The Cardio IQ™ Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility test contains 1 test with 6 biomarkers.
Description: Ion Mobility Lipoprotein Fractionation is a test that uses a gas-phase technology to separate the lipid particles by size. As each particle is separated, they are counted.
Also Known As: LDL Particle Testing, LDL-P Test, LDL Subclass Test, sdLDL Test, LDL Fractionations Test, LDL Particle Size Test, LDL Particle Number Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: Fasting preferred, but not required
When is a Lipoprotein Fractionation test ordered?
When someone has a personal or family history of early cardiovascular disease, this testing may be ordered as part of an overall evaluation of cardiac risk, especially if the person does not have typical cardiac risk factors like high cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high triglyceride, low HDL cholesterol, smoking, obesity, inactivity, diabetes, and/or hypertension.
When a person with elevated LDL-P and/or a high proportion of tiny, dense LDL particles has undertaken cholesterol-lowering treatment or lifestyle adjustments, the healthcare practitioner may conduct LDL lipoprotein subfraction testing, as well as other lipid tests, to assess treatment success.
Although LDL-P is not typically suggested as a screening test, some healthcare practitioners are using it in conjunction with a battery of other cardiac risk tests to evaluate a person's overall risk of getting CVD.
What does a Lipoprotein Fractionation blood test check for?
Low-density lipoproteins are lipid-transporting particles that travel throughout the body. Protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules are all present in each particle. As they move through the bloodstream, their makeup changes. Lipoprotein particles range in size from large and fluffy to small and dense, depending on which molecules are eliminated and which are added. The relative amounts of particles with different characteristics in the blood are determined by LDL particle testing. Subfractionation testing is a term used to describe this process.
Traditional lipid testing determines the amount of LDL cholesterol in the blood but does not assess the number of LDL particles. Increased numbers of small, dense LDL particles have been linked to inflammation and are more likely to produce atherosclerosis than fewer light, fluffy LDL particles, according to some research. Researchers believe that the existence of an elevated quantity of sdLDL could be one of the reasons why some people have heart attacks while having relatively low total and LDL cholesterol levels.
The number of sdLDL particles in a person's blood is determined in part by genetics, in part by sex, and in part by lifestyle and overall health. Increased levels of sdLDL are linked to certain diseases and disorders, like as diabetes and hypertension.
By examining a person's triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, it is usually able to estimate whether they have a high amount of sdLDL particles. Typically, these tests are done as part of a lipid profile. People with high triglycerides and low HDL-C have higher levels of sdLDL. More sdLDL is connected with a triglyceride level greater than 120 mg/dL and an HDL-C level less than 40 mg/dL in men and less than 50 mg/dL in women.
Other lipoprotein particles, such as HDL and VLDL, can also be subfractionated, however these tests are generally utilized in research settings and are not discussed on this page.
Lab tests often ordered with a Lipoprotein Fractionation test:
- Lipid Panel
- HDL Cholesterol
- LDL Cholesterol
- Direct LDL
- Apolipoprotein A-1
- Apolipoprotein B
- Lipoprotein (a)
Conditions where a Lipoprotein Fractionation test is recommended:
- Cardiovascular Disease
- Heart Disease
How does my health care provider use a Lipoprotein Fractionation test?
Low-density lipoprotein particle testing determines the number, size, density, and/or electrical charge of LDL particles. It may be useful in determining cardiac risk in patients with a personal or family history of heart disease at a young age, particularly if their total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels are not markedly increased. LDL subfraction testing is usually done in conjunction with or after a lipid profile.
While the LDL-C test is a good predictor of cardiovascular disease risk for many people, research has indicated that certain persons with healthy LDL-C levels nonetheless have an increased risk of CVD. Similarly, even if their LDL-C is at a safe level, people with chronic diseases like diabetes may be at higher risk. The quantity of LDL particles and/or their size has been recommended as an additional factor to consider when assessing CVD risk in these populations. Lipoprotein subfraction testing may be done in these situations to further assess a person's CVD risk.
LDL-P is sometimes requested to see how well a treatment is working at reducing the quantity of tiny, dense LDL particles.
LDL subfraction testing has been employed in clinical settings, although VLDL or HDL subfraction testing is primarily used in research. This is because LDL cholesterol has been established as the key risk factor for heart disease, and LDL assessment has received increased attention in research and development.
What do my Lipoprotein Fractionation test results mean?
The method and reporting format utilized in an LDL-P test, as well as the person's total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL, and/or HDL cholesterol, are all reflected in the results. Because different methods divide subclasses based on different physical qualities, results may not be immediately comparable from one method to the next or from one laboratory to the next.
Usually, the result is evaluated in context of a lipid profile and the risk it implies:
- If a person has a high number of mostly tiny, dense LDL and an elevated LDL-P, this result will enhance the person's risk of cardiovascular disease beyond the risk associated with total LDL.
- If a person only has large, fluffy LDL and a low LDL-P, this discovery will not put them at any greater risk.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.