Prenatal Health

Prenatal Health Lab Tests and health information

Are you looking for some basic information on how to promote prenatal health? Consider this list of prenatal lab tests to empower your well-being. Take early preventative care of your baby before birth. Make informed decisions and explore this article about prenatal health and prenatal lab testing.


Name Matches

Description: The hCG test is a blood test that measures the amount of hCG in the blood. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Qualitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Qualitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Qualitative, Pregnancy Test. hCG Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Total Qualitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Total Qualitative blood test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Total Qualitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Total Qualitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an hCG Total Qualitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


This test is specific for hCG beta subunit and offers sensitivity necessary to detect pregnancy as early as ten days post conception.


hCG may reach detectable limits within 7-10 days of conception. hCG is produced by the placenta and reaches a peak between the 7th and 10th week of gestation. hCG is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta and secreted during normal pregnancy and with pathologic conditions such as hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma and testicular neoplasm. Order hCG, Total, Qualitative, Urine if hCG serum result is inconsistent with clinical presentation.

This test is specific for hCG beta subunit and offers sensitivity necessary to detect pregnancy as early as ten days post conception.

Description: The hCG test is a blood test that measures the amount of hCG in the blood. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Qualitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Qualitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Qualitative, Pregnancy Test. hCG Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Total Qualitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Total Qualitative blood test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Total Qualitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Total Qualitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an hCG Total Qualitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hCG test is a blood test that measures the amount of hCG in the blood. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Quantitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Quantitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Quantitative, Pregnancy Test, hCG Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Total Quantitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Total Quantitative blood test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Total Quantitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Total Quantitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy
  • Cancer

How does my health care provider use an hCG Total Quantitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: ABO Group and Rh type is a blood test that is used to determine which blood group and Rh type you are.

Also Known As: Blood group test, blood type test, blood group and Rh type test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an ABO Group and Rh Type test ordered?

All donated blood undergoes ABO grouping and Rh typing. They're also used when someone needs a blood transfusion. The following conditions or circumstances may necessitate a transfusion:

  • Anemia that is severe, as well as anemia-causing illnesses such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia
  • During or after surgery when you have bleeding
  • Trauma or injury
  • Excessive blood loss 
  • Chemotherapy and  cancer
  • Hemophilia and similar bleeding disorders

When a woman becomes pregnant, she is tested to see if she is Rh negative or positive. Soon after birth, all newborn babies of Rh-negative mothers are tested for ABO and Rh to see if the mother need Rh immune globulin.

When an individual becomes a candidate to receive an organ, tissue, or bone marrow transplant, or when a person decides to become a donor, blood typing may be required. It's one of the first of several tests used to see if a possible donor and recipient are a good match.

Blood type is sometimes used as part of the process of determining whether or not someone is a blood relative.

What does an ABO Group and Rh Type blood test check for?

The markers or antigens on the surface of red blood cells are used to determine blood types. The A and B antigens are two primary antigens or surface identifiers on human RBCs. Rh is another essential surface antigen. Blood typing determines a person's ABO blood group and Rh type by detecting the presence or absence of these antigens.

Blood group A is made up of people who have A antigens in their red blood cells, blood group B is made up of people who have B antigens in their red blood cells, blood group AB is made up of people who have both A and B antigens in their red blood cells, and blood group O is made up of people who don't have either of these markers.

A person's blood type is Rh+ if the Rh protein is present on red blood cells; if it is not, the person's blood type is Rh-.

Our bodies develop antibodies against antigens A and B that aren't found on our red blood cells. Anti-B antibodies are directed against the B antigens on red blood cells in people with blood type A, while anti-A antibodies are directed against the A antigens in people with blood type B. People with type AB blood do not have either of these antibodies, whereas people with type O blood do.

These antibodies are helpful in detecting a person's blood type and determining which blood kinds he or she can safely receive. If a person with antibodies directed against the B antigen, for example, is transfused with type B blood, his or her own antibodies will attack and kill the transfused red blood cells, resulting in serious and perhaps fatal consequences. As a result, matching a person's blood type to the blood that will be transfused is crucial.

Antibodies to Rh are not created spontaneously, unlike antibodies to A and B antigens. That is, Rh antibodies form only when a person without Rh factor on their red blood cells is exposed to Rh positive red blood cells. When a Rh-negative mother is pregnant with a Rh-positive kid, or when a Rh-negative individual is transfused with Rh-positive blood, this might happen during pregnancy or birth. In either instance, the first encounter to the Rh antigen may not trigger a robust immune response to Rh positive cells, but subsequent exposures may result in severe reactions.

Lab tests often ordered with an ABO Group and Rh Type test:

  • Direct Antiglobulin Test
  • RBC Antibody Screen
  • HLA Testing
  • Compatibility Testing

Conditions where an ABO Group and Rh Type test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an ABO Group and Rh Type test?

Blood typing is used to determine a person's blood group, including whether they are blood group A, B, AB, or O, as well as whether they are Rh positive or negative.

Blood typing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ensure that the blood type of a person who needs a blood transfusion or blood components is compatible with the ABO and Rh types of the unit of blood that will be transfused. Blood typing is usually used in conjunction with other tests, such as an RBC antibody screen and a crossmatch, to determine what type of blood or blood components a person can safely receive. A potentially fatal transfusion reaction may occur if a unit of blood harboring an ABO antigen to which the blood recipient has an antibody is transfused to the recipient. Anti-A and anti-B antibodies, for instance, are present in the blood of people with blood group O. The antibodies in the recipient's blood will react with the red blood cells in this individual if they get a unit of blood from group A, B, or AB, destroying them and possibly having serious effects.
  • In the same way, if a Rh-negative person is transfused with Rh-positive blood, the person is likely to develop antibodies against Rh-positive blood. Although the recipient is unaffected by this scenario during the current transfusion, a future transfusion with Rh-positive blood could produce a significant transfusion reaction.
  • Determine the compatibility of a pregnant lady and her unborn child. Because a mother and her fetus may be incompatible, Rh type is especially significant during pregnancy. If the mother is Rh negative but the father is Rh positive, the fetus may test positive for the Rh antigen. As a result, the mother's body may produce antibodies against the Rh antigen. Hemolytic sickness of the fetus and infant could arise from the antibodies penetrating the placenta and destroying the baby's red blood cells. If the infant is Rh-positive, an injection of Rh immune globulin is given to the Rh-negative mother both during pregnancy and again after delivery to stop the production of Rh antibodies. The Rh immune globulin binds to and "masks" the fetus's Rh antigen during pregnancy and delivery to stop the mother from producing antibodies against it.
  • Determine the blood type of potential blood donors at a collection facility. Blood units from donors are blood typed and properly labeled so they can be utilized for patients who need a certain ABO group and Rh type.
  • The blood type of potential donors and recipients of organs, tissues, or bone marrow should be ascertained as part of the preparation for a transplant surgery. To identify and match organ and tissue donors with recipients who have the same or a sufficient number of matching HLA genes and antigens, ABO blood type is utilized in conjunction with HLA testing.

