Gout

Uric Acid Test for Gout and health information

Are you experiencing pain in your joints and swelling? Do you have a family history of gout?

The uric acid tests help diagnose gout, find the cause of frequent kidney stones, identify a diet that includes too many purine-rich foods and kidney disease.

If you’re experiencing any of the following symptoms, it may be time to test your uric acid levels. 

  • Frequent or intense pain in joints like knees, feet, wrists, and ankles. 
  • Swelling in one or more joints that lasts for days at a time. 
  • Redness and warmth over affected joint(s). 
  • Joint stiffness that lasts for hours after waking up in the morning. 

If these sound familiar to you, it could indicate gout disease!

If you have high uric acid levels in your blood, it’s important to know what could be causing it. Gout is a type of arthritis that causes sudden and severe attacks of pain, tenderness, redness, and swelling in the joints. It can also affect other body parts like the kidneys or eyes. It’s also important to rule out any other conditions that cause high uric acid levels to obtain a diagnosis of gout.

If you want to learn more about gout and the lab tests that can help you, click on the title of the articles below.

The uric acid tests help diagnose gout by measuring how much uric acid is present in your blood at any given time. This will give you an idea about whether or not you might need treatment for this condition. So don’t wait until another attack strikes! Order your test today so you can get started on finding out what’s going on inside your body today! 

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Order your blood tests for gout from the selection below today and take charge of your health!

 


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Description: A Uric Acid test is a blood test that measures Uric Acid levels in your blood’s serum to screen for goat and monitor those undergoing chemotherapy or the development of kidney stones.

Also Known As: Serum Urate Test, UA Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Uric Acid test ordered?

When a healthcare provider suspects a patient has a high uric acid level, a uric acid blood test is ordered. Gout is a prevalent form of arthritis that affects some people who have excessive uric acid levels. Gout causes discomfort in the joints, most commonly in the toes but also in other joints. When cancer patients are undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy, the test is also ordered to verify that their uric acid levels do not rise dangerously high.

When a person has recurring kidney stones or gout and has to be monitored for the production of these stones, a urine uric acid test may be ordered.

What does a Uric Acid blood test check for?

Purines are broken down to form uric acid. Purines are nitrogen-containing molecules that can be found in all of the body's cells, including DNA. This test determines how much uric acid is present in the blood or urine.

Cells break down as they age and die, releasing purines into the bloodstream. Purines can also be obtained through the digestion of specific foods, such as liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas, and alcoholic beverages, particularly beer. The kidneys remove the majority of uric acid from the body, which is then excreted in the urine, with the remaining excreted in the stool.

When too much uric acid is created or not enough is eliminated from the body, it can build up in the body, causing blood levels to rise. Excess uric acid can induce gout, which is characterized by joint inflammation caused by the production of uric acid crystals in the joint fluid. Excess uric acid can also build up in tissues like the kidney, resulting in kidney stones or failure.

Too much uric acid in the body can occur as a result of creating too much, not removing enough, or a combination of both. Uric acid levels can rise as a result of an increase in cell death, as seen with some cancer treatments, or as a result of a rare hereditary tendency to make too much uric acid. Reduced uric acid removal is frequently caused by reduced renal function as a result of kidney disease.

Lab tests often ordered with a Uric Acid test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Urinalysis Complete

Conditions where a Uric Acid test is recommended:

  • Arthritis
  • Gout
  • Kidney Disease

How does my health care provider use a Uric Acid test?

The uric acid blood test is used to diagnose gout by detecting elevated levels of this molecule in the blood. The test is also used to monitor uric acid levels in persons who are receiving cancer treatment such as chemotherapy or radiation. Rapid cell turnover can lead to a rise in uric acid levels as a result of such treatment.

The uric acid urine test is used to detect the source of recurring kidney stones and to monitor the production of stones in persons with gout.

What does my Uric Acid result mean?

Hyperuricemia is defined as blood uric acid levels that are higher than usual. It can be caused by the body creating too much uric acid or the kidneys failing to eliminate enough uric acid from the body. To determine the reason of uric acid overproduction or reduced elimination, more research is needed.

