The Cardio IQ™ Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility test contains 1 test with 6 biomarkers.
Brief Description: The Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility (LFIM) test is an advanced laboratory test that provides detailed information about the distribution and composition of lipoproteins in the blood. It utilizes ion mobility technology to separate and analyze different lipoprotein particles.
This is a Cardio IQ™ test and will likely need an additional 5-7 days for processing.
Also Known As: LDL Particle Testing, LDL-P Test, LDL Subclass Test, sdLDL Test, LDL Fractionations Test, LDL Particle Size Test, LDL Particle Number Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: Fasting preferred, but not required
When is a Lipoprotein Fractionation test ordered?
A Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility test may be ordered in the following situations:
Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: It is ordered to assess an individual's risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease and stroke. Lipoproteins play a crucial role in lipid metabolism and transport, and abnormalities in their composition and distribution can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
Monitoring Lipid Management: The test is used to monitor the effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapies, such as statins, in individuals with known dyslipidemia. It provides more detailed information about the specific types and sizes of lipoproteins in the blood, aiding in treatment decision-making.
What does a Lipoprotein Fractionation blood test check for?
Low-density lipoproteins are lipid-transporting particles that travel throughout the body. Protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules are all present in each particle. As they move through the bloodstream, their makeup changes. Lipoprotein particles range in size from large and fluffy to small and dense, depending on which molecules are eliminated and which are added. The relative amounts of particles with different characteristics in the blood are determined by LDL particle testing. Subfractionation testing is a term used to describe this process.
Traditional lipid testing determines the amount of LDL cholesterol in the blood but does not assess the number of LDL particles. Increased numbers of small, dense LDL particles have been linked to inflammation and are more likely to produce atherosclerosis than fewer light, fluffy LDL particles, according to some research. Researchers believe that the existence of an elevated quantity of sdLDL could be one of the reasons why some people have heart attacks while having relatively low total and LDL cholesterol levels.
The number of sdLDL particles in a person's blood is determined in part by genetics, in part by sex, and in part by lifestyle and overall health. Increased levels of sdLDL are linked to certain diseases and disorders, like as diabetes and hypertension.
By examining a person's triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, it is usually able to estimate whether they have a high amount of sdLDL particles. Typically, these tests are done as part of a lipid profile. People with high triglycerides and low HDL-C have higher levels of sdLDL. More sdLDL is connected with a triglyceride level greater than 120 mg/dL and an HDL-C level less than 40 mg/dL in men and less than 50 mg/dL in women.
Other lipoprotein particles, such as HDL and VLDL, can also be subfractionated, however these tests are generally utilized in research settings and are not discussed on this page.
Lab tests often ordered with a Lipoprotein Fractionation test:
Lipoprotein Fractionation test is ordered, it's often part of a comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment. Several other tests are commonly ordered alongside it:
Standard Lipid Panel:
- Purpose: Measures total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and triglycerides.
- Why Is It Ordered: To provide a basic overview of lipid levels. The standard lipid panel is a primary tool for assessing cardiovascular risk and guides treatment decisions.
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP):
- Purpose: A marker of inflammation in the body, which is now recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
- Why Is It Ordered: Elevated hs-CRP levels can indicate increased risk for heart disease, even if cholesterol levels are normal.
- Purpose: Measures the level of homocysteine, an amino acid that, at high levels, is associated with an increased risk of heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation.
- Why Is It Ordered: To assess additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c):
- Purpose: Measures blood sugar control; HbA1c provides an average blood glucose level over the past two to three months.
- Why Is It Ordered: Diabetes is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. These tests help identify diabetes or prediabetes, which require management to reduce cardiovascular risk.
Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1):
- Purpose: ApoB is a primary protein in LDL and VLDL particles, while ApoA1 is the main protein in HDL particles.
- Why Is It Ordered: The ApoB/ApoA1 ratio can provide additional information about cardiovascular risk, beyond traditional cholesterol measurements.
- Purpose: Lp(a) is a type of LDL cholesterol linked to an increased risk of heart disease.
- Why Is It Ordered: To identify elevated Lp(a) levels, which can be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of other lipid levels.