What do my ABO Group and Rh Type test results mean?

Blood typing determines if a person is type A, B, AB, or O, as well as whether he or she is Rh negative or positive. The results will inform the healthcare provider about whether blood or blood components are safe to provide to the patient.

The results of blood typing will reveal if a pregnant woman is Rh positive or negative. This information will help determine whether she is a candidate for Rh immune globulin, which prevents antibodies from forming against her fetus' blood cells.

Donated blood typing is significant because it allows health care providers to determine whether patients are compatible with the blood and may safely receive it.

When a donated organ, tissue, or bone marrow is compatible with the intended recipient, it is less likely to be rejected immediately after transplantation.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

The Different Blood Types

There are four major blood groups and eight different blood types. Doctors call this the ABO Blood Group System.

The groups are based on whether or not you have two specific antigens -- A and B:

  • Group A has the A antigen and B antibody.
  • Group B has the B antigen and the A antibody.
  • Group AB has A and B antigens but neither A nor B antibodies.
  • Group O doesn’t have A or B antigens but has both A and B antibodies.

There’s also a third kind of antigen called the Rh factor. You either have this antigen (meaning your blood type is “Rh+” or “positive”), or you don’t (meaning your blood type is “Rh-” or “negative”). So, from the four blood groups, there are eight blood types:

  • A positive or A negative
  • B positive or B negative
  • AB positive or AB negative
  • O positive or O negative

Antibodies to antigens in the ABO and Rh systems are the most common causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

Includes

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Antibody Screen, RBC with Reflex to Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing 
  • ABO Group and Rh Type
  • RPR (Diagnosis) with Reflex to Titer and Confirmatory Testing
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation*
  • Rubella Antibody (IgG), Immune Status
  •  
  • If Antibody Screen is positive, Antibody Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86870, 86886, 86905).
  • If RPR screen is reactive, RPR Titer and FTA Confirmatory testing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86593, 86780).
  • If Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive, confirmatory testing based on the manufacturer's FDA approved recommendations will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87341).
  •  

DC - Comprehensive Obstetric - Prenatal Panel

Description: The Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test is a blood test used to detect the protein alpha-fetoprotein which is produced by the liver.

Also Known As: AFP Test, Total AFP Test, AFP-L3 Test, Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Markers, Alpha-Fetoprotein Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test ordered?

An AFP blood test may be ordered by a healthcare provider:

  • When abdominal masses are felt during a medical examination or imaging testing reveal possible malignancies, it is likely that someone has liver cancer or certain malignancies of the testicles or ovaries.
  • When someone has been diagnosed with and treated for cancer of the liver, testicles, or ovaries, the success of treatment is being assessed.
  • When someone is being watched for a recurrence of cancer
  • Patients with persistent hepatitis or liver cirrhosis should be followed up on.
  • When a person has chronic liver illness, an AFP-L3 percent is occasionally ordered to help evaluate the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, test the efficiency of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment, or monitor for recurrence.

What does an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 blood test check for?

Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein produced predominantly by the liver of a developing baby and the yolk cavity of a developing embryo. When a baby is born, AFP levels are usually high and then rapidly drop. Liver injury and certain malignancies can drastically raise AFP levels. This test determines the amount of AFP in your blood.

When the liver cells regenerate, AFP is generated. AFP can be continuously high in chronic liver illnesses such hepatitis and cirrhosis. Certain cancers can produce extremely high quantities of AFP. Because of this, the AFP test can be used as a tumor marker. Many persons with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma, a kind of liver cancer that affects babies, have elevated levels of AFP. They're also discovered in certain persons who have testicular or ovarian cancer.

There are various different types of AFP. The normal AFP test measures total AFP, which includes all of the AFP variations. In the United States, this is the most common AFP test.

One of the AFP variations is known as L3 because of its propensity to attach to a protein called Lens culinaris agglutinin in the lab. The AFP-L3 percent test compares the quantity of AFP-L3 to the total amount of AFP and is a relatively recent test. Increased L3 levels are linked to a higher likelihood of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in the near future, as well as a worse prognosis, because L3-related malignancies are more aggressive.

AFP-L3 can be higher in people with hepatocellular carcinoma than in those with benign liver disorders who have low total AFP. In Japan, tumor markers such as total AFP and AFP-L3 are utilized in conjunction with ultrasound to monitor hepatocellular carcinoma. This procedure differs from that in the United States and Europe, but healthcare practitioners in the United States occasionally order the two tests.

Lab tests often ordered with an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test:

  • CEA
  • CA-125
  • hCG Tumor Marker
  • DCP

Conditions where an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test is recommended:

  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer

How does my health care provider use an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test?

The tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein is used to detect and diagnose malignancies of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. Despite the fact that the test is frequently done to monitor persons with chronic liver illnesses including cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B, or hepatitis C who have an elevated lifetime risk of developing liver cancer, most current guidelines do not advocate it. An AFP test, together with imaging studies, may be ordered by a healthcare provider to try to diagnose liver cancer in its earliest and most treatable stages.

If a person has been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma or another type of AFP-producing cancer, an AFP test may be done on a regular basis to assess treatment response and disease recurrence.

When comparing the amount of the AFP variation AFP-L3 to the total amount of AFP, an AFP-L3 percent is occasionally ordered. The AFP-L3 percent test is not extensively used in the United States, but it is becoming more popular in other nations, such as Japan. The test is used to assess the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly in people with chronic liver disease, as well as the response of the cancer to treatment.

What do my Alpha-fetoprotein test results mean?

Increased AFP levels can suggest the presence of cancer, such as liver cancer, ovarian cancer, or testicular germ cell tumors. However, not all cancers of the liver, ovary, or testicles produce substantial amounts of AFP.

Other malignancies, such as stomach, colon, lung, breast, and lymphoma, might sometimes have elevated levels, but it is rarely ordered to check these illnesses. Cirrhosis and hepatitis are two disorders that can generate elevated levels.

When using AFP as a monitoring tool, lower levels suggest a therapeutic response. If concentrations do not considerably drop after cancer therapy, usually to normal or near-normal levels, some tumor tissue may still be present.

If AFP levels start to rise, the cancer is most likely to return. However, because AFP levels can be deceiving in hepatitis or cirrhosis, AFP levels can be misleading. If AFP levels are not raised prior to therapy, the test will not be useful in monitoring treatment effectiveness or detecting recurrence.

People with chronic liver disease have a higher chance of getting liver cancer when their AFP levels rise from normal to moderately raised to significantly elevated. When total AFP and AFP-L3 percent are highly higher, the person is more likely to develop or have hepatocellular carcinoma in the next year or two. In persons with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, however, both AFP and AFP-L3 percent concentrations might be increased and fluctuate. In these circumstances, a significant increase in AFP is more essential than the test result's numerical value.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Elevated AFP concentrations in amniotic fluid provide laboratory support for the diagnosis of neural tube lesion in the fetus.

