lower a person's risk.

High-sensitivity CRP is one of an increasing number of cardiac risk markers that may be used to assess an individual's risk. According to certain research, monitoring CRP with a highly sensitive assay can assist identify the risk level for CVD in persons who appear to be healthy. CRP levels at the higher end of the reference range can be measured with this more sensitive test. Even when cholesterol levels are within an acceptable range, these normal but slightly elevated levels of CRP in otherwise healthy persons might indicate the future risk of a heart attack, sudden cardiac death, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Lab tests often ordered with a hs-CRP test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Lipid Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lp-Pla2
  • Glucose

Conditions where a hs-CRP test is recommended:

  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Stroke

How does my health care provider use a hs-CRP test?

A test for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein can be used to assess a person's risk of cardiovascular disease. It can be used in conjunction with a lipid profile or other cardiac risk markers, such as the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 test, to provide further information regarding the risk of heart disease.

CRP is a protein that rises in the bloodstream as a result of inflammation. A continuous low level of inflammation, according to studies, plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis, the narrowing of blood vessels caused by the build-up of cholesterol and other lipids, which is typically linked to CVD. The hs-CRP test successfully detects low levels of C-reactive protein, indicating low but chronic inflammation, and so aids in predicting a person's risk of developing CVD.

Some specialists believe that high-sensitivity CRP is a good test for assessing CVD, heart attacks, and stroke risk, and that it can help in the evaluation process before a person gets one of these health problems. Some experts believe that combining a good marker for inflammation, such as hs-CRP, with a lipid profile is the best way to predict risk. This test has been recommended by several organizations for persons who are at a moderate risk of having a heart attack in the following ten years.

What does my hs-CRP test result mean?

Even when cholesterol levels are within an acceptable range, high levels of hs-CRP in otherwise healthy people have been found to predict an elevated risk of future heart attacks, strokes, sudden cardiac death, and/or peripheral arterial disease.

Higher hs-CRP concentrations indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, while lower values indicate a lower risk. Individuals with hs-CRP values at the high end of the normal range are 1.5 to 4 times more likely than those with low levels of hs-CRP to have a heart attack.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


This test determines the subtypes of apoe which will aid in the risk assessment of corornary heart disease (CHD) and hyperlipoproteinemia.

This test detects a gene variant associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and such CHD event can be reduced from atorvastatin and pravastatin therapy.

Description: Lp(a) is a test that is measuring for the levels of Lipoprotein in the blood’s serum. This test can be used to evaluate the risk for cardiovascular disease.

Also Known As: Lipoprotein A Test, lipoprotein little a Test, lpa test, lp(a) test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Lipoprotein (a) test ordered?

Lp(a) is not a lipid profile that is commonly ordered. When an individual has a family history of heart disease at a young age that is not caused by high LDL or low HDL, it may be done along with other lipid testing.

This test may also be ordered by some doctors when:

  • A person has a history of heart or vascular disease, particularly if their lipid levels are normal or very slightly raised.
  • Someone is born with a genetic susceptibility to high cholesterol.
  • A individual who has had a stroke or a heart attack but whose lipids are normal or only slightly increased.

What does a Lipoprotein (a) blood test check for?

Lipoprotein (a), often known as Lp(a), is a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol through the bloodstream. It has a single apolipoprotein B protein, as well as cholesterol and other lipids, and is similar to low-density lipoprotein. This test evaluates a person's risk of getting cardiovascular disease by measuring the amount of Lp(a) in their blood.

Lp(a) is a risk factor for CVD, same as LDL. A person's level of Lp(a) is genetically determined and remains generally stable throughout their lives. Because a high level of Lp(a) is expected to contribute to a person's overall risk of CVD, this test could be useful as a CVD risk marker.

The protein portion of Lipoprotein (a) is made up of the following components:

  • Apolipoprotein B, a lipid-metabolizing protein that is the major protein ingredient of lipoproteins like LDL and VLDL
  • Apo (a), a second protein that is connected to Apo B. Apolipoprotein(a) is a protein with a unique structure that is considered to prevent clots from breaking down naturally. The apolipoprotein(a) portion of Lp(a) varies in size from person to person, with Caucasians having a smaller apolipoprotein(a) portion than those of African heritage. Although the importance of size variation in contributing to CVD risk is debatable, there is some evidence that smaller size increases risk. However, most Lipoprotein(a) assays don’t assess the size of Apo(a). Only Lipoprotein(a) levels in the blood are measured and reported.

