Epstein Barr Virus

Epstein Barr Virus Lab Tests and health information

Do you have a fever, a sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes, and fatigue? 

The mononucleosis tests look for antibodies that indicate mono, usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Order your EBV blood test from Ulta Lab Test and know if you are carrying the Epstein-Barr virus.

You could be infected with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). Extreme fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, and other flu-like symptoms are signs of this virus. Symptoms usually develop four to six weeks after exposure to EBV; however, it might take up to three months or more for some persons. Although the virus remains in your body for the rest of your life, it does not usually create difficulties. In reality, most persons who have been infected with EBV are unaware of their infection since they have never experienced mono or any other EBV-related health problems. However, if you develop mono symptoms after being exposed to EBV, you should get tested for the virus because it can cause significant health concerns if left untreated. 
If you suspect you've been infected with EBV, we recommend being tested as soon as possible to see if your symptoms are due to the virus and to prevent potential complications in the future. 

If you want to learn more about Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and the lab tests that can help you, click on the title of the articles below.

You can order affordable mononucleosis tests and EBV lab tests online 24 hours a day, 7 days a week with Ulta Lab Tests, and we'll provide the doctor's authorization. We have a lab near you, with over 2100 locations around the country. Most tests processed by Quest Diagnostics get results in 24 to 48 hours, and our customer service is always courteous, friendly, and helpful.  

Take control of your health by ordering Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) blood tests from the list below.


Name Matches

For the most comprehensive look at your biomarkers for Epstein-Barr (EBV), we recommend the Epstein-Barr (EBV) Comprehensive Panel, as only one may come out positive:

  • EBV-VCA IgG/IgM (viral capsid antigen): A positive IgG means you’ve had or currently have the infection; A positive IgM means the virus has been reactivated.
  • EBV-EBNA IgG (nuclear antigen): A positive test result is usually associated with past infections.
  • EBV-EA-D IgG (early antigen): A positive EA IgG may mean you have an active or reactivated infection.
  • The Epstein-Barr EBV Early Antigen D Ab IgG test that will let one know if the virus is actively replicating.

Epstein-Barr (EBV) is a virus that causes mononucleosis, also known as the kissing disease, is a viral infection that is thought to be transmitted through the saliva of those who are infected. The Epstein-Barr virus creates an inactive infection in the body where it lies dormant. It can awaken and reactivate itself, even many years after its initial activation.

The reactivated virus has the potential to induce many debilitating autoimmune symptoms. In some, the infection may not be adequately suppressed and may cause or exacerbate autoimmune diseases. 

The Epstein-Barr (EBV) tests are used to figure out if a person has a reactivated infection. 

Reference Range(s)

Epstein-Barr Virus VCA Antibody (IgM)

U/mLInterpretation

  • <36.00 Negative
  • 36.00-43.99 Equivocal
  • >43.99 Positive

Epstein-Barr Virus VCA Antibody (IgG)

U/mLInterpretation

  • <18.00 Negative
  • 18.00-21.99 Equivocal
  • >21.99 Positive


Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) Antibody (IgG)

U/mLInterpretation

  • <18.00 Negative
  • 18.00-21.99 Equivocal
  • >21.99 Positive

Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen D Antibody (IgG)

U/mLInterpretation

  • <9.00 Negative
  • 9.00-10.99 Equivocal
  • >10.99 Positive

Epstein-Barr Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) Antibody (IgA)

Clinical Significance

Epstein-Barr Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) Antibody (IgA) - VCA IgA titers ≥1:80 are suggestive of chronic or reactivated EBV infection, whereas titer of 1:10, 1:20, or 1:40 typically indicate past infection.

 

Reference Range(s)

<1:10
Interpretive Criteria

  • <1:10Antibody not detected
  • 1:10-1:40Past infection
  • ≥1:80Chronic/Reactivated infection

Description: The EBV antibody test is used to measure the antibodies present in the immune system. EBV tests are used to help diagnose mononucleosis (mono) by ruling out EBV and to differentiate between EBV infection and other infections that present with the same symptoms.

Also Known As: EBV Antibody Test, EBV Ab Test, EBV Test, EBV Panel, Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Panel, Epstein Barr Virus EBV Antibody Panel

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Panel test ordered?

When someone has symptoms that imply mono but a negative mono test, or when a pregnant woman has flu-like symptoms and her healthcare provider wants to know if the symptoms are caused by EBV or another microorganism, EBV antibody testing may be recommended.

When a healthcare provider wishes to know if they've been exposed to EBV before, testing might be ordered. When a healthcare provider wants to follow antibody concentrations or when the first test was negative but the healthcare practitioner still feels the person's symptoms are due to EBV, testing may be repeated.

What does an Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Panel blood test check for?