Additional test processing fees will be charged if initial results dictate Reflex (further) testing.


Clinical Significance

This test can be used to detect the presence or absence of large deletions in the HBA1 or HBA2 gene in patients or their family members suspected of having alpha thalassemia or who are carriers of alpha globin deletions. The assay can also be used in the prenatal diagnosis of alpha thalassemia. The assay does not determine the type or breakpoint of the rearrangement. This assay can be used instead of southern blot analysis to determine the total number of intact alpha globin genes.

Methodology

Capillary Electrophoresis • Multiplex PCR

Limitations

This test does not identify whether a two-gene deletion is in cis (on the same chromosome) or trans (on opposite chromosomes). In the absence of a coexisting deletion on the opposite chromosome, this test can identify the presence of an extra alpha globin gene (alpha triplication).

Alternative Name(s)

Hydrops Fetalis,Alpha-Globin Rare Deletion/Duplication,Hemoglobin Barts Hydrops Fetalis,Alpha-Globin Gene Triplication,Alpha-Globin Gene Number,Hemoglobin H Disease,Alpha-Thalassemia


IMPORTANT THIS IS A REFLUX TEST

Additional test processing fees will be charged if initial results dictate Reflex (further) testing.

REFLUX TESTS & CHARGES

  • ANTIBODY PANEL X 1 charge $89.00 
  • ANTIBODY TITER X 1 charge $29 
  • ANTIGEN TYPE X 1 charge $39 
  • ANTIBODY PANEL X 2 charge $ 179.00

This test is used to detect significant RBC antibodies.



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Measurement of the levels of bilirubin is used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver, hemolytic, hematologic, and metabolic disorders, including hepatitis and gall bladder obstruction. The assessment of direct bilirubin is helpful in the differentiation of hepatic disorders. The increase in total bilirubin associated with obstructive jaundice is primarily due to the direct (conjugated) fraction. Both direct and indirect bilirubin are increased in the serum with hepatitis.

Description: The CRP test is used to identify and/or monitor inflammation in patients.

Also Known As: CRP Test, Inflammation test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a C-Reactive Protein test ordered?

When a person's medical history and signs and symptoms indicate that they may have a significant bacterial infection, a CRP test may be recommended. When a newborn displays signs of infection or when a person has sepsis symptoms including fever, chills, and rapid breathing and heart rate, it may be ordered.

It's also commonly requested on a regular basis to check illnesses like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, and it's routinely repeated to see if medication is working. This is especially effective for inflammation issues because CRP levels decrease as inflammation decreases.

What does a C-Reactive Protein blood test check for?

C-reactive protein is a protein produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream within a few hours following tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory event. After trauma or a heart attack, with active or uncontrolled autoimmune illnesses, and with acute bacterial infections like sepsis, markedly higher levels are reported. CRP levels can rise by a thousand-fold in response to inflammatory diseases, and their elevation in the blood can occur before pain, fever, or other clinical signs. The test detects inflammation caused by acute situations or monitors disease activity in chronic diseases by measuring the level of CRP in the blood.

The CRP test is not a diagnostic tool, although it can tell a doctor if inflammation is occurring. This information can be combined with other indicators like signs and symptoms, a physical exam, and other tests to establish whether someone has an acute inflammatory disorder or is having a flare-up of a chronic inflammatory disease. The health care provider may next do additional tests and treatment.

This CRP test should not be confused with the hs-CRP test. These are two separate CRP tests, each of which measures a different range of CRP levels in the blood for different purposes.

Lab tests often ordered with a C-Reactive Protein test:

  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • Procalcitonin
  • ANA
  • Rheumatoid Factor
  • Complement

Conditions where a C-Reactive Protein test is recommended:

  • Arthritis
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Sepsis
  • Vasculitis
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Meningitis and Encephalitis

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a C-Reactive Protein test?

A health practitioner uses the C-reactive protein test to diagnose inflammation. CRP is an acute phase reactant, a protein produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream within a few hours following tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory event. The CRP test is not a diagnostic test for any ailment, but it can be used in conjunction with other tests to determine whether a person has an acute or chronic inflammatory disorder.

CRP, for example, can be used to detect or track substantial inflammation in someone who is suspected of having an acute ailment like:

  • Sepsis is a dangerous bacterial infection.
  • An infection caused by a fungus
  • Inflammation of the pelvis

People with chronic inflammatory diseases can use the CRP test to detect flare-ups and/or see if their medication is working. Here are a few examples:

  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Arthritis, which can take many forms.
  • Autoimmune disorders, examples include lupus and vasculitis

CRP is occasionally requested in conjunction with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate, another inflammatory test. While the CRP test is not specific enough to diagnose an illness, it does serve as a broad marker for infection and inflammation, alerting doctors to the need for more testing and treatment. A variety of additional tests may be used to determine the source of inflammation, depending on the probable cause.

What do my C-Reactive Protein test results mean?

CRP levels in the blood are usually low.

CRP levels in the blood that are high or rising indicate the existence of inflammation, but they don't tell you where it is or what's causing it. A high CRP level can establish the presence of a severe bacterial infection in people who are suspected of having one. High levels of CRP in persons with chronic inflammatory disorders indicate a flare-up or that treatment isn't working.

When the CRP level rises and then falls, it indicates that the inflammation or infection is diminishing and/or responding to treatment.

Is there anything else I should know about C-Reactive Protein?

CRP levels can rise during pregnancy, as well as with the use of birth control tablets or hormone replacement therapy. Obese people have also been found to have higher CRP levels.

In the presence of inflammation, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate test will also rise; however, CRP rises first and then falls faster than the ESR.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Chlamydia trachomatis RNA, TMA

Patient Preparation 

Urine specimens: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube labe

Clinical Significance

C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the united states. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.


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Description: The chlamydia and gonorrhea test is used to determine if a person has been infected with either of the sexually transmitted infections. It can be used to diagnose a person with chlamydia or gonorrhea for treatment.

Also Known As: Chlamydia Trachomatis Test, Chlamydia STD Test, GC Test, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae test, Gonorrhoeae test, gonorrhea and chlamydia test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: Urine specimens: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

When is a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test ordered?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, all sexually active women younger than 25 and sexually active women 25 and older who are at elevated risk should have a yearly chlamydia and gonorrhea screening. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Preventive Services Task Force both urge routine screening for these women.

The CDC recommends that males who have intercourse with other men get tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia at least once a year. For sexually active, heterosexual men with no symptoms, health organizations do not advocate routine screening. When there is a large number of cases of STDs in the community, for example, healthcare providers may prescribe screening to their patients.

When a person’s sexual partner has been diagnosed with gonorrhea or chlamydia or when a person has signs and symptoms of the infection, chlamydia testing may be performed.

Women and men who have been treated for chlamydia should be tested again three months afterwards.

What does a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea urine test check for?

Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the United States, and if left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences. Chlamydia testing determines whether the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis is to blame for an infection. In order to avoid long-term consequences and the spread of the infection to others, it’s critical to screen for, diagnose, and treat chlamydia.

