Blood in Urine (Hematuria)

Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Lab Tests and health information

Have you noticed blood in your urine?

If this is the case, it might indicate an underlying health problem. It is important to get blood in urine lab tests ASAP. The blood in urine test detects traces of blood in urine caused by urinary tract infection, enlarged prostate, kidney stones, and vigorous exercise such as long-distance running

If you've noticed blood in your urine, it could be a sign of something serious. It may indicate an infection or other medical condition. The good news is that the problem can often be treated with antibiotics. However, some conditions may lead to more serious problems like kidney failure and even death if left untreated. Don't wait until it's too late – get tested today!

If you want to learn more about blood in the urine and the lab tests that can help you, click on the title of the articles below.

Blood in your urine doesn't always mean something's wrong, but when there is, don't ignore it. The first step is to get tested for the cause of the bleeding and find out what's causing it. We can help with that! Our quick, accurate lab tests will give you peace of mind by letting you know if there is any reason for concern.

We have lab tests for identifying traces of blood in urine caused by urinary tract infection, enlarged prostate, kidney stones, strenuous activity such as running, and other causes of blood in the urine. This allows you to receive treatment sooner rather than later when your symptoms are less severe but still harmful. Don't let a minor problem evolve into a major one; take care of yourself today with our quick lab tests.

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Order your lab tests to identify the cause of blood in your urine from the selection below today and take charge of your health!

Name Matches

Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Serum 

Test Preparation: 9-12 hours fasting is preferred.

Average Processing Time: 1 to 2 days 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Sodium: this is a measure of sodium in your blood's serum. Sodium is a vital mineral for nerve and muscle cell function.

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 

Description: A microalbumin test is a urine test for albumin, which is used to screen for and diagnose kidney disease, liver disorders, and evaluate a patient’s nutritional status.

Also Known As: ALB Test, Albumin Test, Urine Albumin Test, Microalbumin test, Random Microalbumin Test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

Average Processing Time: 2 to 3 days

When is a Microalbumin Random Urine with Creatinine test ordered?

According to the American Diabetes Association and the National Kidney Foundation, everyone with type 1 diabetes should be tested annually beginning five years after diagnosis, and everyone with type 2 diabetes should be tested annually beginning from the time of diagnosis. If albumin is found in the urine, it should be confirmed by repeating the test two more times within a 3-6 month period. People with hypertension may be examined at regular intervals, with their healthcare professional determining the frequency.

What does a Microalbumin Random Urine with Creatinine test check for?

Albumin is a significant protein found in the blood. The urine albumin test identifies and quantifies albumin levels in the urine. The presence of a little amount of albumin in the urine could be a sign of renal disease early on. Urine microalbumin or microalbuminuria refers to the presence of a little amount of albumin in the urine. The term "microalbuminuria" is gradually being replaced by "albuminuria," which refers to any increase in albumin in the urine.

The liquid element of blood, plasma, contains a variety of proteins, including albumin. One of the kidneys' many roles is to conserve plasma proteins so that they do not mix with waste materials when urine is generated. Protein does not generally enter into urine due to two mechanisms: the glomeruli form a barrier that keeps most big plasma proteins inside the blood arteries, and the tubules almost totally resorb the smaller proteins that do get through.

Protein in the urine is most common when the kidney's glomeruli or tubules are damaged. The glomeruli can become inflamed and/or scarred, allowing more protein to seep into the urine. Protein can't be reabsorbed if the tubules are damaged.

Albumin is a plasma protein seen in high concentrations in the blood and virtually no albumin in the urine when the kidneys are functioning normally. However, when a person's kidneys are damaged or sick, they lose their ability to store albumin and other proteins. This is common in chronic conditions including diabetes and hypertension, when increased protein levels in the urine indicate worsening kidney function.

Albumin is one of the first proteins found in the urine of people who have kidney disease. People who have tiny amounts of albumin in their urine on a regular basis have a higher chance of developing renal failure and cardiovascular disease in the future.

In persons with chronic illnesses including diabetes and high blood pressure, a urine albumin test is used to check for kidney damage. Small levels of albumin that escape from the bloodstream through the kidneys and into the urine can be detected several years before serious kidney impairment manifests. Albumin and creatinine tests are usually performed on a urine sample obtained at random, and an albumin-to-creatinine ratio is calculated. This is done to give a more precise estimate of how much albumin is discharged into the urine.

Lab tests often ordered with a Microalbumin Random Urine with Creatinine test:

  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Albumin Serum
  • Urinalysis
  • Glucose
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Urine Protein

Conditions where a Microalbumin Random Urine with Creatinine test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Proteinuria

How does my health care provider use a Microalbumin Random Urine with Creatinine test?