Purine break-down is affected by a number of genetic inborn defects. Increased uric acid production can be caused by cancer that has spread from its original place, leukemias, multiple myeloma, and cancer chemotherapy. Reduced uric acid elimination can be caused by chronic renal illness, acidosis, pregnancy toxemia, and alcoholism.

Increased uric acid levels can cause crystals to develop in the joints, resulting in the joint inflammation and pain associated with gout. Uric acid can form crystals or kidney stones, which can cause kidney injury.

Low uric acid levels in the blood are significantly less common than high ones, and they are rarely a cause for concern. Although low uric acid levels have been linked to liver and renal disease, Fanconi syndrome, toxic exposure, and in rare cases, a hereditary metabolic deficiency, these problems are usually detected by other tests and symptoms rather than a single low uric acid result.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Clinical Significance

Rheumatoid Arthritis Diagnostic IdentRA® Panel 2 - Early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ie, diagnosis before significant joint erosion occurs, is difficult. Psoriatic arthritis can also be difficult to diagnose clinically early in the disease process, and there are no specific biomarkers. The 14-3-3η (eta) protein is an emerging biomarker for RA and erosive psoriatic arthritis diagnosis. It may play a biologic role in the joint erosive process. Blood levels appear to be elevated in patients with RA, but not in other diseases including psoriasis, osteoporosis, gout, ulcerative colitis, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn disease, primary Sjögren syndrome, scleroderma, and multiple sclerosis. The 14-3-3η protein, used in conjunction with rheumatoid factor (RF) and cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody, may improve diagnostic sensitivity in the early diagnosis of RA. It may also help differentiate those with psoriatic arthritis joint damage from those without joint damage.


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Description: RF is a blood test that is measuring the amount of rheumatoid factor that is present in the blood’s serum. It is used along with other tests to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis.

Also Known As: RF Test, Rheumatoid Arthritis Factor Test

Collection Method: Blood Draws

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rheumatoid Factor test ordered?

When a person has RA signs and symptoms, an RF test may be ordered. Pain, warmth, swelling, and morning stiffness in the joints are common symptoms, as are nodules under the skin and, if the disease has progressed, signs of enlarged joint capsules and cartilage and bone loss on X-rays. When the first RF test is negative but the symptoms persist, the RF test may be repeated.

A cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody test may be ordered along with RF or if the RF result is negative to help diagnose RA in someone who has joint inflammation but does not yet fit the criteria for RA.

Additional autoimmune-related tests, such as an ANA, as well as other markers of inflammation, such as a CRP and Sed Rate, as well as a CBC to examine blood cells, may be ordered in addition to the RF test.

What does a Rheumatoid Factor blood test check for?

The autoantibody rheumatoid factor is an immunoglobulin M protein produced by the body's immune system. Autoantibodies attack a person's own tissues, mistaking them for "foreign" tissue. While the biological role of RF is unknown, its presence can be used to detect inflammatory and autoimmune activities. This test identifies and quantifies radiofrequency in the bloodstream.

The RF test is an important tool in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. A RF test will be positive in about 80% of people with RA. RF, on the other hand, can be found in persons with a range of different illnesses, including as Sjögren syndrome, as well as persistent bacterial, viral, and parasite infections, and some malignancies. It can be noticed in patients who have lung, liver, or kidney disease, and it can also be detected in a tiny percentage of healthy persons.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rheumatoid Factor test:

  • Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody
  • ANA
  • Sed Rate
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Immunoglobulins

Conditions where a Rheumatoid Factor test is recommended:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Autoimmune Disorders

How does my health care provider use a Rheumatoid Factor test?

The rheumatoid factor test is used to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and to distinguish it from other types of arthritis or diseases that generate similar symptoms.

While the clinical picture is critical in the diagnosis of RA, some signs and symptoms, particularly in the early stages of the disease, may not be present or follow a predictable pattern. Additionally, the signs and symptoms may not always be easy to distinguish because people with RA may also have other connective tissue disorders such Raynaud phenomenon, scleroderma, autoimmune thyroid problems, and systemic lupus erythematosus and present symptoms of these disorders. When RA is suspected, the RF test is one of several tools that can be used to aid determine a diagnosis.