Liver Function Test:
- Purpose: To assess liver health.
- Why Is It Ordered: The liver plays a crucial role in metabolizing lipids. Liver diseases can impact cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular risk.
Kidney Function Test:
- Purpose: To evaluate kidney function.
- Why Is It Ordered: Kidney disease can affect lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk.
These tests, when ordered alongside a Lipoprotein Fractionation test, provide a comprehensive view of an individual’s cardiovascular risk profile. They help in identifying specific lipid abnormalities and additional risk factors for heart disease, guiding more targeted and effective treatment strategies. The selection of these tests will depend on the individual's overall health, family history of cardiovascular disease, and existing risk factors.
Conditions where a Lipoprotein Fractionation test is recommended:
A Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility test is particularly useful in the following conditions or diseases:
Dyslipidemia: Individuals with dyslipidemia, characterized by abnormal lipid levels, may benefit from this test to obtain a comprehensive assessment of lipoprotein distribution and particle concentrations.
Cardiovascular Diseases: Individuals with known cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, may undergo this test to better understand their lipid profile and identify specific lipoprotein abnormalities that contribute to their condition.
How does my health care provider use a Lipoprotein Fractionation test?
Healthcare providers use the results of the Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility test to:
Assess Cardiovascular Risk: The detailed information provided by the test helps evaluate an individual's risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, enabling healthcare providers to make informed decisions regarding preventive strategies and treatment options.
Monitor Lipid Management: The test aids in monitoring the effectiveness of lipid-lowering therapies and adjusting treatment regimens as necessary. Changes in lipoprotein particle concentrations and distribution can guide treatment decisions for optimal lipid management.
It is important to note that the interpretation and utilization of Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility test results should be done by qualified healthcare professionals familiar with the specific methodology and reference ranges of the test. The results should be considered in conjunction with the patient's medical history, clinical symptoms, and other relevant laboratory findings to form a comprehensive assessment.
What do my Lipoprotein Fractionation test results mean?
The method and reporting format utilized in an LDL-P test, as well as the person's total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL, and/or HDL cholesterol, are all reflected in the results. Because different methods divide subclasses based on different physical qualities, results may not be immediately comparable from one method to the next or from one laboratory to the next.
Usually, the result is evaluated in context of a lipid profile and the risk it implies:
- If a person has a high number of mostly tiny, dense LDL and an elevated LDL-P, this result will enhance the person's risk of cardiovascular disease beyond the risk associated with total LDL.
- If a person only has large, fluffy LDL and a low LDL-P, this discovery will not put them at any greater risk.
Most Common Questions About the Lipoprotein Fractionation test:
Understanding the Test and its Components
What is a Lipoprotein Fractionation test?
The Lipoprotein Fractionation test is a blood test used to measure the levels of different types of cholesterol in your body. It provides detailed information about the size, density, and concentration of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol through your bloodstream.
Why would I need a Lipoprotein Fractionation test?
This test is often used when a standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides) is not enough to assess your risk of heart disease. If you have a personal or family history of heart disease or if you're not responding as expected to cholesterol-lowering medication, your healthcare provider may recommend this test.
What specific elements does the Lipoprotein Fractionation test measure?
The test measures the size, density, and concentration of different types of lipoproteins in your blood. This includes LDL (often split into small, medium, and large LDL particles), HDL (often split into small, medium, and large HDL particles), and VLDL particles.
Interpreting the Results and Dealing with Abnormal Results
What do normal results on a Lipoprotein Fractionation test look like?
Normal results vary among different labs and patient demographics, but generally, lower levels of LDL (particularly small, dense LDL particles) and higher levels of HDL (particularly large HDL particles) are desirable. A healthcare provider will interpret these results in the context of your overall health and risk factors.
What could high levels of LDL or low levels of HDL in the Lipoprotein Fractionation test results mean?
High levels of LDL, particularly small, dense LDL particles, or low levels of HDL, particularly large HDL particles, can suggest a higher risk of heart disease. These patterns may be associated with an increased risk of plaque buildup in the arteries.
What are the next steps if my Lipoprotein Fractionation test results are abnormal?