Chlamydia infections are most common among people aged 15 to 24. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2.86 million Americans contract chlamydia each year, and women are commonly re-infected if their partners do not seek treatment. Because many people don’t have any symptoms and don’t get tested and identified, the true number of cases may be larger. Despite this, each year over one million new cases are reported.

Sexual contact with an infected partner is the most common way for chlamydia to spread. Multiple sex partners, coinfection or previous infection with another STD, and not wearing a condom appropriately and consistently are also risk factors.

Many people with chlamydia infections have no symptoms, while others may only have minor ones. Because the signs and symptoms of chlamydia are similar to those of another STD, gonorrhea, and can be misinterpreted, testing for both diseases are frequently performed at the same time.

Antibiotics are commonly used to treat chlamydia. It can cause serious reproductive and other health problems if not recognized and addressed.

In women, untreated chlamydia infections that originate on the cervix but progress to the fallopian tubes and ovaries can cause pelvic inflammatory disease.

Men who are not treated may become infertile in rare cases.

If not diagnosed and treated, gonorrhea is a common bacterial sexually transmitted illness that can lead to serious consequences. Gonorrhea testing determines whether a person's infection is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The importance of gonorrhea screening, diagnosis, and treatment in reducing long-term consequences and the spread of the infection to others cannot be overstated.

More than 820,000 people in the United States contract new gonorrheal infections each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but only about half of these infections are reported to the CDC. In the United States, sexually active teenagers, young adults, and African Americans have the highest reported rates of infection.

Sexual contact with an infected partner is the most common way for gonorrhea to spread. Multiple sex partners, coinfection or previous infection with another STD, and not wearing a condom appropriately and consistently are also risk factors.

While some males with gonorrhea will experience symptoms, the majority of women will not or will confuse gonorrhea symptoms with those of a bladder or other vaginal illness. Symptoms in men usually emerge 2 to 5 days after infection, but they can take up to 30 days. Symptoms usually appear within 10 days of infection for women. Because the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea are similar to those of another STD, chlamydia, and can be misinterpreted, testing for both diseases are sometimes performed at the same time.

Antibiotics are generally prescribed to treat gonorrhea. Gonorrhea can have catastrophic consequences if it is not recognized and treated.

Untreated gonorrhea infections in women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can develop days to months after infection and cause consequences.

Untreated gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints, leading to disseminated gonococcal infection, a dangerous illness. Fever, numerous skin lesions, severe joint swelling, inflammation of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and infection of the inner lining of the heart are all signs of DGI. In infants born to infected moms, DGI symptoms include arthritis, meningitis, and sepsis, a serious, life-threatening illness.

Antibiotics identical to those used to treat simple gonorrhea might be used to successfully treat DGI. Treatment-resistant gonorrhea, on the other hand, is becoming more common. To treat all uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults and adolescents in the United States, CDC guidelines presently recommend dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. If a patient's symptoms do not improve following therapy, a healthcare provider may need to do additional tests, including susceptibility testing.

Lab tests often ordered with a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test:

  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Syphilis
  • Herpes 1 and 2

Conditions where a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test is recommended:

  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Syphilis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Infertility
  • Vaginitis
  • Vaginosis

How does my health care provider use a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test?

Chlamydia and gonorrhea testing is used to detect, diagnose, and confirm that infections caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis have been successfully treated. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are two of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States, and if left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences. To avoid long-term consequences and the spread of the infections to others, it's critical to screen for, diagnose, and treat chlamydia.

Because the illnesses produced by these two bacteria might have similar signs and symptoms, testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is frequently done at the same time. Both of these bacteria can be acquired at the same time, and a person can get infected with both. Because the two infections require distinct antibiotic treatments, a clear diagnosis is critical. Testing should be done again to determine that the treatment was effective. After a person has completed therapy, this is done roughly three months later.

What do my chlamydia and gonorrhea test results mean?

A positive result indicates that you have an active infection that requires antibiotic therapy.

A negative result simply means that no infection was present at the time of the test. It is critical for those who are at a higher risk of infection to have annual screening tests to check for infection, especially since re-infection is common, especially among teenagers.

If you're infected, your sexual partner(s) should get tested and treated as well.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


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Description: A cortisol test measures the amount of cortisol in the blood. These levels will start off high in the morning and throughout the say they become lower. At midnight they are typically at their lowest level. Someone who works a night shift or has an irregular sleep schedule may have a different pattern. This test can be used to determine Cushing's or Addison's Disease.

Also Known As: Cortisol Total Test, Cortisol Test, Cortisol Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Test not recommended when patient is on prednisone/prednisolone therapy due to cross reactivity with the antibody used in this test

When is a Cortisol Total test ordered?

When a person has symptoms that point to a high level of cortisol and Cushing syndrome, a cortisol test may be recommended.

Women with irregular menstrual periods and increased facial hair may be tested, and children with delayed development and small stature may also be tested.

When someone exhibits symptoms that point to a low cortisol level, adrenal insufficiency, or Addison disease, this test may be ordered.

What does a Cortisol Total blood test check for?

Cortisol is a hormone that plays a function in protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. It has an effect on blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and immune system regulation. Only a small fraction of cortisol in the blood is "free" and biologically active; the majority is attached to a protein. Cortisol is a hormone that is produced into the urine and found in the saliva. This test determines how much cortisol is present in the blood, urine, or saliva.

Cortisol levels in the blood usually rise and fall in a pattern known as "diurnal variation." It reaches its highest point early in the morning, then gradually decreases over the day, reaching its lowest point around midnight. When a person works irregular shifts and sleeps at different times of the day, this rhythm might fluctuate, and it can be disrupted when a disease or condition inhibits or stimulates cortisol production.

The adrenal glands, two triangle organs that sit on top of the kidneys, generate and emit cortisol. The hypothalamus in the brain and the pituitary gland, a small organ below the brain, control the hormone's production. The hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone when blood cortisol levels drop, which tells the pituitary gland to create ACTH. The adrenal glands are stimulated by ACTH to generate and release cortisol. The brain, pituitary, and adrenal glands must all be operating properly in order to produce enough levels of cortisol.

Cushing syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms associated with an unusually high cortisol level. Cortisol production may be increased as a result of:

  • Large doses of glucocorticosteroid hormones are given to treat a range of ailments, including autoimmune illness and certain cancers.
  • Tumors that produce ACTH in the pituitary gland and/or other regions of the body.
  • Cortisol production by the adrenal glands is increased as a result of a tumor or abnormal expansion of adrenal tissues.

Rarely, CRH-producing malignancies in various regions of the body.

Cortisol production may be reduced as a result of:

  • Secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by an underactive pituitary gland or a pituitary gland tumor that prevents ACTH production.
  • Primary adrenal insufficiency, often known as Addison disease, is characterized by underactive or injured adrenal glands that limit cortisol production.