What do my Rheumatoid Factor test results mean?

The results of the RF test must be interpreted in the context of a person's symptoms and medical history.

The presence of large amounts of RF in persons with symptoms and clinical indications of rheumatoid arthritis indicates that they are likely to develop RA. Higher RF levels are associated with a worse prognosis and more severe illness.

A negative RF test does not rule out the possibility of RA. Around 20% of persons with RA will have very low levels of RF or none at all. In these circumstances, a positive CCP antibody test can be utilized to confirm RA.

Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis tuberculosis, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, scleroderma, infectious mononucleosis, cancers such as leukemia and multiple myeloma, or disease of the liver, lung, or kidney may all produce positive RF test These other disorders are neither diagnosed or monitored with the RF test.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: An antinuclear antibody screening is a blood test that is going to look for a positive or negative result. If the result comes back as positive further test will be done to look for ANA Titer and Pattern. Antinuclear antibodies are associated with Lupus.

Also Known As: ANA Test, ANA Screen IFA with Reflex to Titer and pattern IFA Test, ANA with Reflex Test, Antinuclear Antibody Screen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT Reflex Information: If ANA Screen, IFA is positive, then ANA Titer and Pattern will be performed at an additional charge of $13.00

When is an ANA Screen test ordered?

When someone exhibits signs and symptoms of a systemic autoimmune illness, the ANA test is requested. Symptoms of autoimmune illnesses can be vague and non-specific, and they can fluctuate over time, steadily deteriorate, or oscillate between periods of flare-ups and remissions.

What does an ANA Screen blood test check for?

Antinuclear antibodies are a type of antibody produced by the immune system when it is unable to differentiate between its own cells and foreign cells. Autoantibodies are antibodies that attack the body's own healthy cells, causing symptoms like tissue and organ inflammation, joint and muscle discomfort, and weariness. The moniker "antinuclear" comes from the fact that ANA specifically targets chemicals located in a cell's nucleus. The presence of these autoantibodies in the blood is detected by the ANA test.

The presence of ANA may be a sign of an autoimmune process, and it has been linked to a variety of autoimmune illnesses, the most common of which being systemic lupus erythematosus.

One of the most common tests used to detect an autoimmune disorder or rule out other conditions with comparable signs and symptoms is the ANA test. As a result, it's frequently followed by other autoantibody tests that can help establish a diagnosis. An ENA panel, anti-dsDNA, anti-centromere, and/or anti-histone test are examples of these.

Lab tests often ordered with an ANA Screen test:

  • ENA Panel
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Complement
  • AMA
  • Centromere antibody
  • Histone Antibody

Conditions where an ANA Screen test is recommended:

  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Lupus
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Sjogren Syndrome
  • Scleroderma

How does my health care provider use an ANA Screen test?

One of the most often performed tests to diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus is the antinuclear antibody test. It serves as the first step in the evaluation process for autoimmune diseases that might impact various body tissues and organs.

When a person's immune system fails to discriminate between their own cells and foreign cells, autoantibodies called ANA are created. They attack chemicals found in a cell's nucleus, causing organ and tissue damage.

ANA testing may be utilized in conjunction with or after other autoantibody tests, depending on a person's indications and symptoms and the suspected condition. Antibodies that target specific compounds within cell nuclei, such as anti-dsDNA, anti-centromere, anti-nucleolar, anti-histone, and anti-RNA antibodies, are detected by some of these tests, which are considered subsets of the general ANA test. In addition, an ENA panel can be utilized as a follow-up to an ANA.

These further tests are performed in addition to a person's clinical history to assist diagnose or rule out other autoimmune conditions such Sjögren syndrome, polymyositis, and scleroderma.

To detect ANA, various laboratories may employ different test procedures. Immunoassay and indirect fluorescent antibody are two typical approaches. The IFA is regarded as the gold standard. Some labs will test for ANA using immunoassay and then employ IFA to confirm positive or equivocal results.