Because roughly half of those who have heart attacks have normal cholesterol levels, scientists have looked for additional factors that may impact heart disease. Lp(a) is assumed to be one of these factors. Lp(a) has two possible contributions. For starters, because Lp(a) can stimulate the uptake of LDL into blood channel walls, it may aid in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque on blood vessel walls. Second, because apo(a) has a structure that inhibits clot-dissolving enzymes, Lp(a) may enhance clot buildup in the arteries. Lp(a) may be more atherogenic than LDL for these reasons.

Lab tests often ordered with a Lipoprotein (a) test:

  • Lipid Panel
  • Homocysteine
  • Hs-CRP
  • Apolipoprotein A1
  • Apolipoprotein B

Conditions where a Lipoprotein (a) test is recommended:

  • Heart Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke

How does my health care provider use a Lipoprotein (a) test?

The Lp(a) test is used to determine whether an elevated level of lipoprotein (a) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The test can be used in conjunction with a standard lipid profile to provide you further information about your CVD risk.

The Lp(a) level is determined by genetics and remains largely stable throughout a person's life. It is not the objective of therapy because it is usually unaffected by lifestyle modifications or most medicines. Instead, when Lp(a) is high, the presence of this additional risk factor may indicate that other, more manageable risk factors, such as an elevated low-density lipoprotein, require more urgent treatment.

What does my Lipoprotein (a) test result mean?

A high Lp(a) level raises the risk of cardiovascular disease and cerebral vascular disease. People with a normal lipid profile can develop high Lp(a). Lp(a) levels that are high are thought to increase the risk of heart disease independently of other lipids.

Lp(a) levels are genetically set and are difficult to adjust with lifestyle modifications or medicines. However, some non-genetic diseases can result in an increase in Lp (a). Estrogen depletion, hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism, diabetes, chronic renal failure, and nephrotic syndrome are examples of these conditions.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Lp-PLA2 test is a blood test that measures the levels and activity of Lp-PLA2, an enzyme that plays a role in inflammation, in your blood’s serum.

Also Known As: LpPLA2 Test, Ps-PLA2 Activity Test, Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase Test, PAF-AH Test, PLAC Test, Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Lp-PLA2 Activity test ordered?

Lp-PLA2 is a newer test. When someone has a family history of CHD, metabolic syndrome, and/or is deemed to be at a moderate to elevated risk for CHD or ischemic stroke, certain health practitioners may request it along with other cardiac risk markers.

What does a Lp-PLA2 Activity blood test check for?

Lp-PLA2 is an enzyme that appears to play a role in blood vessel inflammation and is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis. This test determines the amount of Lp-PLA2 in the blood as well as its activity.

Lp-PLA2 has been demonstrated in recent research to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Increased levels of Lp-PLA2 were seen in many persons diagnosed with CHD and ischemic stroke in these investigations, regardless of other risk factors. These findings suggest that this relatively new test could be beneficial as one of an increasing number of cardiac risk markers for determining a person's CVD risk.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cardiovascular disease causes more deaths in the United States each year than any other cause. Both coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke are caused by the formation of unstable fatty plaque deposits in the arteries, which can cause blood vessel blockages and heart attacks or brain damage. High blood pressure, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, smoking, obesity, high cholesterol levels, elevated LDL, and decreased HDL are all risk factors linked to both illnesses.

CVD affects many people who have one or more of the generally recognized risk factors, but it also affects a large number of persons who have few or none of these risk factors. This has prompted researchers to hunt for new markers that could help them identify those who are at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

A low level of chronic, systemic inflammation and blood vessel inflammation, in addition to the usual risk factors listed above, is thought to contribute to overall risk of developing CVD. The hs-CRP test is linked to systemic inflammation, and high levels are linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The Lp-PLA2 test is linked to vascular inflammation, and high levels have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack or stroke.

Lab tests often ordered with a Lp-PLA2 Activity test:

  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility
  • Lipoprotein Subfractionation
  • Hs-CRP
  • Cholesterol Total
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • HDL Cholesterol

RelateConditions where a Lp-PLA2 Activity test is recommended:

  • Heart Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Stroke
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Hypertension

How does my health care provider use a Lp-PLA2 Activity test?

The Lp-PLA2 test is sometimes used to determine a person's risk of coronary heart disease or suffering an ischemic stroke.

Lp-PLA2 is an enzyme that appears to play a role in blood vessel inflammation and is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis. Lp-PLA2 has been demonstrated in recent research to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.