If your test results are abnormal, your healthcare provider may recommend lifestyle changes, such as a healthier diet, regular exercise, and quitting smoking. If these changes aren't enough, you may need medication to manage your cholesterol levels.
What are the most common diseases associated with abnormal Lipoprotein Fractionation test results?
Abnormal Lipoprotein Fractionation results are often associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. Certain metabolic conditions, like diabetes and metabolic syndrome, are also often associated with abnormal lipoprotein profiles.
Discussion with Healthcare Provider and Relationship with Other Tests
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider after receiving the results of my Lipoprotein Fractionation test?
You should discuss the implications of your results, potential underlying conditions, any necessary further tests, and potential treatment options. Your provider can help you understand what your results mean in the context of your overall health and risk factors.
How does the Lipoprotein Fractionation test relate to the standard lipid profile test?
The Lipoprotein Fractionation test provides more detailed information than a standard lipid profile. It can give additional insights into the size and density of your lipoprotein particles, which can affect your risk of heart disease.
What other tests might be ordered if my Lipoprotein Fractionation test results are abnormal?
If your Lipoprotein Fractionation test results are abnormal, your healthcare provider may recommend additional tests to further evaluate your heart disease risk. These may include tests for inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, or genetic markers for heart disease.
Understanding the Implications and Health Impact
What are lipoproteins and why are they important for health?
Lipoproteins are particles that transport fats, including cholesterol and triglycerides, through your bloodstream. Different types of lipoproteins (like LDL and HDL) have different effects on your health. High levels of LDL can lead to plaque buildup in your arteries (atherosclerosis), while HDL helps remove cholesterol from your body.
What are the symptoms of having high LDL or low HDL levels?
High LDL or low HDL levels typically don't cause any noticeable symptoms, but they can increase your risk of atherosclerosis, which can ultimately lead to heart disease, stroke, and other serious health conditions.
What long-term health issues can be caused by abnormal Lipoprotein Fractionation test results?
Abnormal results on a Lipoprotein Fractionation test can indicate a higher risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. If not properly managed, these conditions can lead to serious health issues like heart attack, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.
Prevention, Risk Management, and Further Research
Can lifestyle changes influence the results of a Lipoprotein Fractionation test?
Yes, lifestyle changes such as improving your diet, increasing physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking can help improve your lipoprotein profile and reduce your risk of heart disease.
How does the Lipoprotein Fractionation test aid in risk assessment for heart disease?
The Lipoprotein Fractionation test can provide additional information beyond a standard lipid profile to help assess your risk of heart disease. For example, having a high proportion of small, dense LDL particles has been associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
Are there promising future treatments related to Lipoprotein Fractionation?
Some current areas of research include the development of drugs that can specifically target harmful types of lipoproteins, as well as lifestyle interventions that can alter lipoprotein profiles in a beneficial way.
How often should the Lipoprotein Fractionation test be done?
The frequency of the test will depend on your individual risk factors and how well your cholesterol levels are being controlled. If you're making lifestyle changes or starting new medication, your healthcare provider may recommend more frequent testing.
How does medication affect the Lipoprotein Fractionation test results?
Certain medications, particularly statins, can significantly affect the results of a Lipoprotein Fractionation test by lowering levels of harmful lipoproteins and raising levels of beneficial lipoproteins.
Why does the body need cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a vital substance in your body. It's needed to make vitamin D, hormones, and substances that help you digest foods. Your body makes all the cholesterol it needs, but it can also be obtained from food.
How does the Lipoprotein Fractionation test contribute to the diagnosis of heart disease?
The Lipoprotein Fractionation test can provide detailed information about your lipoprotein profile, which can help assess your risk of developing heart disease. If you have certain patterns of lipoproteins (like a high proportion of small, dense LDL particles), your healthcare provider may determine that you are at a higher risk of heart disease.
Does the Lipoprotein Fractionation test results differ between men and women?
Yes, men and women can have different lipoprotein profiles. For instance, premenopausal women tend to have higher levels of HDL cholesterol and lower levels of LDL cholesterol compared to men of the same age, but this pattern often changes after menopause.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.