An indirect fluorescent antibody is created by mixing a person's blood sample with cells attached to a slide. Autoantibodies in the blood bind to the cells and cause them to react. A fluorescent antibody reagent is used to treat the slide, which is then inspected under a microscope. The existence of fluorescence is observed, as well as the pattern of fluorescence.

Immunoassays—these procedures are frequently carried out using automated equipment, however they are less sensitive than IFA in identifying ANA.

Other laboratory tests linked to inflammation, such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and/or C-reactive protein, can be used to assess a person's risk of SLE or another autoimmune disease.

What do my ANA test results mean?

A positive ANA test indicates the presence of autoantibodies. This shows the presence of an autoimmune disease in someone who has signs and symptoms, but more testing is needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

Because ANA test results can be positive in persons who have no known autoimmune disease, they must be carefully assessed in conjunction with a person's indications and symptoms.

Because an ANA test can become positive before signs and symptoms of an autoimmune disease appear, determining the meaning of a positive ANA in a person who has no symptoms can take some time.

SLE is unlikely to be diagnosed with a negative ANA result. It is normally not required to repeat a negative ANA test right away; however, because autoimmune illnesses are episodic, it may be desirable to repeat the ANA test at a later date if symptoms persist.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


Description: Anti-CCP is a test that measure the amount of cyclic citrullinated peptide in the blood. Anti-CCP is an autobody and it can be used to determine the if a person has Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Also Known As: ACPA, Anti-CCP, Anti-citrulline Antibody, Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide, Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) Antibody IgG, CCP, CCP Antibody, Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) IgG, Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody, Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide CCP Antibody IgG.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide IgG Antibody test ordered?

When someone displays indications and symptoms that could be attributable to previously undiagnosed inflammatory arthritis or has been diagnosed with undifferentiated arthritis, a CCP antibody test is usually ordered along with an RF test. When clinical indications and symptoms lead a health practitioner to suspect RA, it may be ordered as a follow-up test following a negative RF test. In most cases, RA affects many joints in a symmetrical pattern. The following are possible signs and symptoms:

  • Painful, heated, swollen joints in the hands and wrists.
  • Pain that affects the neck, shoulds, elbows, hips, knees, and/or feet.
  • In the morning, affected joints are stiff, although this improves over the day.
  • Fatigue
  • Fatigue
  • Underneath the skin, nodules form, especially at the elbows
  • An overall sensation of unwellness

What does a Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide IgG Antibody blood test check for?

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are autoantibodies directed against cyclic citrullinated peptides produced by the immune system. Anti-CCP antibodies are detected and measured in the blood with this test.

Citrulline is created in the body as a byproduct of the amino acid arginine metabolism. This conversion may occur at a faster rate in joints with rheumatoid arthritis. Citrulline alters the structure of proteins, triggering an immunological response that results in the production of autoantibodies against joint proteins. The CCP antibody test aids in the diagnosis of RA and can help identify persons with the disease's more quickly erosive type.

RA is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease that affects the hands, foot, and other joints throughout the body, causing inflammation, discomfort, stiffness, and degenerative changes. It can strike anyone at any age, but it commonly strikes between the ages of 40 and 60, with women accounting for roughly 75 percent of those affected. The prognosis and course of RA are both unpredictable. It could take a long time to develop and progress, or it could happen quickly. In some people, it may go into remission, and in others, it may completely disappear. If left untreated, RA can impair a person's life expectancy and render many people unable to work within a few years.

There are a number of treatments available to help reduce the difficulties of RA, but they all hinge on getting a proper diagnosis and starting treatment before severe joint damage occurs. The basic blood test for detecting RA and distinguishing it from other types of arthritis and other inflammatory processes has been rheumatoid factor. However, RF's sensitivity and specificity aren't optimal; it can be negative in persons with RA symptoms but positive in those who don't. According to studies, the CCP antibody test has a sensitivity and specificity that is comparable to or better than RF, and it is more likely to be positive in patients with early RA.

