Heart Attack Risk

Get the tests recommended by physicians to identify a risk of heart attack or chance of having a cardiovascular event such as a heart attack or stroke. Ulta Lab Tests provides affordable, reliable blood work and secure testing, so order today!


Name Matches

Reference Range(s)

  • ADMA (Asymmetric dimethylarginine)<100 ng/mL 
  • SDMA (Symmetric dimethylarginine)73-135 ng/mL

Clinical Significance

ADMA and SDMA may be measured in individuals with multiple risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease


This test determines the subtypes of apoe which will aid in the risk assessment of corornary heart disease (CHD) and hyperlipoproteinemia.

This test detects a gene variant associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and such CHD event can be reduced from atorvastatin and pravastatin therapy.

There is a correlation between increased risk of premature heart disease with decreasing size of LDL particles. Ion mobility offers the only direct measurement of lipoprotein particle size and concentration for each lipoprotein from HDL3 to large VLDL.

Cardio IQ Lp-PLA2 Activity

Clinical Significance

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.


Serum Triglyceride analysis has proven useful in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, nephrosis, liver obstruction, other diseases involving lipid metabolism, and various endocrine disorders. In conjunction with high density lipoprotein and total serum cholesterol, a triglyceride determination provides valuable information for the assessment of coronary heart disease risk.

Cardio IQ® Lipoprotein Subfractionation, Ion Mobility

Clinical Significance

There is a correlation between increased risk of premature heart disease with decreasing size of LDL particles. Ion mobility offers the only direct measurement of lipoprotein particle size and concentration for each lipoprotein from HDL3 to large VLDL.

Includes

HDL Particle Number; LDL Particle Number; Non-HDL Particle Number; HDL, Small; HDL Large; LDL, Very Small-d; LDL, Very Small-c; LDL, Very Small-b; LDL, Very Small-a; LDL Small; LDL Medium; LDL, Large-b; LDL, Large-a; IDL, Small; IDL, Large; VLDL, Small; VLDL, Medium; VLDL, Large; LDL Pattern; LDL Peak Size

Patient Preparation

Fasting preferred

Methodology

Ion Mobility

 


A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)


See individual tests

Test for myocardial infarction and skeletal muscle damage. Elevated results may be due to: myocarditis, myocardial infarction (heart attack), muscular dystrophy, muscle trauma or excessive exercise

Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes is useful in the evaluation of myocardial disease. Isoenzyme MM is found in skeletal muscle whereas isoenzyme MB is increased in recent myocardial (heart) damage.

CVD - 1. Low Heart Health Risk


CVD - 2. Moderate Heart Health Risk


CVD - 3. High Heart Health Risk


CVD - 4. High Heart Health Risk Plus


Galectin-3

Clinical Significance

A galectin-3 test may be ordered for the identification of individuals with chronic heart failure at elevated risk of disease progression.

Performing Laboratory 

Cleveland HeartLab, Inc 
6701 Carnegie Avenue, Suite 500
Cleveland, OH 44103-4623

Lipid Panel includes: Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol (calculated), Cholesterol/HDL Ratio (calculated), Non-HDL Cholesterol (calculated)Total cholesterol —this test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles.High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in HDL particles; often called "good cholesterol" because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal.Direct LDL - Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called "bad cholesterol" because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Usually, the amount of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides.Triglycerides — measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles; most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).


Lipid Panel with Direct LDL includes:Total cholesterol —this test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles.High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in HDL particles; often called ""good cholesterol"" because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called ""bad cholesterol"" because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Usually, the amount of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides.Triglycerides — measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles; most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). If Triglyceride result is >400 mg/dL, Direct LDL will be performed at an additional charge.


Most Popular

Clinical Significance

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population. Measurement of Lp-PLA2 may be used along with traditional cardiovascular risk factor measures for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease events. Clinical management may include beginning or intensifying risk reduction strategies. The activity assay is an enzyme assay run on an automated chemistry platform.


Identifying patients who have metabolic syndrome and who are thus at higher risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease or stroke. Identifying patients who are insulin resistant (fasting insulin at or above the 75th percentile) and who are thus at higher risk of diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, or liver disease. Monitoring of risk factors and insulin levels after life style change, medication use, or both.

Microalbumin/Creatinine Ratio, Timed Urine 


Most Popular
Assessment of skeletal muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis).

Plasma norepinephrine is an independent risk factor in patients with chronic congestive heart failure that relates to subsequent mortality. Norepinephrine is useful in evaluating patients with hypertension


Clinical Significance

The OxLDL test may be ordered for individuals at low or intermediate risk of metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. In addition, this test is useful in individuals who have cardiovascular disease and are at risk for an adverse cardiac event.