The test is often used to assess someone who is at a moderate to high risk of CHD or stroke, as well as someone who has one or more other risk factors. When someone has normal or minimally raised lipid levels, borderline high blood pressure, or metabolic syndrome, it may be ordered.

To assess a person's level of underlying inflammation linked to CVD risk, a Lp-PLA2 test may be utilized in conjunction with a hs-CRP test. Unlike the hs-CRP test, the Lp-PLA2 test is unaffected by disorders other than CVD that can produce general inflammation, hence it can be used to diagnose inflammatory conditions like arthritis.

Lp-PLA2 is a relatively new test that is rarely requested, and its clinical utility has yet to be determined. Its purpose is to provide extra information rather than to replace cholesterol and other lipid monitoring.

Some academics are looking at whether lowering Lp-PLA2 levels can reduce the risk of CHD and ischemic stroke. If lowering Lp-PLA2 lowers the risk of CVD and stroke, the Lp-PLA2 test may be requested more regularly and used to track a person's response to treatment.

What do my Lp-PLA2 test results mean?

A highly elevated Lp-PLA2 level implies an increased chance of developing CHD or having an ischemic stroke, as well as providing extra information to a health practitioner about the examined person's overall risk.

A low or normal Lp-PLA2 level indicates that this factor does not add to the risk of CVD in the person being examined.

The test is a risk indicator, not a diagnosis of CHD or ischemic stroke. Many persons with high quantities will not get these symptoms, whereas others with normal concentrations may.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Serum Triglyceride analysis has proven useful in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, nephrosis, liver obstruction, other diseases involving lipid metabolism, and various endocrine disorders. In conjunction with high density lipoprotein and total serum cholesterol, a triglyceride determination provides valuable information for the assessment of coronary heart disease risk.

HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the risk for cardiovascular disease. It increases following regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption and with oral estrogen therapy. Decreased levels are associated with obesity, stress, cigarette smoking and diabetes mellitus.

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Description: The Cholesterol Total test is a blood test used to check levels of cholesterol in your blood’s serum to determine risk of heart disease.

Also Known As: Blood Cholesterol Test, Total Cholesterol Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: If a cholesterol measurement is to be performed along with triglycerides, the patient should be fasting for at least 9 hours.

When is a Cholesterol Total test ordered?

Cholesterol testing is advised as a screening test for all persons without heart disease risk factors at least once every four to six years. It is frequently combined with a standard physical examination.

When a person has one or more risk factors for heart disease, their cholesterol is tested more frequently.

Children and young people should have their lipid profiles checked for elevated cholesterol. Between the ages of 9 and 11, and again between the ages of 17 and 21, they should be tested. Children and teenagers who are at a higher risk of developing heart disease as adults should be screened with a lipid profile earlier and more frequently. A family history of heart disease or health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or being overweight are some of the risk factors, which are comparable to those in adults. Cholesterol testing is indicated when a child's BMI is at or above the 85th percentile. Laboratory testing to evaluate cholesterol levels may be recommended every two years for an obese adolescent.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, high-risk children should receive their first cholesterol test between the ages of 2 and 8. Children under the age of two are not eligible for testing. The fasting test should be repeated in three to five years if the initial results are not alarming.

Total cholesterol tests may be conducted at regular intervals as part of a lipid profile to assess the success of lipid-lowering lifestyle changes like diet and exercise, or to determine the efficacy of medication therapy like statins. Adults on statins should have a fasting lipid profile done 4 to 12 weeks after commencing therapy and then every 3 to 12 months after that to ensure that the drug is effective, according to the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.

What does a Cholesterol Total blood test check for?

Cholesterol is a vital component of life. It creates cell membranes in all of the body's organs and tissues. Hormones required for development, growth, and reproduction are produced using it. It produces bile acids, which are necessary for food absorption. The total cholesterol transported in the blood by lipoproteins is measured by the cholesterol test.

Lipoproteins are complex particles that carry a small quantity of cholesterol in the blood. Each particle comprises a mixture of protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules, and they are classed as high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, or very low-density lipoproteins based on their density. LDL-C particles, also known as "bad" cholesterol, deposit cholesterol in tissues and organs whereas HDL-C particles take excess cholesterol away for disposal.

It is critical to monitor and maintain good cholesterol levels in order to stay healthy. The body manufactures the cholesterol it needs to function correctly, although some cholesterol comes from food. If a person has a hereditary propensity to high cholesterol levels or consumes too many foods high in saturated and trans unsaturated fats, the amount of cholesterol in their blood may rise, posing a health risk. Plaques on the walls of blood arteries may form as a result of excess cholesterol in the circulation. Plaques can constrict or block blood channel openings, resulting in artery hardening (atherosclerosis) and an increased risk of a variety of health problems, including heart disease and stroke.