The Epstein-Barr virus is a virus that causes a mild to moderate sickness in most people. Epstein-Barr virus blood tests detect EBV antibodies in the blood and aid in the diagnosis of EBV infection.

The Epstein-Barr virus produces a highly common infection. Most persons in the United States are infected with EBV at some point in their life, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virus is very contagious and can readily spread from one person to another. It is found in infected people's saliva and can be spread by intimate contact, such as kissing or sharing utensils or cups.

The incubation period is a period of several weeks following initial EBV exposure before related symptoms manifest. The virus multiplies in number during the acute primary infection. There is a drop in viral levels and a remission of symptoms after this, but the virus never totally disappears. EBV that stays latent in a person's body for the rest of their lives may reawaken, although it normally causes little problems unless the person's immune system is severely damaged.

The majority of people are infected with EBV as children and have few or no symptoms. When an infection arises in adolescence, however, it can lead to infectious mononucleosis, sometimes known as mono, which is characterized by fatigue, fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, an enlarged spleen, and occasionally an enlarged liver. About 25% of infected teens and young adults experience these symptoms, which normally go away within a month or two.

Mono is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and the results of a full blood count and a mono test. About 25% of people with mono don't create heterophile antibodies, resulting in a negative mono test; this is especially true in youngsters. Antibodies to the EBV virus can be tested to see if the symptoms these people are having are due to a current infection with the virus.

The most prevalent cause of mono is EBV. Other causes of mono, according to the CDC, include CMV, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C, rubella, and toxoplasmosis. It can be difficult to tell the difference between EBV and these other infections at times. For example, diagnosing the etiology of symptoms of a viral disease in a pregnant woman may be critical. Testing can assist distinguish between a primary EBV infection, which has not been demonstrated to harm a developing baby, and a CMV, herpes simplex virus, or toxoplasmosis infection, which can cause pregnancy difficulties and harm the fetus.

It's also crucial to rule out EBV infection and check for other possible explanations of symptoms. Those suffering from strep throat, a bacterial infection caused by group A streptococcus, must be recognized and treated with antibiotics. It's possible to have strep throat instead of mono, or to have both at the same time.

There are several assays for different types and classes of EBV antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced by the body as part of an immune response to antigens from the Epstein-Barr virus. The amount of each of these EBV antibodies rises and declines as the illness proceeds during a primary EBV infection. Antibodies in the blood can help with diagnosis and can tell a doctor about the stage of illness and whether it's a current, recent, or past infection.

Antibody Viral Capsid Antigen-IgM antibody is commonly identified in the blood at this time. After being exposed to the virus, it appears for roughly 4 to 6 weeks before disappearing.

Antibody to VCA-IgG It appears during acute infection, with the maximum level at 2 to 4 weeks, then gradually decreases, stabilizes, and is present for the rest of one's life.

Antibody to the early antigen appears during the acute infection phase and subsequently fades; about 20% of people infected will have detectable amounts for several years after the EBV infection has cleared.

Lab tests often ordered with an Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Panel test:

  • Mononucleosis
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
  • Blood Smear
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Toxoplasmosis

Conditions where an Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Panel test is recommended:

  • Mononucleosis
  • Influenza
  • Pregnancy
  • Epstein-Barr Virus

How does my health care provider use an Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Panel test?

If a person is symptomatic but has a negative mono test, blood tests for Epstein-Barr virus antibodies can help diagnose EBV infection, the most prevalent cause of infectious mononucleosis.

One or more EBV antibody tests, along with testing for cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, and other infections, may be ordered in pregnant women with signs of a viral disease to assist distinguish between EBV and disorders that generate similar symptoms.

These tests may be conducted for asymptomatic people to see if they've been exposed to EBV before or are vulnerable to a primary EBV infection. This is not regularly done, but it may be requested if someone has been in intimate contact with a person who has mono, such as a teenager or an immunocompromised person.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends ordering a variety of tests to assess whether a person is vulnerable to EBV, as well as to detect a recent or earlier infection, or a reactivated EBV infection.

What do my Epstein Barr Virus antibody test results mean?

When interpreting the findings of EBV antibody testing, caution is advised. The person being tested's indications and symptoms, as well as his or her medical history, must be considered. A healthcare provider may seek the advice of an infectious disease specialist, particularly one who is familiar with EBV testing.

If someone tests positive for VCA-IgM antibodies, they are most likely infected with EBV and may be in the early stages of the illness. Even though the mono test was negative, the individual is most likely to be diagnosed with mono if they also have symptoms linked with it.

If a person's VCA-IgG and EA-D IgG tests come back positive, it's quite likely that they have an active or recent EBV infection.

If VCA-IgM is negative but VCA-IgG and an EBNA antibody are positive, the person tested most likely had an EBV infection before.