The urine albumin test, also known as the albumin/creatinine ratio, is used to assess persons who have chronic illnesses like diabetes or high blood pressure, which put them at risk of renal disease. People and healthcare providers can change treatment if they are identified in the early stages of kidney disease, according to studies. Controlling diabetes and hypertension by maintaining tight glycemic control and lowering blood pressure can slow or stop renal disease from progressing.

Albumin is a protein found in large amounts in the bloodstream. When the kidneys are working normally, there is almost no albumin in the urine. Even in the early stages of renal illness, albumin can be identified in the urine.

If albumin is found in a urine sample taken at random, over 4 hours, or overnight, the test can be repeated and/or validated using urine taken over a 24-hour period.

In most cases, an albumin/creatinine ratio is calculated by measuring both albumin and creatinine in a random urine sample. This might be done to detect how much albumin is escaping from the kidneys into the urine more precisely. The amount of liquid secreted in addition to the body's waste products varies throughout the day, with more or less liquid being discharged. As a result, albumin content in the urine may vary.

Creatinine, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, is generally released into the urine at a consistent rate, and its content in the urine is a measure of urine concentration. Because of this trait, creatinine can be used to compensate for urine concentration in a random urine sample. The ACR is preferred by the American Diabetes Association for screening for albuminuria, which indicates early kidney impairment. A high ACR should be done twice within 3 to 6 months to confirm the diagnosis because the amount of albumin in the urine might vary significantly.

What do my microalbumin test results mean?

The presence of moderately elevated albumin levels in both initial and repeat urine tests indicates the presence of early renal disease. Extremely high levels indicate that renal disease has progressed to a more serious stage. Normal renal function is indicated by undetectable levels.

A positive test result may be caused by the presence of blood in the urine, a urinary tract infection, strenuous activity, or other acute illnesses that are not connected to kidney disease. Following the resolution of these situations, testing should be redone.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

Average Processing Time: 1 to 2 days

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 


Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Ulta Lab Tests provides CBC test results from Quest Diagnostics as they are reported. Often, different biomarker results are made available at different time intervals. When reporting the results, Ulta Lab Tests denotes those biomarkers not yet reported as 'pending' for every biomarker the test might report. Only biomarkers Quest Diagnostics observes are incorporated and represented in the final CBC test results provided by Ulta Lab Tests. 
NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Urine Culture test is a test that is used to identify bacteria or foreign organisms in urine and test for antibiotic susceptibilities.

Also Known As: Urine Culture Test, Urine Culture and Sensitivity, Urine C and S, UTI test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

Average Processing Time: 2 to 3 days

IMPORTANT - Culture, Urine, Routine #395 can Reflex to additional testing and charges, detailed below, if Culture is positive.

If culture is positive, CPT code(s): 87088 (each isolate) will be added with an additional charge.  Identification will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87077 or 87140 or 87143 or 87147 or 87149).

Antibiotic susceptibilities are only performed when appropriate (CPT code(s): 87181 or 87184 or 87185 or 87186).

  • ORG ID 1. $ 12.45 
  • ORG ID 2. $ 23.95 
  • PRESUMPTIVE ID 1. $ 12.45 
  • PRESUMPTIVE ID 2. $ 23.95 
  • SUSC-1  $14.95 
  • SUSC-2  $28.95

When is a Urine Culture test ordered?

A urine culture may be requested if a person exhibits symptoms that suggest a urinary tract infection, such as:

  • Urination urges that are strong and persistent
  • Urination with a burning sensation
  • Urine that is murky and has a strong odor
  • Back pain in the lower back

Urinary tract infections can cause pressure in the lower abdomen as well as small quantities of blood in the urine. If the UTI is severe and/or has gone to the kidneys, it can cause symptoms such as flank pain, high fever, trembling, chills, nausea, and vomiting.

For young women with signs or symptoms of a UTI and an uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection, antibiotics may be administered without obtaining a urine culture. A urine culture is advised if there is a suspicion of a complex infection or if symptoms do not respond to first treatment.

Pregnant women without symptoms should be examined for bacteria in their urine during their first trimester or first prenatal appointment, as bacteria in the urine can harm the growing baby's health.

A urine culture may be administered in conjunction with a urinalysis or as a follow-up to abnormal urinalysis results.

What does a Urine Culture test check for?

Urine is a fluid generated by the kidneys that contains both water and waste. It passes from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters before being expelled from the body through the urethra. Urine culture is a test that detects and identifies bacteria and yeast in the urine that could be the source of a urinary tract infection.