Lab tests often ordered with a Cholesterol Total test:

  • Lipid Panel
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility

Conditions where a Cholesterol Total test is recommended:

  • Heart Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Stroke

How does my health care provider use a Cholesterol Total test?

The total cholesterol test is used alone or in conjunction with a lipid profile to assist forecast an individual's risk of developing heart disease and to help determine what treatment may be required if the risk is borderline or high. It can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment once it is started as part of a lipid profile

Cholesterol testing is considered a normal aspect of preventative healthcare because high blood cholesterol has been linked to artery hardening, heart disease, and an increased risk of mortality from heart attacks.

The results of the cholesterol test and other components of the lipid profile, as well as other recognized heart disease risk factors, are utilized to build a treatment and follow-up strategy. Treatment options may include lipid-lowering medicines such as statins or lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise regimens.

What do my Cholesterol test results mean?

Healthy lipid levels, in general, aid in the maintenance of a healthy heart and reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke. To evaluate a person's overall risk of heart disease, if therapy is necessary, and, if so, which treatment will best serve to minimize the person's risk, a healthcare practitioner will consider total cholesterol results and the other components of a lipid profile, as well as other risk factors.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Sodium: this is a measure of sodium in your blood's serum. Sodium is a vital mineral for nerve and muscle cell function.

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 



Through the years, we've all heard about the dangers of heart disease. The most common form is coronary artery disease, and it affects about 18.2 million adult Americans

We all want to avoid this threat. If we suspect that we're at risk, early diagnosis can lead to effective management of the disease. That's where lab tests for coronary artery disease come in.

Let's take a deeper look at this cardiovascular disease and how to combat it. 

What Is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)?

The coronary arteries are major blood vessels that supply the heart. Coronary artery disease occurs when these blood vessels become diseased. The disease is usually a combination of plaque in the arteries and inflammation.

Coronary artery disease doesn't happen overnight, and you may not experience any symptoms for years. But if left untreated, narrowing and blockages will develop, which greatly increases your risk of a heart attack and stroke.

Risk factors for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is key to slowing the progression of coronary artery disease. There are several risk factors for coronary artery disease, including the following: 

  • high LDL cholesterol 
  • low HDL cholesterol 
  • high blood pressure
  • diabetes
  • smoking
  • age - postmenopausal and men over 45

The American Heart Association also highlights obesity as a risk factor for developing CAD. While everyone is at risk of developing heart problems, African Americans are at higher risk of developing heart disease.

Elevated blood sugar also increases the risk of CAD. There is a risk that coronary artery disease can develop into coronary heart disease. The earlier a person starts to take preventative measures, the better the chances of it regressing.

Causes of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

CAD is caused by damage or injury to the inner part of the coronary arteries. This can start in childhood. Causes include the following:

  • high blood pressure
  • insulin resistance or diabetes
  • sedentary lifestyle
  • high cholesterol
  • smoking

The injury or damage site provides a place for plaque to develop. Plaque occurs when cholesterol, white blood cells, and other substances build up in the walls of the arteries. They become narrow and hard over time, restricting the blood flow to the heart muscle. 

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)?

At first, the narrowing of the arteries may not cause any symptoms. Over time, as the blood vessels continue to narrow, it becomes harder for the oxygen-rich blood to reach the heart muscle.

Symptoms may include the following:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Angina (chest pain)
  • Heart attack

Shortness of breath occurs when your heart is struggling to pump enough blood to keep up with your body's needs. Doing normal activities may begin to cause shortness of breath and fatigue.

Chest pain or angina occurs when you are stressed or have exerted yourself. You feel the pain in the middle or left side of your chest. It can be a tightness or crushing pain.

When the artery becomes completely blocked, a heart attack will happen. The usual symptoms are crushing pressure in the chest, and pain in your shoulder or arm. Other symptoms can occur, and at times there are no symptoms.

How Is Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Diagnosed?

The first step is to have a discussion and physical exam with your doctor. They will discuss your symptoms, family history, medical history, and other risk factors. 

The next step is to have diagnostic tests and lab tests for coronary artery disease.

Diagnostic tests include the following:

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Echocardiogram
  • Angiogram
  • Exercise stress tests

They will look at your heart rate, rhythm, and electrical impulses. Blood tests also provide a clearer picture of what is happening in your heart.