CCP antibody testing, along with RF, is included in the American College of Rheumatology's (ACR) 2010 Rheumatoid Arthritis Classification Criteria for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis. CCP antibodies can be found in roughly 50-60% of persons with early RA, as early as 3-6 months following the onset of symptoms, according to the ACR. Early detection and diagnosis of RA allows healthcare practitioners to start aggressive treatment early on, reducing complications and tissue damage.

Lab tests often ordered with a Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide IgG Antibody test:

  • Rheumatoid Factor
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • ANA

Conditions where a Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide IgG Antibody test is recommended:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Autoimmune Disorders

How does my health care provider use a Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide IgG Antibody test?

To help diagnose rheumatoid arthritis and assess the severity and likely course of the disease, a cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody test may be ordered in conjunction with or after a rheumatoid factor test. Inflammatory indicators such as ESR and C-reactive protein may also be tested at this time.

Cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are autoantibodies directed against cyclic citrullinated peptides produced by the immune system.

CCP antibody testing may also be conducted to assess the likelihood of RA developing in persons with undifferentiated arthritis, or those who have symptoms that imply RA but do not yet fulfill the American College of Rheumatology's criteria. According to the American College of Rheumatology, roughly 95% of persons with a positive CCP antibody will develop RA in the future. It is critical to discover RA early in order to make informed treatment recommendations.

What do my CCP Antibody test results mean?

When persons with arthritis symptoms test positive for both CCP antibody and RF, they almost certainly have RA and are at risk of developing a more rapidly progressing and severe version of the illness. When patients show clinical indications of RA and are positive for CCP antibody but not RF, or have low levels of both, it is likely that they have early RA or will develop RA in the future.

When people have a positive RF but no CCP antibody, clinical signs and symptoms are more important in evaluating whether they have RA or another inflammatory illness. It is less likely that someone gets RA if they are negative for both CCP antibody and RF. However, it should be noted that RA is a clinical diagnosis that can be made even if autoantibody testing are negative.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Increased IgG is associated with acute and chronic inflammations, monoclonal IgG myeloma, autoimmune diseases; decreased IgG is found in selective IgG deficiency, Bruton's Disease, and acquired immune deficiency.

The IgG class of immunoglobulins is itself composed of four different subtypes of IgG molecules called the IgG subclasses. Patients who lack, or have very low levels of, one or two IgG subclasses, but whose other immunoglobulin levels are normal, are said to have a selective IgG subclass deficiency.

Description: Sed Rate is a blood test that is used to measure the rate that red blood cells fall to the bottom of a test tube. The measurement is based how many cells fall within one hour. This test can be used to determine infection or inflammation.

Also Known As: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test, ESR Test, Sed Rate Test, Sedimentation Rate Test, Westergren Sedimentation Rate Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Sed Rate test ordered?

When a condition or disease is believed to be causing inflammation in the body, an ESR may be ordered. Several inflammatory illnesses can be identified using this test. It may be requested, for example, if arthritis is suspected of producing joint inflammation and pain, or if inflammatory bowel disease is suspected of causing digestive symptoms.

When a person develops symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic vasculitis, or temporal arteritis, such as headaches, neck or shoulder discomfort, anemia, pelvic pain, poor appetite, joint stiffness, and unexplained weight loss, a doctor may recommend an ESR. To follow the development of specific illnesses, the sed rate test can also be routinely ordered.

A health practitioner may wish to repeat the ESR before undertaking a full workup to look for disease.

What does a Sed Rate blood test check for?

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a test that evaluates the degree of inflammation in the body indirectly. The test evaluates the rate at which erythrocytes fall in a blood sample that has been placed in a tall, thin, vertical tube. The millimeters of clear fluid present at the upper portion of the tube after one hour are reported as the results.

When a drop of blood is inserted in a tube, the red blood cells settle out slowly, leaving just a small amount of transparent plasma. In the presence of an increased number of proteins, particularly proteins known as acute phase reactants, red cells settle at a faster pace. Inflammation raises the levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the blood.

An inherent component of the immune system's response is inflammation. It could be chronic, showing symptoms over time with conditions like autoimmune illnesses or cancer, or acute, showing symptoms right away after a shock, injury, or infection.