Alternative Name(s) 

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein

 


Most Popular

BNP is used to aid in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure. In contrast with BNP, a drug to treat left ventricular dysfunction does not interfere with the measurement of N-terminal pro-BNP.

Dietary supplements containing biotin may interfere in assays and may skew results to be either falsely high or falsely low. For patients receiving the recommended daily doses of biotin, draw samples at least 8 hours following the last biotin supplementation. For patients on mega-doses of biotin supplements, draw samples at least 72 hours following the last biotin supplementation.



Also referred to as an acute myocardial infarct, a heart attack occurs when an artery blockage prevents blood from flowing to a portion of a person’s heart. If someone isn’t treated swiftly, heart tissue can be damaged or even destroyed. A heart attack can be fatal. The American Heart Association states that each year, approximately 735,000 people in the United States experience heart attacks. Around 120,000 of those people do not survive.  

The symptoms and signs that are linked with insufficient blood flowing to the heart are referred to as Acute coronary syndrome (ACS). What separates a heart attack from other types of ACS is that the decrease in blood flows continues, which causes heart muscle cells to be damaged or destroyed. If someone is brought into the ER, healthcare workers need to run tests to see if the symptoms are being caused by a heart attack or something else.  

The human heart is an organ that’s primarily made from cardiac muscle. It uses a system of arteries and veins to pump blood through the body. As blood flows through the human body, it picks up oxygen from the lungs. The blood then passes through the pulmonary veins and enters the heart. The blood is then pumped out, bringing oxygen to the tissues. The veins return the blood to the heart, where it is pumped back out to collect more oxygen from the lungs. The heart is unable to carry out these tasks without a significant amount of oxygen, which is obtained from the heart’s network of arteries and veins.  

In most cases, a blockage that leads to a heart attack occurs because of a blood clot in a coronary artery, which are the arteries that bring blood to the heart. This is more likely to happen when the walls of the arteries are thickened and narrowed. This happens via a process known as atherosclerosis, which causes plaque to gradually build up on artery walls. If a clot in a coronary artery keeps blood from flowing to the heart for more than an hour, it can cause scarring in that area. Furthermore, it can cause heart muscle cells to die.  

Risks  

Several factors can increase the risk of a heart attack, such as: 

  • High cholesterol  
  • High blood pressure  
  • Obesity  
  • A sedentary lifestyle  
  • Diabetes  
  • Advanced age  
  • A smoking habit  
  • History of heart disease in the family  
  • Drug use  
  • Stress  
  • Autoimmune conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus  
  • Pre-eclampsia, which is linked with high blood pressure in pregnancy  

Symptoms and Warning Signs  

Heart attacks and other types of acute coronary syndrome often cause abrupt pain in the chest. The pain frequently radiates into other parts of the body, such as the arm, shoulder, or jaw, and does not go away with rest. In some cases, this is a more intense version of pain that’s reoccurring, but in other cases, people are experiencing this pain for the first time.  

If someone has already experienced chest pain because their narrowed arteries do not allow an adequate amount of blood to flow to the heart, they may find that these symptoms are more intense or last for a longer period of time.  

It should be noted that not all people that have heart attacks experience this symptom. It is more likely that women will experience atypical symptoms. Women often experience milder symptoms, which means these symptoms are frequently attributed to another cause. It’s possible for a heart attack to occur abruptly, but it’s also possible for symptoms to slowly build up over time. In some cases, people may find that their symptoms stop and then return.  

Some common signs and symptoms are:  

  • Discomfort, pain, or pressure in the chest (this is the most common symptom)  
  • Elevated heart rate or skipping a heartbeat  
  • Stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting  
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing  
  • Sweating  
  • Lightheadedness  
  • Fatigue  
  • Blood pressure changes  
  • Pain in the arms, back, neck, or jaw  

It’s possible for people to experience these symptoms without feeling any chest pain, especially if they’re older or diabetic.  

Testing for A Heart Attack  

If a patient arrives at the ER showing acute coronary syndrome symptoms, it’s not always immediately clear that they are experiencing a heart attack. Their chest pain could have another cause, or they may be dealing with unstable angina. Thankfully, there is a range of tests that allow healthcare workers to determine whether a heart attack has taken place.  

Laboratory Tests  

Typically, it’s necessary to run a blood test to determine whether someone has suffered a heart attack. When muscle cells are damaged, certain proteins are released. To see if a patient has suffered a heart attack, cardiac biomarkers are ordered, such as: 

Troponin: This is the marker that is most frequently ordered. It’s focused on the heart. Troponin blood levels are going to be elevated in the hours after heart damage has occurred. These levels can remain elevated for as long as two weeks. If a patient arrives in the emergency room showing acute coronary syndrome symptoms, troponin tests will likely be ordered right away. Over the next few hours, these tests will be ordered a few more times so that concentration changes can be monitored. If the tests show normal levels, stable angina is likely causing the pain, not heart muscle damage. However, if the results show levels rising or falling, it’s a clear indicator of a heart attack.  