The Lab Tests to Screen, Diagnose, and Monitor Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

There is more than one lab test for coronary artery disease. All of these together give a complete picture of the various factors impacting your risk of heart disease. 

  • Advanced Cardiovascular Health - Basic - This panel of tests focuses on assessing the levels of cholesterol in the body. This will help your doctor to see whether LDL and HDL cholesterol are at healthy levels in the body.
  • Advanced Cardiovascular Health - Basic Plus - Along with the basic tests, this panel takes a deeper look at metabolic and endocrine health. Issues with insulin impacting cardiovascular health are examined.
  • Advanced Cardiovascular Health - Advanced - This panel takes a deeper look at metabolic health. The Hemoglobin A1c reveals the body's insulin levels over the last few months. Additionally, the C reactive protein assessment shows the levels of inflammation in the body.
  • Advanced Cardiovascular Health - Comprehensive - This panel additionally investigates thyroid health. Hypothyroidism is associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. 

Once you have completed these lab tests for coronary artery disease, it's important to review them with your doctor. They will be able to advise the best course of treatment or provide lifestyle advice to get your numbers moving in the right direction. These tests can also be used to monitor the disease after diagnosis.

What lab test can help to diagnose CAD? High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) test is crucial. This can help you to identify the risk of coronary artery disease even before you develop any symptoms. The higher your levels, the greater the risk of cardiovascular disease

Frequently Asked Questions about Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Lab Testing for Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease is common. Many people have questions about how to prevent or live with this disease. Some of the most common questions asked are:

  • Can you live a full life with CAD?

The answer is yes. It is not curable but can be treated. The key is to reduce your risk factors.

  • How does CAD impact daily life?

You can develop chest pain when doing daily activities, especially exercising. You may feel more tired, as it's more difficult for the body to supply the cells with oxygen.

Book Your Lab Tests for Coronary Artery Disease!

Lab tests for coronary artery disease can give your doctor a clearer picture of the state of your cardiovascular health. Don't delay, as early testing can lead to better treatment. The earlier you make lifestyle adjustments, the better the long-term outcomes.

Benefits of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Lab Testing With Ulta Lab Tests 

Ulta Lab Tests offers lab tests for coronary artery disease that are highly accurate and reliable so you can make informed decisions about your health. Here are a few great things to love about Ulta Lab Tests:

  • You'll get secure and confidential results
  • You don't need health insurance
  • You don't need a physician's referral
  • You'll get affordable pricing
  • We offer a 100% satisfaction guarantee

Order your coronary artery disease lab tests today and your results will be provided to you securely and confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours for most tests.

Take control with Ulta Lab Tests today!

 Angina is the term used for a type of chest pain, which is mainly caused by a lack of supply of oxygen and blood flow to the individual’s heart. Over 7 million residents in the U.S. are believed to have this condition. It is typically linked with arteries that have started to narrow, which is typical in coronary artery diseases. The narrowing occurs when plaques begin to accumulate (thickening of the linings) inside the arteries, which is caused by the process known as atherosclerosis. When a person has angina, their heart might be getting an adequate supply of blood to accommodate daily activities, but these arteries are usually unable to deliver enough oxygen and blood during the stages of increasing demands, such as physical or emotional stress, exercise, and temperature extremes.  

Angina comes in 3 main types: 

1. Stable Angina 

This condition is typically characterized by patterns of common symptoms and stages of discomfort or pain that usually happen during exercise or when the affected person is stressed. This type of discomfort typically subsides with rest or/and treatment using nitroglycerin of other appropriate medications. Most people that suffer from this angina type can generally live a normal life over several years, yet others will progress gradually or rapidly onto unstable angina. Stable angina is the type that is linked to the gradual accumulation of plaque, which is mainly made up of fibrosis (scar tissue).  

2. Unstable Angina 

With this condition, an acute coronary syndrome that goes along with it can include a heart attack. This type is characterized by pattern changes in the angina episodes. This typically means that the episodes occur more frequently even at rest, or/and are no longer responding to medications or treatments. This is typically the sign that the individual’s condition has gotten worse. The pain and discomfort that the person experiences with this type of angina are often more prolonged and severe when compared to stable angina. The individuals that have unstable angina are also at an increased risk when it comes to cardiac arrest, critical cardiac arrhythmia, and heart attacks. This condition is classified as one of the acute emergencies that should always be treated and evaluated as soon as possible. Unstable angina is also characterized by plaques that contain higher amounts of debris and lipids when compared to the plaque found in the people diagnosed with stable angina. If these materials start leaking into the surrounding vessels, clots will form. 