A small amount of urine is placed on one or more agar plates and incubated at body temperature for a urine culture. Any bacteria or yeast present in the urine sample will grow into little circular colonies during the next 24 to 48 hours. The number of colonies and the size, shape, and color of these colonies assist identify which bacteria are present in the urine sample, and the number of colonies shows the amount of bacteria that were initially present in the urine sample. A laboratory technician counts the total number of colonies on the agar plate and determines how many types have grown. If a good, clean catch sample was taken for the test, the only bacteria found should be from an infection. Typically, there will be only one variety of bacterium present in relatively significant quantities. More than one type of bacteria may be present at any given time. This could be the result of a multi-pathogen infection, although it's more likely owing to contamination from the skin picked up during the urine collection.

A gram stain will be performed on a colony from each type by the laboratory technician. The bacteria are examined under a microscope by the laboratory technician. Different species of bacteria will have distinct colors and forms. Under a microscope, the bacterium Escherichia coli, which is responsible for the majority of urinary tract infections, will appear as gram-negative rods. Lactobacillus, a frequent vaginal contaminant found in women's urine, will show up as gram-positive rods. Some bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, are easy to detect by a skilled lab technician, are nonpathogenic, and do not require additional research. Others, such as gram-negative rods, represent clusters of identical bacteria that will necessitate extra testing to determine which bacteria are present.

After 24 to 48 hours of incubation, if there is no or little growth on the agar, the urine culture is declared negative for pathogens and the culture is complete. If one or more pathogens are found, more testing is done. Testing is performed to determine which bacteria are present, as well as susceptibility testing to determine which antibiotics are most likely to cure the infection.

Lab tests often ordered with a Urine Culture test:

  • Urinalysis, Complete
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • ANA
  • Rheumatoid Factor
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

Conditions where a Urine Culture test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Pregnancy
  • Hematuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Kidney Stones
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

How does my health care provider use a Urine Culture test?

The urine culture is often used to diagnose a urinary tract infection and to identify the bacteria or yeast that is causing it. It can be used in conjunction with susceptibility testing to discover which drugs will stop the infection-causing bacterium from growing. The findings will aid a doctor in determining which treatments are most likely to be beneficial in treating a patient's infection.

The kidneys, a pair of bean-shaped organs positioned near the bottom of the ribcage on the right and left sides of the back, produce urine. To transport wastes out of the body, the kidneys filter waste from the blood and generate urine, a yellow fluid. Urine goes from the kidneys to the bladder, where it is briefly stored, and then via the urethra to be emptied. Urine is normally sterile, but bacteria or, more rarely, yeast can migrate up the urinary tract from the skin outside the urethra and produce a urinary tract infection.

The majority of UTIs are considered simple and treatable. The infection may spread up through the ureters and into the kidneys if they are not treated. A kidney infection is more hazardous and can result in renal damage that is irreversible. In some situations, a urinary tract infection can escalate to a life-threatening infection in the bloodstream.

People with renal disease or other illnesses that impact the kidneys, such as diabetes or kidney stones, as well as people with compromised immune systems, may be more susceptible to UTIs.

What do my Urine Culture test results mean?

Urine culture results are frequently interpreted in conjunction with urinalysis results, as well as how the sample was taken and whether symptoms are present. Because certain urine samples may contain bacteria that are ordinarily found on the skin, some culture results must be interpreted with caution.

A positive urine culture is usually defined as the presence of a single kind of bacteria growing at high colony counts. Cultures containing more than 100,000 CFU/mL of one species of bacteria in clean catch samples that have been correctly collected usually indicate infection. Even if an infection is present, there may not be a large number of germs present in some circumstances. Lower levels can sometimes suggest infection, particularly if symptoms are present. Similarly, values of 1,000 to 100,000 CFU/mL may be deemed significant for samples acquired using a technique that reduces contamination, such as a sample collected with a catheter.

Although UTIs can be caused by a variety of bacteria, the majority are caused by Escherichia coli, a kind of bacteria that is widespread in the digestive tract and frequently detected in stool. Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus are among the bacteria that can cause UTIs. A yeast infection, such as Candida albicans, can cause a UTI, but urethritis is more commonly caused by a sexually transmitted illness, such as herpes, chlamydia, or gonorrhea.

When a culture says "no growth in 24 or 48 hours," it usually means there isn't an infection. If the symptoms persist, a urine culture on a new sample may be performed to test for bacteria with reduced colony numbers or other microorganisms that could be causing the symptoms. Acute urethral syndrome is defined as the presence of white blood cells and low quantities of bacteria in a sick person's urine.

If multiple different species of bacteria thrive in a culture, the growth is almost certainly due to contamination. This is notably true in urine samples containing Lactobacillus and/or other prevalent nonpathogenic vaginal bacteria in women. If the symptoms persist, the healthcare provider may order a second culture on a more thoroughly collected sample. However, if one species of bacteria has considerably larger colony counts than the others, such as 100,000 CFUs/mL versus 1,000 CFUs/mL, further testing to determine the dominating bacterium may be required.