The ESR is a non-specific indication that can rise in a number of disorders; it is not a diagnostic test. It provides you with a fundamental understanding of whether you have an inflammatory condition or not.

Given the availability of more recent, specialized tests, there have been reservations about the ESR's utility. The ESR test, on the other hand, is commonly used to diagnose and monitor temporal arteritis, systemic vasculitis, and polymyalgia rheumatica. Extremely high ESR values can aid in differentiating between rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, ESR may still be a viable alternative in some cases, such as when newer tests are unavailable in resource-constrained places or while monitoring the progression of a disease.

Lab tests often ordered with a Sed Rate test:

  • C-Reactive Protein
  • ANA
  • Rheumatoid Factor

Conditions where a Sed Rate test is recommended:

  • Vasculitis
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Celiac Disease
  • Lupus
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease

How does my health care provider use a Sed Rate test?

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a non-specific, very straightforward test that has been used for many years to detect inflammation associated with infections, malignancies, and autoimmune illnesses.

Because an elevated ESR often indicates the presence of inflammation, but does not tell the health practitioner where the inflammation is in the body or what is causing it, it is referred to as a non-specific test. Other illnesses besides inflammation may have an impact on an ESR. As a result, other tests, such C-reactive protein, are routinely paired with the ESR.

ESR is used to identify temporal arteritis, systemic vasculitis, and polymyalgia rheumatica, among other inflammatory illnesses. A notably elevated ESR is one of the crucial test results used to support the diagnosis.

This test can be used to track disease activity and treatment response in both of the disorders mentioned above, as well as several others including systemic lupus erythematosus.

What do my Sed Rate test results mean?

Because ESR is a non-specific inflammatory measure that is influenced by a variety of circumstances, it must be used in conjunction with other clinical findings, the individual's medical history, and the results of other laboratory tests. The health practitioner may be able to confirm or rule out a suspected illness if the ESR and clinical data match.

Without any signs of a specific condition, a single elevated ESR is usually insufficient to make a medical conclusion. A normal result does not, however, rule out inflammation or illness.

Inflammation, as well as anemia, infection, pregnancy, and aging, can cause a moderately raised ESR.

A severe infection with a rise in globulins, polymyalgia rheumatica, or temporal arteritis are common causes of an extremely high ESR. Depending on the person's symptoms, a health practitioner may employ various follow-up tests, such as blood cultures. Even if there is no inflammation, people with multiple myeloma or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia have extraordinarily high ESRs.

Rising ESRs may suggest increased inflammation or a poor response to therapy when monitoring a condition over time; normal or falling ESRs may indicate an adequate response to treatment.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.



Gout is on the rise, and now over 8 million adults in the US suffer from this painful condition. Gout isn't something you take a pill for and forget about.

Gout can cause joint damage and long-term health complications, and a uric acid test can give you the answers you need.

It's time to take control of your health and feel better today. Gout symptoms don't have to control your life.

If you're wondering if you have gout, then keep reading this guide to learn all about gout and the reasons and benefits of a uric acid test.

What is Gout

Gout is as common as it is complex. Gout is a type of arthritis that causes excruciating pain, stiffness, tenderness, and swelling in your joints. Gout typically affects the base of the joint of your big toe.

Gout attacks come on quickly, often waking you up in the middle of the night making you think your big toe is up in flames. Gout comes and goes, and the leading cause is high levels of uric acid, which forms crystals.

High uric acid levels are usually due to issues with the kidneys and your body producing too much uric acid. Typically uric acid dissolves and passes through your kidneys. But with gout, the balance is disrupted, and uric acid builds up, forming sharp urate crystals in your joints.

Often gout starts silently, only with high uric acid levels. If you catch it in this stage, it's possible to reduce your uric acid to avoid painful attacks.

Risk factors for Gout

The higher your uric acid levels are, the more likely you'll develop gout. Things that increase your uric acid level include:

Your diet can play a massive role in causing gout. Eating a diet full of red meat and beer will dramatically increase your chances of getting gout.

Your weight can also play a part in uric acid production. When you're overweight, your body makes more uric acid, and your kidneys can't keep up with eliminating the excess.