After quitting glucocorticosteroid hormone medication, especially if it was abruptly stopped after a long time of use.

Lab tests often ordered with a Cortisol Total test:

  • Cortisol PM
  • Cortisol AM
  • Cortisol Saliva
  • ACTH
  • Aldosterone
  • 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
  • Growth Hormone

Conditions where a Cortisol Test is recommended:

  • Addison’s Disease
  • Cushing’s Syndrome
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Hypertension
  • Pituitary Disorders

How does my health care provider use a Cortisol Total test?

A cortisol test can be used to detect Cushing syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of cortisol, as well as adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease, which are characterized by a deficiency of cortisol. Cortisol is a hormone that regulates protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism, among other functions. Cortisol levels in the blood normally increase and fall in a "diurnal variation" pattern, rising early in the morning, dropping during the day, and reaching their lowest point around midnight.

The adrenal glands generate and excrete cortisol. The hypothalamus in the brain and the pituitary gland, a small organ below the brain, control the hormone's production. The hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone when blood cortisol levels drop, which tells the pituitary gland to create ACTH. The adrenal glands are stimulated by ACTH to generate and release cortisol. The brain, pituitary, and adrenal glands must all be operating properly in order to produce enough levels of cortisol.

Only a small fraction of cortisol in the blood is "free" and biologically active; the majority is attached to a protein. Blood cortisol testing assesses both protein-bound and free cortisol, but urine and saliva cortisol testing assesses only free cortisol, which should be in line with blood cortisol levels. Multiple blood and/or saliva cortisol levels collected at various times, such as 8 a.m. and 4 p.m., can be used to assess cortisol levels and diurnal variation. A 24-hour urine cortisol sample will not reveal diurnal variations; instead, it will assess the total quantity of unbound cortisol voided over the course of 24 hours.

If an elevated amount of cortisol is found, a health professional will conduct additional tests to confirm the results and discover the cause.

If a person's blood cortisol level is abnormally high, a doctor may order additional tests to be sure the high cortisol is indeed abnormal. Additional testing could involve monitoring 24-hour urinary cortisol, doing an overnight dexamethasone suppression test, and/or obtaining a salivary sample before sleep to detect cortisol at its lowest level. Urinary cortisol testing necessitates collecting urine over a set length of time, usually 24 hours. Because ACTH is released in pulses by the pituitary gland, this test can assist evaluate whether a raised blood cortisol level is a true rise.

An ACTH stimulation test may be ordered if a health practitioner feels that the adrenal glands are not releasing enough cortisol or if initial blood tests reveal insufficient cortisol production.

ACTH stimulation is a test that measures the amount of cortisol in a person's blood before and after a synthetic ACTH injection. Cortisol levels will rise in response to ACTH stimulation if the adrenal glands are functioning normally. Cortisol levels will be low if they are damaged or not working properly. To distinguish between adrenal and pituitary insufficiency, a lengthier variant of this test can be used.

What do my Cortisol Total test results mean?

Cortisol levels are typically lowest before bedtime and highest shortly after awakening, though this pattern can be disrupted if a person works rotating shifts and sleeps at various times on separate days.

Excess cortisol and Cushing syndrome are indicated by an increased or normal cortisol level shortly after awakening, as well as a level that does not diminish by bedtime. If the excess cortisol is not suppressed after an overnight dexamethasone suppression test, the 24-hour urine cortisol is elevated, or the late-night salivary cortisol level is elevated, the excess cortisol is likely due to abnormal increased ACTH production by the pituitary or a tumor outside of the pituitary, or abnormal production by the adrenal glands. Additional tests will aid in determining the root of the problem.

If the person examined responds to an ACTH stimulation test and has insufficient cortisol, the problem is most likely due to insufficient ACTH production by the pituitary. If the person does not respond to the ACTH stimulation test, the problem is most likely to be with the adrenal glands. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands are underactive as a result of pituitary dysfunction and/or insufficient ACTH synthesis. Adrenal injury causes decreased cortisol production, which is referred to as primary adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease.

Once an irregularity has been found and linked to the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, or another source, the health practitioner may utilize additional testing, such as a CT scan, to determine the extent of any gland damage.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Urine Culture test is a test that is used to identify bacteria or foreign organisms in urine and test for antibiotic susceptibilities.

Also Known As: Urine Culture Test, Urine Culture and Sensitivity, Urine C and S, UTI test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT - Culture, Urine, Routine #395 can Reflex to additional testing and charges, detailed below, if Culture is positive.

If culture is positive, CPT code(s): 87088 (each isolate) will be added with an additional charge.  Identification will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87077 or 87140 or 87143 or 87147 or 87149).

Antibiotic susceptibilities are only performed when appropriate (CPT code(s): 87181 or 87184 or 87185 or 87186).

  • ORG ID 1. $ 12.45 
  • ORG ID 2. $ 23.95 
  • PRESUMPTIVE ID 1. $ 12.45 
  • PRESUMPTIVE ID 2. $ 23.95 
  • SUSC-1  $14.95 
  • SUSC-2  $28.95

When is a Urine Culture test ordered?

A urine culture may be requested if a person exhibits symptoms that suggest a urinary tract infection, such as:

  • Urination urges that are strong and persistent
  • Urination with a burning sensation
  • Urine that is murky and has a strong odor
  • Back pain in the lower back

Urinary tract infections can cause pressure in the lower abdomen as well as small quantities of blood in the urine. If the UTI is severe and/or has gone to the kidneys, it can cause symptoms such as flank pain, high fever, trembling, chills, nausea, and vomiting.

For young women with signs or symptoms of a UTI and an uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection, antibiotics may be administered without obtaining a urine culture. A urine culture is advised if there is a suspicion of a complex infection or if symptoms do not respond to first treatment.

Pregnant women without symptoms should be examined for bacteria in their urine during their first trimester or first prenatal appointment, as bacteria in the urine can harm the growing baby's health.

A urine culture may be administered in conjunction with a urinalysis or as a follow-up to abnormal urinalysis results.

What does a Urine Culture test check for?

Urine is a fluid generated by the kidneys that contains both water and waste. It passes from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters before being expelled from the body through the urethra. Urine culture is a test that detects and identifies bacteria and yeast in the urine that could be the source of a urinary tract infection.

A small amount of urine is placed on one or more agar plates and incubated at body temperature for a urine culture. Any bacteria or yeast present in the urine sample will grow into little circular colonies during the next 24 to 48 hours. The number of colonies and the size, shape, and color of these colonies assist identify which bacteria are present in the urine sample, and the number of colonies shows the amount of bacteria that were initially present in the urine sample. A laboratory technician counts the total number of colonies on the agar plate and determines how many types have grown. If a good, clean catch sample was taken for the test, the only bacteria found should be from an infection. Typically, there will be only one variety of bacterium present in relatively significant quantities. More than one type of bacteria may be present at any given time. This could be the result of a multi-pathogen infection, although it's more likely owing to contamination from the skin picked up during the urine collection.