Susceptibility testing may be used to guide treatment if a culture is positive. Any bacterial infection can be dangerous and, if left untreated, can spread to other parts of the body. Pain is frequently the first sign of infection. Treatment as soon as possible, generally with antibiotics, will help to relieve the pain.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

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Description: The Cystatin C blood test is used to determine kidney health by measuring levels of the protein Cystatin C.

Also Known As: CysX Test, CysC Test, Cystatin C Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

Average Processing Time: 4 to 5 days

When is a Cystatin C test ordered?

Studies are confirming and defining the utility of cystatin C, particularly as an early, sensitive diagnostic for chronic kidney disease. It may be requested if a person has a known or suspected condition that affects or may influence kidney function and reduces the glomerular filtration rate, which is the rate at which the kidneys filter pollutants from the blood.

It may be ordered if a healthcare provider is dissatisfied with the results of previous tests, such as a creatinine or creatinine clearance, or wants to check for early renal dysfunction, especially in the elderly or unwell babies, and/or wants to track known impairment over time.

The study of cystatin C as a predictor of end-stage renal disease, heart failure, and death is still underway. Cystatin C, when paired with blood creatinine in an equation, has been found to increase the estimation of GFR in a variety of populations.

What does a Cystatin C blood test check for?

Cystatin C is a tiny protein generated by all cells with a nucleus and found in a number of body fluids, including the blood. It is constantly created, filtered from the blood by the kidneys, and broken down. This test evaluates kidney function by measuring the level of cystatin C in the blood.

The glomeruli, clusters of microscopic blood capillaries in the kidneys that allow water, dissolved substances, and wastes to flow past their walls while holding blood cells and bigger proteins, filter cystatin C out of the blood. Filtrate fluid is made up of what goes through the glomeruli's walls. The kidneys reabsorb cystatin C, glucose, and other chemicals from this fluid. The remainder of the fluid and wastes are transported to the bladder and expelled as urine. The cystatin C that has been reabsorbed is then broken down and not reintroduced to the bloodstream.

The glomerular filtration rate is the rate at which the fluid is filtered. The GFR falls as kidney function declines, whereas cystatin C and other renal function indicators such as creatinine and urea in the blood rise. These levels rise because the kidneys are unable to filter the blood correctly at a regular rate, resulting in their buildup in the blood. Improvements in kidney function, on the other hand, are predicted to lead to increases in GFR, which will result in lower levels of cystatin C, creatinine, and urea as the kidneys are better able to remove them from the blood.

Cystatin C concentrations in the blood are stable while the kidneys are working properly. The concentrations begin to grow as renal function deteriorates. This rise in cystatin C occurs when GFR declines and is generally apparent before kidney function declines significantly.

The cystatin C test has gained popularity as a technique of measuring kidney function since cystatin C levels fluctuate with changes in GFR. Creatinine, a result of muscle metabolism that is detected in the blood and urine, blood urea nitrogen, and eGFR are currently employed tests. Cystatin C, unlike creatinine, is unaffected by muscle mass, race, or diet, leading to the hypothesis that it could be a more trustworthy measure of renal function and so used to provide a more precise estimate of GFR.

While there is increasing evidence and literature to support the use of cystatin C, there is still some debate over when and how it should be administered. However, testing is becoming more widely available, and measures are being conducted to standardize cystatin C results calibration.

Lab tests often ordered with a Cystatin C test:

  • Creatinine
  • Creatinine Clearance
  • Urine Albumin
  • Lipid Panel
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

Conditions where a Cystatin C test is recommended:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Diabetes

How does my health care provider use a Cystatin C test?

In those who have known or suspected renal disease, a cystatin C test can be used instead of creatinine and creatinine clearance to screen for and monitor kidney dysfunction. It's especially beneficial in circumstances where creatinine measurements aren't accurate.

Creatinine measurements may not be trustworthy in people who have liver cirrhosis, are very fat, are malnourished, follow a vegetarian diet, have amputated limbs, or have reduced muscle mass. Because creatinine is dependent on muscle mass, assessing kidney function in people with abnormally high or low body mass may be inaccurate. Cystatin C is a more reliable indicator of renal function than creatinine since it is unaffected by body mass or diet.

When other test findings are normal or borderline, and an affected person has few, if any, symptoms, measuring cystatin C may be helpful in early diagnosis of kidney disease. In this scenario, the healthcare provider may wish to measure cystatin c to see if chronic renal disease is present.

Other applications of cystatin C are being investigated, such as measuring glomerular filtration rate using it alone or in combination with blood creatinine. An equation for eGFR that incorporates both creatinine and cystatin C was found to be more accurate than one that utilizes either of these alone in a recent study, and could be used to diagnose chronic kidney disease in persons with an eGFR near 60, the CKD threshold. It has been linked to a higher risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and heart failure in older persons, in addition to kidney impairment. Before being completely integrated into clinical practice, these equations are now being validated in various patient populations.