A high-sensitivity troponin test is like the standard test, but it can detect this protein at lower levels. Since this is a more sensitive version of the test, it can deliver positive results more quickly, which allows doctors to diagnose a heart attack more quickly. The test is also able to show a patient’s risk of heart attacks and other heart events in the future. The test can be positive even if a person has no symptoms. The test is not approved in the United States at the time of writing, but research is still being conducted. It’s possible that it will be available at a future date. Canada, Europe, and several other countries already use this test as a cardiac biomarker. 

CK-MB – This is a form of the creatine kinase that can be found in cardiac muscle tissue. When the cells of the heart muscle are damaged, it rises. Now that troponin testing is an option, this test isn’t ordered as often.  

Additional tests that could be ordered are:  

Myoglobin – When there is an injury to either the heart or skeletal muscle, this protein is released into the blood. This is another test that is ordered less often.  

NT-proBNP or BNP – The body naturally releases this in response to heart failure. Although elevated BNP levels aren’t enough to diagnose a heart attack, it suggests that a person is at an increased risk for cardiac problems.  

There are additional screening tests that could be ordered to look at a patient’s electrolyte balance, organ health, blood glucose levels, and red and white blood cell count. Examples of these tests are:  

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel – This is a collection of 14 tests that can broadly screen the health of a patient’s liver, kidneys, blood proteins, blood glucose, and electrolyte and acid balance.  

Complete Blood Count: This test is used to screen for various disorders that can impact blood cells, like infection and anemia. 

The American Heart Association has released new cholesterol guidelines in unison with the American College of Cardiology. The premise behind these new guidelines is to understand and analyze the personal risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) along with relevant treatment options. These guidelines are now set as the standard by more than ten well-established medical organizations. Through these guidelines, it will become easier to tailor recommendations and/or treatment plans using risk assessment processes. These treatments will encompass a variety of solutions, including statin/non-statin drug therapies. 

A person that has been diagnosed with high cholesterol regardless of age can end up having a heightened risk profile for cardiovascular disease. Due to this high cholesterol, the blood vessels start to constrict because of the newly formed plaque. Based on this premise, the AHC guideline panel has taken the time to highlight what’s required during the decision-making process between healthcare professionals and their patients. These guidelines have been updated for the first time since 2013 with a greater assessment of lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease in combination with treatment options for lowering cholesterol levels.  

Medical concerns involving heart disease, strokes, and heart attacks continue to plague Americans across the nation. Studies show over 836,000 people pass away in the U.S. due to this disease, with the number being greater than cancer-related or lung disease-related deaths. Along with these numbers, 360,000 people pass away due to coronary heart disease and 114,000 from heart attacks. It’s also important to note the presence of reoccurring heart attacks in America, which account for 335,000 cases in America per year.  

These AHA guidelines will include a standardized risk calculator to determine a person’s risk profile for a possible cardiovascular event (i.e., stroke, heart attack) within the next decade. This calculator includes pre-determined guidelines from 2013, such as smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and unhealthy lipid levels, while also account for additional factors such as aspirin therapy and/or statin treatment. This risk calculator is going to act as a standardized method to determine a person’s risk profile while also accumulating personalized data from previous health exams. 

Healthcare professionals are also asked to highlight the following risk variables to their patients: 

It’s important to note; these AHA guidelines are aimed at helping to diagnose high LDL levels before providing appropriate lowering solutions. The goal is to help lower LDL levels to approximately 70 mg/dL or less for high-risk patients. This recommendation was removed during the 2013 guidelines but has found its way back in the recent update. The emphasis is on taking these new guidelines to pinpoint a specific coronary artery calcium score (via a cardiac CT scan) and coming up with an assessment for statin therapy in those with intermediate CVD risk.  

These guidelines are all about shedding light on potential risk factors to patients with a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease. When those patients recognize these signs and start implementing precautionary measures, it becomes easier to alleviate the likelihood of heart disease or heart attack. These lifestyle changes, including implementing a healthier diet, not smoking, and/or following a regular exercise regimen. 

Healthcare practitioners can use these guidelines as a risk assessment tool while maintaining communication with their patients. This leads to improved and personalized decision-making due to the guidelines. It’s essential to personalize the treatment plan based on a patient’s medical history, medications, and/or lifestyle.  

Based on new-age research, statins continue to be the best way to help lower LDL levels and can be used in different forms depending on an individual’s medical requirements. There are additional non-statin drug therapies involving PCSK9 inhibitors and/or ezetimibe, which can be used for high-risk patients to lower their LDL levels.