A gram stain will be performed on a colony from each type by the laboratory technician. The bacteria are examined under a microscope by the laboratory technician. Different species of bacteria will have distinct colors and forms. Under a microscope, the bacterium Escherichia coli, which is responsible for the majority of urinary tract infections, will appear as gram-negative rods. Lactobacillus, a frequent vaginal contaminant found in women's urine, will show up as gram-positive rods. Some bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, are easy to detect by a skilled lab technician, are nonpathogenic, and do not require additional research. Others, such as gram-negative rods, represent clusters of identical bacteria that will necessitate extra testing to determine which bacteria are present.

After 24 to 48 hours of incubation, if there is no or little growth on the agar, the urine culture is declared negative for pathogens and the culture is complete. If one or more pathogens are found, more testing is done. Testing is performed to determine which bacteria are present, as well as susceptibility testing to determine which antibiotics are most likely to cure the infection.

Lab tests often ordered with a Urine Culture test:

  • Urinalysis, Complete
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • ANA
  • Rheumatoid Factor
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

Conditions where a Urine Culture test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Pregnancy
  • Hematuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Kidney Stones
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

How does my health care provider use a Urine Culture test?

The urine culture is often used to diagnose a urinary tract infection and to identify the bacteria or yeast that is causing it. It can be used in conjunction with susceptibility testing to discover which drugs will stop the infection-causing bacterium from growing. The findings will aid a doctor in determining which treatments are most likely to be beneficial in treating a patient's infection.

The kidneys, a pair of bean-shaped organs positioned near the bottom of the ribcage on the right and left sides of the back, produce urine. To transport wastes out of the body, the kidneys filter waste from the blood and generate urine, a yellow fluid. Urine goes from the kidneys to the bladder, where it is briefly stored, and then via the urethra to be emptied. Urine is normally sterile, but bacteria or, more rarely, yeast can migrate up the urinary tract from the skin outside the urethra and produce a urinary tract infection.

The majority of UTIs are considered simple and treatable. The infection may spread up through the ureters and into the kidneys if they are not treated. A kidney infection is more hazardous and can result in renal damage that is irreversible. In some situations, a urinary tract infection can escalate to a life-threatening infection in the bloodstream.

People with renal disease or other illnesses that impact the kidneys, such as diabetes or kidney stones, as well as people with compromised immune systems, may be more susceptible to UTIs.

What do my Urine Culture test results mean?

Urine culture results are frequently interpreted in conjunction with urinalysis results, as well as how the sample was taken and whether symptoms are present. Because certain urine samples may contain bacteria that are ordinarily found on the skin, some culture results must be interpreted with caution.

A positive urine culture is usually defined as the presence of a single kind of bacteria growing at high colony counts. Cultures containing more than 100,000 CFU/mL of one species of bacteria in clean catch samples that have been correctly collected usually indicate infection. Even if an infection is present, there may not be a large number of germs present in some circumstances. Lower levels can sometimes suggest infection, particularly if symptoms are present. Similarly, values of 1,000 to 100,000 CFU/mL may be deemed significant for samples acquired using a technique that reduces contamination, such as a sample collected with a catheter.

Although UTIs can be caused by a variety of bacteria, the majority are caused by Escherichia coli, a kind of bacteria that is widespread in the digestive tract and frequently detected in stool. Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus are among the bacteria that can cause UTIs. A yeast infection, such as Candida albicans, can cause a UTI, but urethritis is more commonly caused by a sexually transmitted illness, such as herpes, chlamydia, or gonorrhea.

When a culture says "no growth in 24 or 48 hours," it usually means there isn't an infection. If the symptoms persist, a urine culture on a new sample may be performed to test for bacteria with reduced colony numbers or other microorganisms that could be causing the symptoms. Acute urethral syndrome is defined as the presence of white blood cells and low quantities of bacteria in a sick person's urine.

If multiple different species of bacteria thrive in a culture, the growth is almost certainly due to contamination. This is notably true in urine samples containing Lactobacillus and/or other prevalent nonpathogenic vaginal bacteria in women. If the symptoms persist, the healthcare provider may order a second culture on a more thoroughly collected sample. However, if one species of bacteria has considerably larger colony counts than the others, such as 100,000 CFUs/mL versus 1,000 CFUs/mL, further testing to determine the dominating bacterium may be required.

Susceptibility testing may be used to guide treatment if a culture is positive. Any bacterial infection can be dangerous and, if left untreated, can spread to other parts of the body. Pain is frequently the first sign of infection. Treatment as soon as possible, generally with antibiotics, will help to relieve the pain.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: Estradiol is a blood test that is used to measure the levels of Estradiol in the blood's serum. Estradiol is one of the Estrogen hormones in the body.  Estradiol, Ultrasensitive LC/MS/MS #30289 is a more appropriate test for children that have not yet started a menstrual cycle.

Also Known As: E2 Test, Estrogen 2 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Estradiol test ordered?

Tests for estradiol for women may be ordered if:

  • After menopause, a woman may experience symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • When a woman is unable to conceive, a series of estradiol readings taken over the course of her menstrual cycle may be used to track follicle development before using in vitro fertilization procedures
  • A woman is experiencing menopause symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and/or irregular or absent menstrual cycles.
  • If a menopausal woman is on hormone replacement therapy, her doctor may order estrone levels on a regular basis to check her progress.

Men and young boys may be subjected to estradiol testing if:

  • A boy's puberty is delayed, as evidenced by slow or delayed growth of testicles and penis, as well as a lack of deepening of voice or growth of body hair.
  • Signs of feminization, such as larger breasts.

What does an Estradiol blood test check for?

Estradiol, or E2, is a component of Estrogen that is present in the blood. For women, Estradiol is something that should be produced naturally, and the body produces larger amounts of Estradiol during puberty and it fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle. Estradiol is most prominent in women of reproductive age. Low levels are common in girls who have not yet had their first menstrual cycle and in women after their reproductive age.

Lab tests often ordered with an Estradiol test:

  • Estrogen, Total, Serum
  • Estriol
  • Estrone
  • Testosterone Free and Total
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Progesterone

Conditions where an Estradiol test is recommended:

  • Infertility
  • Menopause
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
  • Hormone Imbalance
  • Premature, delayed, or abnormal development of sex organs

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use an Estradiol test?

Estrogen tests are used to detect a deficit or excess of estrogen in a woman, as well as to aid in the diagnosis of a range of illnesses linked to this imbalance. They may also be ordered to monitor the health of the growing fetus and placenta during pregnancy, as well as to help predict the timing of a woman's ovulation. Estrogen testing can be used to detect a hormone excess and its origin in men.