Finally, some study suggests that cystatin C returns to normal faster than creatinine, and that it could be used to assess renal function and severity of sickness in critically ill hospitalized patients when GFR is rapidly changing.

What do my Cystatin C test results mean?

A high amount of cystatin C in the blood indicates a lower glomerular filtration rate and, as a result, kidney failure.

Because cystatin C is made at a constant rate throughout the body and eliminated and broken down by the kidneys, it should stay at a constant level in the blood if the kidneys are healthy and the GFR is normal.

Increased levels of cystatin C have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, heart failure, and mortality in recent investigations.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

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Description: A creatinine clearance test measures levels of creatinine in both blood (serum) and urine to assess the kidney function and how the volume of blood that is being filtered.

Also Known As: CRCL Test, CCT Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw and Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Serum and Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

Average Processing Time: 1 to 2 days

When is a Creatinine Clearance test ordered?

When a doctor wants to assess a patient's kidneys' capacity for filtration, they may order a creatinine clearance test. When a person, for instance, exhibits elevated blood creatinine concentrations on a typical chemical panel or protein in the urine on a typical urinalysis, it may be ordered as a follow-up test. When there is a suspicion of a kidney ailment due to certain signs and symptoms, it could be ordered.

These are some warning signs and symptoms of renal issues:

  • Swelling or puffiness, especially in the face, wrists, abdomen, thighs, or ankles or around the eyes
  • Foamy, bloody, or coffee-colored urine
  • a reduction in the urine's volume
  • problems urinating, such as a burning sensation or an unusual discharge, or a change in frequency, particularly at night
  • discomfort in the middle of the back, below the ribs, and next to the kidneys
  • elevated blood pressure
  • pee with blood or protein in it

When it is known that a person has a renal problem or reduced blood supply to the kidneys as a result of a condition like congestive heart failure, the creatinine clearance may also be ordered on a regular basis.

What does a Creatinine Clearance test check for?

Muscles release creatinine as a waste product after breaking down a substance called creatine. The kidneys filter creatinine from the blood and release it into the urine. A creatinine clearance test assesses the levels of creatinine in both a blood sample and a urine sample from a 24-hour urine collection. The amount of creatinine that has been eliminated from the blood and excreted in the urine is determined using the findings. This calculation enables a broad assessment of the volume of blood that the kidneys filter over the course of a 24-hour period.

Creatinine production in the body is largely consistent for a person and is influenced by muscle mass. The kidneys' capacity to filter the blood as well as the rate at which blood is transported to the kidneys determine how much creatinine is excreted from the blood.

The glomerular filtration rate is the measure of how much blood the kidneys filter each minute. Less creatinine will be excreted in the urine and released into the blood in the presence of renal disease or damage, or if blood circulation is impeded. As a result, the GFR will fall.

GFR is challenging to directly measure. As a result, it is advised to compute estimated GFR by testing the blood's creatinine level and plugging the data into an algorithm. the formula that accounts for a number of variables, including the test subject's age, gender, and race.

Calculating creatinine clearance is an additional, less popular method of estimating GFR. There are various ways to calculate creatinine clearance. The measurement of the creatinine concentration in a blood sample taken just before or after the urine collection, the creatinine concentration in a 24-hour urine sample, and the 24-hour urine volume are all included. Some estimates also incorporate a correction factor that takes into consideration a person's body surface area because the amount of creatinine generated is dependent on muscle mass.

Lab tests often ordered with a Creatinine Clearance test:

  • Creatinine
  • eGFR
  • Cystatin C
  • Urinalysis
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
  • Microalbumin

Conditions where a Creatinine Clearance test is recommended:

  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Kidney Disease

How does my health care provider use a Creatinine Clearance test?

Kidney dysfunction may be identified and diagnosed with a creatinine clearance test. It could be applied as a follow-up to abnormal blood creatinine test and estimated glomerular filtration rate results.

When congestive heart failure is present, as might happen, a creatinine clearance may also be utilized to identify the existence of decreased blood flow to the kidneys.

The creatinine clearance test may be prescribed in cases of known chronic renal disease or congestive heart failure in order to track the development of the condition and gauge its severity. Moreover, it can be utilized to assist decide whether and when kidney dialysis could be required.

What do my Creatinine Clearance test results mean?

The presence of renal disease or other diseases that can impair kidney function may be indicated by a reduced creatinine clearance. They may consist of:

  • For instance, infections or autoimmune illnesses can cause kidney blood vessels to enlarge or become damaged.
  • infection of the kidneys with bacteria
  • death of kidney cells brought on by chemicals or medications, for instance, in the tiny tubes of the kidneys
  • Urinary tract obstruction can be brought on by prostate disease, kidney stones, or other conditions.
  • reduced kidney blood flow brought on by shock, dehydration, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, or diabetes-related problems.