Medical conditions like obesity, untreated high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart and kidney disease increase your risk of developing gout. But also certain medications you take for high blood pressure like beta-blockers do.

Men tend to have higher uric acid levels than women, so you're more at risk if you're a man. Men also typically develop gout earlier than women, between the ages of 30 and 50.

If you have family members with gout, then you're more likely to develop it too. Also, having surgery or a traumatic accident can sometimes cause a gout attack.

Causes of Gout

When too many urate crystals accumulate in your joints, you get inflammation and severe pain, known as a gout attack. Uric acid crystals cause gout. When uric acid levels become too high in your blood, it leads to urate crystals.

Your body also produces uric acid when it breaks down foods that contain purines. Purines are found in foods like organ meats, red meat, mussels, scallops, and trout. Purine is also in alcohol, especially beer and drinks flavored with fructose. 

Signs and Symptoms of Gout

The signs of gout symptoms come on suddenly and most often in the middle of the night. Symptoms you'll notice include:

  • Intense and crippling joint pain, usually in your big toe
  • Pain is most severe for the first 4 to 12 hours
  • Redness and inflammation
  • The inability to move your joint normally

While gout usually affects your big toe, it can affect your elbows, fingers, wrists, and knees. 

If you experience sudden and excruciating pain in your joints, then contact your doctor as soon as possible. Untreated gout leads to joint damage and more pain in your future.

Complications of Gout

Gout can lead to more severe conditions like recurrent gout attacks, which eventually cause significant destruction of your joints. If gout is left untreated, it can turn into advanced gout.

In this case, deposits form under your skin and create nodules that become swollen during gout attacks.

Kidney stones are also a complication of gout. Urate crystals collect in your urinary tract when you have gout. This collection of crystals can cause large stones and kidney damage if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Gout

Your doctor can typically diagnose gout based on how your joint looks and the symptoms you have. To confirm the diagnosis, they will usually order different uric acid tests.

X-rays of the joint are helpful to make sure nothing else is causing your inflammation. Ultrasound imaging can also detect urate crystals in your joints.

Sometimes doctors will also do a joint fluid test. A needle draws out fluid from your joint for microscopic examination.

And finally, your doctor will want you to have bloodwork to check your uric acid levels.

Lab Tests for Gout

To diagnose gout, your doctor will order a uric acid lab test. Higher than normal uric acid levels are a great indicator of gout, but other health conditions need to be ruled out.

High uric acid levels require further investigation, as there could be other causes like leukemia, cancers, chronic kidney disease, and pregnancy complications. 

You'll see low uric acid levels with kidney disease, long-term alcohol use, and lead poisoning.

Your doctor may also check a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and a complete blood count (CBC) to assess your overall health and rule out other conditions.

Other tests, such as ANA, or antinuclear antibody, and RF, or rheumatoid factor, can be done to rule out various other potential sources for arthritis symptoms. A synovial fluid or blood culture might be necessary if there is suspicion of septic arthritis. 

Treatment for Gout

Treatment for gout focuses on reducing your uric acid levels and reducing inflammation. 

Medications for gout include over-the-counter medications like Advil or Aleve. Doctors will often prescribe you a more potent anti-inflammatory for the beginning stages of a gout attack.

Steroid medications and Colchicine can effectively reduce your gout pain along with drugs like Aloprim, which reduces the amount of uric acid your body makes.

You'll also need to make lifestyle changes like limiting alcohol, eating less red meat, and exercising daily.

Gout FAQS

Did you know gout is among the earliest recognized diseases? The Egyptians first identified gout around 2000 BC, as did Hippocrates in the fifth century BC. 

Hippocrates called gout the "un-walkable disease" and associated it with affluent lifestyles where people could afford fine red meats and alcohol. Throughout history, people also called gout the disease of kings. And having gout was thought to signify wealth and class.

Uric Acid Test

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  • Secure and confidential results
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Order your uric acid lab test today, and your results will be provided to you securely and confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours for most tests.

Take control of your health with Ulta Lab Tests.