In the case of girls and women

Estradiol testing may be requested for the following reasons:

  • Diagnose early-onset puberty, which occurs when a girl develops secondary sex traits much earlier than anticipated, or late puberty, which occurs when a female develops secondary sex characteristics or begins menstruation later than predicted.
  • Examine menstrual irregularities such as the absence of menstrual periods, infertility, and unusual vaginal bleeding.
  • Evaluate ovary function and look for signs of ovarian failure.
  • Serial measurements of estradiol can be used to track follicle development in the ovary in the days leading up to in vitro fertilization.
  • Keep track of any hormone replacement therapy you're getting to help with your fertility.
  • Keep track of menopausal hormone replacement medication, which is used to treat symptoms caused by estrogen insufficiency.
  • Identify cancers that produce estrogen.
  • As with breast cancer, keep an eye on anti-estrogen therapy.

Boys and men may be subjected to estradiol testing in order to:

  • Assist in the diagnosis of delayed puberty
  • Assist in determining the cause of larger breasts or other feminization indications.
  • Detect an excess of relative estrogen due to a testosterone or androgen deficit.
  • Identify cancers that produce estrogen.

What do my Estradiol test results mean?

Estradiol is one of the three Estrogens that have a large impact on the women's body throughout the menstrual cycle. When these hormones are too high or too low, it could cause irregular bleeding, infertility, complications with menopause, and delayed or premature puberty. Out of range levels can also be indicative of an ovarian condition such as PCOS. It is important to note that these values will fluctuate throughout a woman's cycle. The Estrogen hormones work together and if one is out of range, the others may also be out of range. It is recommended to follow up with a licensed healthcare professional to determine the best treatment if need.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

IMPORTANT - Note this Estradiol test is not for children that have yet to start their menstrual cycle.  If this test is ordered for a child that has yet to begin their menstrual cycle Quest Diagnostics labs will substitute in Estradiol, Ultrasensitive LC/MS/MS - #30289 at an additional charge of $34


Estrogens are a group of steroids that regulate the menstrual cycle and function as the main female sex hormones. The most common forms of estrogens tested are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). Estrogens are responsible for the development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics and are tied to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are considered the main sex hormones in women and are present in small quantities in men. E1 and E2 are the two main estrogens in non-pregnant females.Estrone (E1) is derived from metabolites from the adrenal gland and is often made in adipose tissue (fat). Estrone can be converted into estrdiol or estriol when needed. Estrone is present in small amounts in children prior to puberty and then increases slightly at puberty for both males and females. While levels remain constant in adult males, it will increase and fluctuate for females during the menstrual cycle. After menopause, it becomes the major estrogen, with E2 and E3 levels diminishing greatly.Estradiol (E2) is the predominant form and is produced primarily in the ovaries with additional amounts produced by the adrenal glands in women and in the testes and adrenal glands in men. In menstruating women, levels vary throughout the month, rising and falling in concert with FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), and progesterone as follicles are stimulated in the ovaries, an egg is released, and the uterus prepares for a potential pregnancy. The level is lowest at the beginning of the menstrual cycle and rise to their highest level just before the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation). Normal levels of estradiol provide for proper ovulation, fertilization of the egg (conception), and pregnancy, in addition to promoting healthy bone structure and regulating cholesterol levels.



Prenatal care is one of the most widely and often utilized health care services to improve pregnancy outcomes in the U.S. Over 18 million prenatal health care visits happened in 2015 alone. A central part of this is prenatal testing.

What is prenatal testing, and how does it affect outcomes? Keep reading to learn how to promote prenatal health and empower your well-being.

What Is Prenatal Health Care?

Prenatal health care is an umbrella term covering multiple areas of medical treatment, checkups. It tests a person undergoes as soon as they become pregnant or believe they might be pregnant. The initial steps taken during the first 13 weeks, or the first trimester, often includes scheduling the first of multiple prenatal care checkups.

You can schedule these checkups with:

  • A trusted family doctor or your general physician
  • An OB/GYN (obstetrician or gynecologist) who specializes in reproductive health, pregnancy, prenatal care, and childbirth
  • An OB with training in maternal-fetal medicine if you are predisposed to a high-risk pregnancy
  • A certified midwife who is an advanced practice registered nurse that specializes in prenatal treatment, pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum care

Whenever you consider seeing a new healthcare provider, consider your options and your needs. For example, is there anything in your medical history that could put you at risk for complications? Are you looking for someone to discuss prenatal genetic testing with?

Prenatal health care helps you have a pregnancy that is healthy and full-term. Your appointments will likely be more frequent in the first few weeks and near your due date. These checkups will repeat regularly to: 

  • Monitor fetal development
  • Check your vitals
  • Conduct tests
  • Administer medications or vaccines 

Risk Factors for Prenatal Health Issues

Many aspects of life can put a person at high risk for complications during pregnancy or childbirth. Some risk factors for prenatal health issues are environmental, such as exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). EDCs cause issues with the body's normal functions and hormone signaling.

EDCs are found in: 

  • Cigarette smoke
  • Air pollution
  • Pesticides and herbicides
  • BPA
  • Phthalates
  • Industrial products and waste

Fetuses exposed to EDCs are potentially at risk for poor outcomes or later-onset thyroid dysfunction. Levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals can be measured in urine and fetal tube blood. However, the actual threat is still unknown.

Several pregnancy-related health issues can lead to complications, miscarriage, or stillbirth. Examples of these conditions include:  

  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Poorly managed asthma
  • Folate deficiency
  • Heart disorders
  • Blood disorders

Pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure)Outcomes associated with pregnancy-related health issues are: 

  • Placental abnormalities
  • Premature delivery
  • Low birth weight
  • Macrosomia
  • Facial deformities
  • Fetal growth restriction (FGR)

Issues that Can Occur Affecting Prenatal Health

Another pregnancy-related health issue, folate deficiency, which is especially impactful during the first trimester, can lead to neural tube birth defects (NTDs) such as anencephaly or spina bifida. However, if folate deficiency or other pregnancy-related health issues are recognized early enough, you can receive treatment or make changes that lower the risk.

In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made changes that required manufacturers to fortify foods with 140 mcg folate to lower the risk of NTDs. Such food products include:

  • Cornmeal
  • Bread
  • Flours
  • Cereals
  • Pasta
  • Rice
  • Various grain products

A pregnant person may not get enough folate through diet alone and have to rely on prenatal supplements. The change in folate fortification leads to a decrease of neural tube defects by 50 percent in the U.S.

In addition to folate deficiency, a pregnant person is more likely to develop an iron deficiency or anemia. This is because a pregnant body must produce more blood to support the fetus, and the body may not be able to produce enough red blood cells. Iron is necessary for creating more red blood cells and staying healthy.  

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Issues that Can Occur with Prenatal Health Issues?

Conditions affecting your health or the health of the fetus may not always show symptoms, but experienced doctors can typically see the signs. Signs and symptoms of potential issues include:

  • Bleeding, itching, or vaginal leakage
  • Severe pain in stomach or back
  • Blurry vision
  • Recurrent or intense headaches
  • Rash
  • Excessive vomiting or nausea
  • Fever above 101F
  • Painful urination
  • Swelling on one side of the body

Signs of dangerous conditions like ectopic pregnancy, when the fertilized egg develops outside of the uterus, may become apparent a few weeks in. The first symptoms are vaginal bleeding or spotting, pain in the pelvis, cramps, nausea, and pain in your neck or shoulder. It can be confirmed with a pelvic exam and an ultrasound.