Although this test isn't commonly used to track these disorders, elevated creatinine clearance rates can occasionally be noticed during pregnancy, exercise, and with meals heavy in meat.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Description: A Urinalysis complete test is a urine test that is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases urinary tract infections and kidney disorders.

Also Known As: Urine Test, Urine Analysis Test, UA Test, urine microscopic examination Test, Urinalysis Test, Complete Urinalysis Test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

Average Processing Time: 1 to 2 days

When is a Urinalysis Complete test ordered?

A urinalysis test may be ordered when a person undergoes a routine wellness examination, is admitted into a hospital, will have surgery, or is having a prenatal checkup.

When a person visits a doctor with symptoms of a urinary tract infection or another urinary system ailment, such as kidney disease, a urinalysis will almost certainly be prescribed. The following are some possible signs and symptoms:

  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Backache
  • Urination that is painful or occurs frequently
  • Urine with blood in it

Testing may also be conducted at regular intervals to track the progress of a condition.

What does a Urinalysis Complete test check for?

A urinalysis is a series of examinations done on urine that are physical, chemical, and microscopic. The tests identify and/or measure a number of elements in the urine, including cells, cellular fragments, and microbes. These elements include byproducts of healthy and unhealthy metabolism.

Urine is produced by the kidneys, two fist-sized organs located on either side of the spine near the base of the rib cage. The kidneys help the body regulate its water balance, filter wastes from the blood, and store proteins, electrolytes, and other molecules for later use. To get rid of everything unnecessary, urine travels from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder, and urethra before exiting the body. The color, amount, concentration, and content of urine will change slightly every time a person urinates due to the varied elements in urine, despite the fact that pee is normally yellow and clear.

By screening for components in the urine that aren't typically present and/or monitoring aberrant levels of specific substances, many illnesses can be caught early on. Glucose, bilirubin, protein, red and white blood cells, crystals, and germs are among examples. They could be present because of the following reasons:

  • The body responds to an elevated amount of the substance in the blood by attempting to remove the excess through urine.
  • There is a problem with the kidneys.
  • As with bacteria and white blood cells, there is a urinary tract infection present.

Three separate phases make up a full urinalysis:

  • The color and clarity of the urine are assessed using a visual examination.
  • Chemical examination, which determines the concentration of urine and tests for roughly 9 chemicals that provide useful information about health and disease.
  • Microscopic inspection that identifies and counts the different types of cells, casts, crystals, and other components found in urine, such as bacteria and mucus.

When abnormal results are found, or if a healthcare provider requests it, a microscopic analysis is usually performed.

It may be essential to repeat the test if the findings of a urinalysis are abnormal, and further other urine and blood tests may be needed to help establish a diagnosis, if the results are abnormal.

Lab tests often ordered with a Urinalysis Complete test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Lipid Panel
  • CMP
  • TSH
  • Urine Culture
  • Bilirubin Fractionated
  • Glucose

Conditions where a Urinalysis Complete test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Pregnancy
  • Hematuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Kidney Stones

How does my health care provider use a Urinalysis Complete test?

A urinalysis is a series of tests that can diagnose a variety of disorders. It can be used to screen for and/or diagnose a variety of illnesses, including urinary tract infections, renal abnormalities, liver diseases, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders, to name a few.

Urinalysis may be used in conjunction with other tests, such as urine albumin, to monitor the progress of treatment in patients with diseases or conditions like diabetes or kidney disease.

What do my urinalysis complete test results mean?

There are numerous ways to interpret the results of a urinalysis. Unusual results are a warning sign that something isn't right and needs further testing.  To connect the urinalysis results with an individual's symptoms and clinical findings and to look for the causes of aberrant findings, other targeted tests must be done, such as a complete blood count, metabolic panel, or urine culture.

It is more likely that a problem must be addressed the higher the concentration of the atypical component, such as noticeably increased levels of protein, glucose, or red blood cells. On the other hand, the outcomes do not inform the medical professional as to what led to the finding or whether it is a transient or ongoing sickness.

A normal urinalysis does not rule out the possibility of disease. Early in a disease process, some persons will not release elevated amounts of a drug, and others will release them irregularly throughout the day, which means they could be overlooked by a single urine sample. Small amounts of substances may be undetectable in very dilute urine.

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Blood in Urine (Hematuria) and Lab Testing

Hematuria is a medical term used for describing the presence of blood in the urine. It is not normal, but it’s not as uncommon as some might think. An individual who experiences blood in the urine might be worried, but it isn’t always a cause for alarm. It’s a symptom of something and not a disease. A healthcare practitioner will take it as a sign to further investigate to try and find the root cause of the problem. 