3. Prinzmetal’s Angina (Variant Angina) 

This condition typically occurs at night, almost always during rest periods. The main cause is linked to when the coronary artery spasms. Most people that have variant angina will also have critical atherosclerosis in one or more of the main blood vessels on their hearts. It also occurs but a lot less frequently in individuals with hypertension (uncontrolled high blood pressure) or heart valve disease. It may also be seen in people that abuse methamphetamines and cocaine. This angina type occurs when the arteries spasm, which briefly narrows them without causing any permanent damages.  

Symptoms and Signs 

The symptoms associated with angina often appear, followed by either disappearing or not disappearing when at rest. The person might experience chest pain, pressure, and/or discomfort, or experience what is known as referred pain. This type of pain is usually felt in areas such as the jaw, back, arm, or left shoulder.  

Angina can be more complicated to identify in older people when they are suffering from a symptom like abdominal pain directly after eating (caused by an increase in blood demand to accommodate digestion) or when they have shoulder or back pain (that might be caused by arthritis).  

The level of activities that are needed to trigger angina episodes and the symptoms that are involved vary from one person to the next and can also vary over time and between each episode. Coronary artery disease is usually progressive, which means that angina can worsen overtime when it comes to symptoms that are more severe, episodes that become more frequent, or/and less responsive when it comes to treatment and rest.  

Tests for Angina 

The main aim when it comes to testing for this condition is to differentiate between: 

  • Chest pains that are not related to the heart, like the type that is caused by skeletal muscle injuries.  
  • Chest pain that is caused by angina that is treatable and not by heart damage. 
  • When a person lands up in an ER (emergency room) with a coronary syndrome that is acute, which is a symptom group that suggests that the heart is injured.  
  • Chest pain caused by a heart attack. 

All the above symptoms result in evaluating the person with different types of non-laboratory and laboratory tests. These are typically used to establish what is causing the pain, along with how severe the condition is. Since certain treatments for heart attacks must be administered very quickly to lower damage to the heart, a precise diagnose must be confirmed as fast as possible.  

Laboratory Tests for Angina 

Cardiac biomarkers are the proteins that release when the muscle cells become damaged are usually ordered in order to help distinguish heart attacks from angina. These will include: 

This is the most common cardiac-specific ordered marker. The levels of troponin in the blood will remain elevated after the first few hours of damage to the heart and stay raised for as long as two weeks. Troponin tests are typically ordered in the ER when the person is presenting with symptoms linked to unstable angina, followed by more tests over the following hours to detect concentration changes. If the levels remain normal, then the chest pain and symptoms are less likely from damaged heart muscles and more from pain caused by stable angina. An elevation or/and fall in troponin level results is usually an indication of a heart attack.  

The test known as high-sensitivity troponin is used to detect the same proteins that standard tests do but at far lower levels. This test is much more sensitive, which means it shows a positive result much sooner and can help to establish acute coronary syndrome and heart injury a lot earlier than the standard tests. The hs-troponin test can also show positive results in individuals that have stable angina as well as in individuals that are showing no symptoms.  

When the levels are raised in these people, it is an indication of increased risks for a future heart event, such as a heart attack. This test is not approved currently in the United States, yet research continues, which means it might soon become available. This test is routinely used in Canada, Europe, along with other countries as the cardiac biomarker across many clinical practices.  

A specific type of enzyme, creatine kinase, which is mainly found in the heart muscle, will rise when damages have occurred to the cells in the heart muscle. This is a test that is now used a lot less frequently.  

Other tests that are commonly performed include: 

  • Myoglobin This is a protein that releases into the bloodstream when the skeletal muscle or the heart is injured. This is also a test that is not used as often anymore.  
  • Nt-proBNP or BNP The body releases BNP in response to a condition such as heart failure. When BNP levels increase, while it is not diagnostic for heart attacks, it does indicate increased risks of cardiac issues in people that have acute coronary syndrome.  

Other screening tests that are more general are also commonly ordered to assist with evaluating the main organs in the person’s body, blood glucose, electrolyte balance, white and red blood cells to establish if there is any deficiencies, excesses, or dysfunction that could be contributing to making the individual’s symptoms worse.

These can include: 

This typically includes a group of 14 tests used as a type screening tool to establish the current state of the person’s electrolyte and base/acid balance, blood proteins, liver, kidneys, and blood glucose.  

This test is typically used for screening for several disorders that may affect the blood cells, like an infection or anemia.