Additionally, lab tests can check hCG levels. In the first trimester, hCG blood levels should double every few days. Abnormal hCG results could point to an ectopic pregnancy.

In later trimesters, your doctor may monitor fetal movement. Fetal movement count or kick count tests start around 20 weeks in. Your doctor will ask for you to feel for how often the fetus kicks.

You will keep track of the amount of time it takes to feel ten kicks or movements. Ten movements within one hour are typical.

The Lab Tests to Screen, Diagnose, and Monitor Prenatal Health Issues

Prenatal tests are regular procedures done to check on the health of you and the fetus and to detect congenital anomalies. Some tests are often repeated several times throughout the pregnancy. Here are some examples of routine prenatal tests:

Blood pressure: Regular blood pressure monitoring is essential for preventing or treating pre-eclampsia and the damage it causes.  

Urinalysis: This test checks your urine for infections, proteins, and glucose levels.  

hCG Total: hCG stands for human chorionic gonadotropin, a hormone that becomes detectable in the blood in the very early stages of pregnancy. Initial hCG testing checks for any amount of hCG to confirm pregnancy. Subsequent screenings track levels and totals to help track development and detect potential complications or signs of a miscarriage.

Complete Blood Count: CBC is a specific blood test that assesses the body's three primary blood cell types: white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. CBC panels are run as early as possible, ideally before conception, to look for signs of anemia, infection, or blood clotting issues. 

Blood Typing (ABO Group and Rh Type) Tests: You will have routine checks for infections, organ function, and hormone levels. Additionally, you may be tested to find out your blood type: A, B, AB, or O and your Rh factor—a compound present on the red blood cells of some people. You are either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. 

Understanding this is crucial because if you are Rh-negative with an Rh-positive fetus, both of you are at risk for hemolytic disease. To help prevent dangerous or fatal consequences, the drug RhoGAM is given to suppress the immune response that leads to hemolytic shock.  

Other routine tests include tracking your weight. These screenings often happen once (and usually during your first trimester):

Genetic Carrier Screening Tests: This test looks at samples of your saliva or blood for genetic markers indicating you are a carrier of genetic conditions that can affect your fetus. Carriers are unaffected but pass on the faulty genes. This is conducted before or in the first trimester.

Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: This test finds traces of fetal DNA in your blood. The fetal DNA is tested for genetic conditions like trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). The results are typically accurate but not indisputable.

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella: These are highly infectious diseases that pose a serious risk to fetal health and development. Immunity testing is best done before becoming pregnant. Otherwise, this will be a part of your first prenatal checkup.  

TSH: Thyroid-stimulating hormone level testing occurs in the first trimester. Your prenatal healthcare provider will advise you on whether you need regular screenings. Those with hypothyroidism receive tests monthly until their 3rd trimester. 

Varicella-Zoster Virus: VZV is responsible for chickenpox and shingles infections. While chickenpox infections usually infect children who become immune, the virus can re-emerge as shingles later in life. Testing for VZV antibodies early on is necessary as the germ can cross the placenta and cause fetal defects or sickness. 

Some screening tests are conducted later in pregnancy. These occur during the second or third trimester: 

Chorionic Villus Sampling: Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) takes a sample of placenta tissue to test for genetic disorders. It is invasive, and potential side effects include cramping, bleeding, infection, preterm labor, and in rare cases, limb defects. This may happen late into the first trimester or early into the second. 

Amniocentesis: Similar to a CVS, amniocentesis tests amniotic fluid for lung development and infections. This screening tool can specifically uncover possible genetic conditions like chromosomal disorders, Tay-Sachs disease, muscular dystrophy, and cystic fibrosis. It is commonly run in the second or third trimester. 

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

STIs, such as HIV, gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, hepatitis B and C, have pronounced consequences on pregnancy. Silent infections may lay dormant for years without symptoms. Proceeding with pregnancy with an untreated STI sharply increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, early delivery, SIDS, brain damage, meningitis, and cirrhosis.

While you may deny routine testing of STIs in some areas of the country, screening is strongly recommended, at least during the first trimester. Subsequent tests are advisable for those at a higher risk.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

There are two common laboratory tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The first test is run in the early weeks of pregnancy: 

Hemoglobin A1c: By checking hemoglobin A1c levels in the first trimester, it is potentially easier to predict GDM before it happens. Those with A1c levels in the "prediabetic" range will need regular blood glucose checks and monitoring. 

As you hit milestones in your pregnancy and make it past the second trimester, your chance of developing GDM rises. The placenta secretes necessary hormones that have an adverse effect in some, impacting how your body uses insulin.   

Blood Glucose: The first type of blood glucose test takes place over the span of an hour. You will ingest a drink high in glucose and have your blood glucose levels checked in one hour. By comparing these results to prior levels, a doctor gauges your risk of GDM. 

glucose challenge test followed by a two-hour glucose tolerance are methods for screening pregnant people and diagnosing GDM. This type of diabetes increases the risk of complications like premature birth, birth injury, respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, and the need for a cesarean section. You are at a higher risk for GDM if:

  • You are older than 25
  • You have had GDM before
  • You have PCOS, hormonal imbalances, high blood pressure, or heart disease
  • You are prediabetic
  • You have a BMI of 25 or higher
  • You have a family history of diabetes

Your prenatal care provider can help identify what tests are right for you.

Frequently Asked Questions About Prenatal Health and Lab Testing for Prenatal Health

Prenatal lab testing helps parents-to-be understand whether their fetus is at risk for birth defects or genetic conditions. Here are some frequently asked questions about prenatal testing and their answers.

Why Do People Get Prenatal Tests?

Your prenatal healthcare provider may recommend screening or diagnostic tests during different trimesters to monitor your health and the development of the fetus. The types of tests may depend on your age, health, medical history, and other factors.

How Do I Get a Prenatal Test?

Ulta Lab Tests offers over 1,000 lab tests and a variety of wellness panels. You can order our tests online, have your blood drawn at a participating patient service center, and review your results online.

What Do I Do with the Results?

Regardless of whether your test results come back within normal ranges or contain abnormalities, we strongly urge you to see your doctor. In the case of prenatal care, you need to work with a specialist to understand the next best steps. Using your test results, a physician can provide you with an official diagnosis. 

Prenatal Testing with Ulta Lab Tests

Several factors, many of which are out of your control, impact your health and the health of your fetus. Help yourself with prenatal testing and by working with a trusted medical professional. 

Ulta Lab Tests offers tests that are accurate and reliable. You will get secure, confidential results without insurance or a referral at affordable prices when you order your testing with Ulta Lab Tests. You can order your comprehensive obstetric and prenatal lab tests and receive your results online within 24 to 48 hours for most tests.

Take control of your health with Ulta Lab Tests today!