The presence of blood in urine isn’t always apparent. Sometimes, the amount of blood is so tiny that it is only detected during an analysis performed as part of the overall health checkup. Typically, urine is transparent, and a shade of yellow that ranges from pale straw to light amber. The shade of yellow depends on urine concentration. If blood is present in the urine, the urine color will be different, but it’s not always red. 

Gross hematuria refers to visible blood levels in the urine, and this type of urine is likely to be red tea or pink colored. In cases where blood clots are present in the urine, a person might see the clots or drops of blood in the toilet while they are urinating. Microscopic hematuria refers to the type where blood can’t be seen with the naked eye, and this type of hematuria doesn’t affect the urine color. 

As far as the causes of hematuria are concerned, it typically involves issues with the urinary tract. The urinary tract consists of a bladder, a urethra, two ureters, and two kidneys. 

Kidneys continuously produce urine by filtering out the waste from the blood. Kidneys push the urine into the bladder through ureters, and the bladder stores the urine before it is pushed out of the body through the urethra during urination. Blood in the urine can also be caused by conditions involving other bodily systems. Keep on reading to know more about the causes of this condition. 


Hematuria can have many causes. Some of these are temporary, benign states that don’t require any specific treatment and resolve on their own. However, it might also be a symptom of a more critical or chronic condition that needs immediate medical intervention and monitoring. 

Further investigation is the only appropriate measure to fully understand the severity or seriousness of hematuria in an individual. The healthcare practitioner will evaluate the individual’s medical history during the investigation, along with their physical examination and associated signs and symptoms to determine the underlying cause of hematuria. 

Some of the common questions that might be asked as part of the examination include: 

Is that blood in the urine? 

Usually, the first question asked in the physical examination is whether blood is visible in the urine. 

There can be many sources of that reddish-looking clot in the urine. Many foods such as rhubarb or beets can give that reddish-brown coloring to the urine. Certain drugs such as phenothiazine, phenazopyridine (most commonly), diphenylhydantoin, cascara, phenacetin, methyldopa, phenolphthalein, and phenindione can also cause red-colored urine. 

Another cause could be the presence of hemoglobin in the urine. Sometimes, red blood cells in the body are broken apart, which leads to the release of hemoglobin. As you are aware, hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein responsible for the red color of the red blood cells. This excess hemoglobin gets eliminated through the urine, making the urine red or tea-colored. Hemolytic anemia also includes sickle-cell anemia, which can also cause hemoglobinuria. 

Urine color can also be changed when the body eliminates certain other substances through urine. For instance, the liver typically removes bilirubin. Still, if the liver is diseased or damaged, it can accumulate bilirubin, and it might make the urine dark amber in color. This is something that should be investigated, but it’s not hematuria. Myoglobin is a small oxygen-binding protein that is typically found in the heart as well as skeletal muscles. It is also eliminated through urine when kidneys filter the blood. If high levels of myoglobin are present in the urine, it might cause the urine to turn red, which might be misinterpreted as blood in the urine. 

Source of Blood in the Urine 

Contaminated blood can become part of the urine through various sources such as hemorrhoids and vaginal bleeding (menstruation). 

Can Infection Cause Hematuria? 

Sometimes, infections can lead to smelly and cloudy urine and painful urination. It might also, sometimes, lead to blood in the urine. 

  • Urinary Tract Infections: These are infections typically caused by bacteria and primarily affect the bladder. These might lead to bladder inflammation (cystitis). 
  • Infection in Kidney: When an infection in the urinary tract spreads to the kidneys. 
  • Viral Infection: In some instances, infections such as hepatitis, which leads to liver inflammation and liver disease, might cause blood in the urine. 

Blood in the Urine – Known Cause or Single Isolated Incident 

At times, blood might appear in the urine and disappear without identifying the underlying cause. At other times, the presence of blood in the urine might be due to a self-limited, resolvable, or identifiable cause such as fever, strenuous exercise, or exposure to certain toxins such as dyes in radiologic procedures. 

Certain medications such as aspirin, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or blood thinners that prevent clotting might also cause the presence of blood in the urine. Another temporary cause of blood in the urine could be a medical procedure involving some part of the urinary tract, such as a kidney biopsy, surgery, or insertion of a urinary catheter. A physical injury to the bladder or kidney might also lead to a temporary presence of blood in the urine. 

Hematuria Causes – Irritation or Inflammation of the Urinary Tract or Prostate in Men or Passage of or Blockage by a Kidney Stone. 

Here are some of the reasons that might lead to blood in the urine accompanied by painful urination, radiating pain, urinary hesitancy, and/or urinary urgency: 

  • Urethritis: It refers to inflammation of the urethra, which is a duct responsible for carrying urine collected in the bladder out of the body 
  • Prostatitis: It refers to prostate inflammation. The prostate is the organ surrounding the urethra in men 
  • Bladder or kidney stones 
  • Benign Prostate Hyperplasia 
  • Hematuria Causes: Condition Causing Kidney Damage or Some Kidney Disease 

Many kidney diseases can lead to hematuria. For example, glomerulonephritis is a kidney disease associated with filtering units in the kidneys known as glomeruli. Another cause could be kidney disease that happens after strep throat, and it is known as post-infectious glomerulonephritis, and it can lead to the presence of blood in a child’s urine.  

Hypertension or high blood pressure and diabetes are also known to cause kidney damage, and these can also sometimes lead to hematuria. Polycystic kidney disease might cause the formation of cysts in the kidneys, which can cause kidney disease. It is an inherited disorder. 

Hematuria Causes – Diseases or Conditions Involving the Urinary Tract. 

If the urinary tract has some structural abnormalities, these can lead to bleeding. Sometimes, blood clots form in the urinary tract, and that can cause blood in the urine. 

A condition known as endometriosis can also lead to hematuria. It is a condition where a tissue that typically lines the uterus starts to grow in other places such as the bladder. 

Hematuria Causes – Inherited and/or Chronic Disorder 

Hematuria could also be caused by an underlying disorder affecting the whole body (systemic) that causes excess blood in the urinary tract. Some of these conditions include: 

Bleeding Disorders – Bruising, bloody, or prolonged bleeding are some common disorders causing excessive bleeding throughout the body. Some of the common examples of these disorders include hemophilia and thrombocytopenia. 

Alport Syndrome – It’s an inherited disorder that causes blood and protein in the urine. 

Autoimmune Diseases – It’s a group of disorders where the immune system in the body starts attacking the body itself, which causes damage to various organs and tissue in the body, including the kidneys. 

Hematuria Causes – Cancer. 

Cancers associated with the prostate and urinary tract can also lead to hematuria. Common examples include prostate cancer, kidney cancer, and bladder cancer. 

Symptoms and Signs of Hematuria 

Many people with hematuria won’t show any signs or symptoms. However, people typically display symptoms associated with another underlying condition. Some of the common examples of signs and symptoms include back pain, abdominal pain, urgent and/or frequent urination, painful urination, fever with infections, severe pain due to kidney stones, swelling of the ankles, legs, or feet (edema) as well as urinary hesitancy which means difficulty in urination or flow interruption. 

Laboratory Testing 

Tests are performed to identify and address the root cause of the problem and to determine the severity, extent, and persistence of blood in the urine. Typically, a health practitioner will perform an initial set of tests to determine the prevalence of hematuria and to rule out and identify some of the common causes. The findings of these initial tests, combined with the medical history and signs and symptoms shown by the affected individual, will determine the need for a more extensive workup. 

Initial Testing 

  • Urinalysis – It is the primary test through which the presence of hematuria is confirmed. It involves chemical and visual examinations to identify gross hematuria through visual examination of the urine color and a chemical test strip. In case of any abnormal findings, a further microscopic examination is done. Multiple samples of urine might be tested. 

As per the American Urological Association, microscopic hematuria is confirmed when three or more red blood cells are present in the high-powered microscope field in two of the three urine samples. Results from the urinalysis (presence of protein) might also help determine the underlying cause. 

  • Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine – These blood tests are performed to evaluate kidney function. These tests might form part of the comprehensive metabolic panel or basic metabolic panel. 
  • CBC or Complete Blood Count – This test checks the number of platelets and blood cells. The health practitioner might ask for this test for a general health evaluation or when they suspect a blood cell abnormality, infection, or anemia. 

Follow-Up Testing – Kidney Health and Kidney Function 

  • Urine Culture – This test is done to determine the presence of bacterial infection. 
  • Cystatin C – This test might be performed as an alternative to the blood creatinine test and for calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). 

Urine cytology – This test is performed for the identification and presence of any abnormal cells in the urine sample. 

The health practitioner might order further tests based on the initial test results along with your medical history, physical examination as well as other signs and symptoms. These tests are only done when indicated to help investigate the root cause of the presence of blood in your urine. Some examples of these non-routine tests include: 

Analysis of Kidney Stone: It is performed to check the kidney stone composition passed into the urine. The stone itself is tested. 

  • Sickle Cell Tests – This test is performed to check whether sickle cell disease is the root cause of hemoglobin in urine. 
  • Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation – These tests are performed for identifying various inherited disorders that affect red blood cells. 
  • Autoantibody Testing – This test is performed for the identification of autoimmune disorders. 
  • Kidney Biopsy: This test is sometimes used for evaluating the nature and extent of structural damage to the kidney. 

Benefits of Blood in Urine Tests (Hematuria) Lab Testing with Ulta Lab Tests

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