If a person is asymptomatic and negative for VCA-IgG, he or she has most likely never been exposed to EBV and is hence susceptible to infection.

In general, growing VCA-IgG levels suggest a current EBV infection, whereas dropping values indicate a recently resolved EBV infection. However, EBV antibody concentrations must be interpreted with caution because the amount of antibody present is unrelated to the severity of the infection or the length of time it will remain. High amounts of VCA-IgG may be present, and they may stay that way for the rest of one's life.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reference Range(s)

Epstein-Barr Virus VCA Antibody (IgM)

U/mLInterpretation

  • <36.00 Negative
  • 36.00-43.99Equivocal
  • >43.99Positive

Epstein-Barr Virus VCA Antibody (IgG)

U/mLInterpretation

  • <18.00 Negative
  • 18.00-21.99Equivocal
  • >21.99Positive

Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) Antibody (IgG)

U/mLInterpretation

  • <18.00 Negative
  • 18.00-21.99Equivocal
  • >21.99Positive

Epstein-Barr Virus DNA, Real-Time PCR is useful in assessing active disease. Central nervous system infections can be diagnosed with CSF specimens.

Description: The Epstein-Barr Virus, or EBV, test is used to find the EBV antibodies that may be present. Most individuals are affected with EBV during childhood or adolescent. This test will show if the IgG antibodies are still present from an infection within 6 months.

Also Known As: EBV Ab to Early Antigen D Test, EA-D IgG Ab Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen D IgG Antibody test ordered?

When someone has symptoms that imply mono but a negative mono test, or when a pregnant woman has flu-like symptoms and her healthcare provider wants to know if the symptoms are caused by EBV or another microorganism, EBV antibody testing may be recommended.

When a healthcare provider wishes to know if they've been exposed to EBV before, testing might be ordered. When a healthcare provider wants to follow antibody concentrations or when the first test was negative but the healthcare practitioner still feels the person's symptoms are due to EBV, testing may be repeated.

What does an Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen D IgG Antibody blood test check for?

The Epstein-Barr virus is a virus that causes a mild to moderate sickness in most people. Epstein-Barr virus blood tests detect EBV antibodies in the blood and aid in the diagnosis of EBV infection.

The Epstein-Barr virus produces a highly common infection. Most persons in the United States are infected with EBV at some point in their life, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virus is very contagious and can readily spread from one person to another. It is found in infected people's saliva and can be spread by intimate contact, such as kissing or sharing utensils or cups.

The incubation period is a period of several weeks following initial EBV exposure before related symptoms manifest. The virus multiplies in number during the acute primary infection. There is a drop in viral levels and a remission of symptoms after this, but the virus never totally disappears. EBV that stays latent in a person's body for the rest of their lives may reawaken, although it normally causes little problems unless the person's immune system is severely damaged.

The majority of people are infected with EBV as children and have few or no symptoms. When an infection arises in adolescence, however, it can lead to infectious mononucleosis, sometimes known as mono, which is characterized by fatigue, fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, an enlarged spleen, and occasionally an enlarged liver. About 25% of infected teens and young adults experience these symptoms, which normally go away within a month or two.

Mono is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and the results of a full blood count and a mono test. About 25% of people with mono don't create heterophile antibodies, resulting in a negative mono test; this is especially true in youngsters. Antibodies to the EBV virus can be tested to see if the symptoms these people are having are due to a current infection with the virus.

The most prevalent cause of mono is EBV. Other causes of mono, according to the CDC, include CMV, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C, rubella, and toxoplasmosis. It can be difficult to tell the difference between EBV and these other infections at times. For example, diagnosing the etiology of symptoms of a viral disease in a pregnant woman may be critical. Testing can assist distinguish between a primary EBV infection, which has not been demonstrated to harm a developing baby, and a CMV, herpes simplex virus, or toxoplasmosis infection, which can cause pregnancy difficulties and harm the fetus.

It's also crucial to rule out EBV infection and check for other possible explanations of symptoms. Those suffering from strep throat, a bacterial infection caused by group A streptococcus, must be recognized and treated with antibiotics. It's possible to have strep throat instead of mono, or to have both at the same time.

There are several assays for different types and classes of EBV antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced by the body as part of an immune response to antigens from the Epstein-Barr virus. The amount of each of these EBV antibodies rises and declines as the illness proceeds during a primary EBV infection. Antibodies in the blood can help with diagnosis and can tell a doctor about the stage of illness and whether it's a current, recent, or past infection.

Antibody to the early antigen appears during the acute infection phase and subsequently fades; about 20% of people infected will have detectable amounts for several years after the EBV infection has cleared.

Lab tests often ordered with an Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen D IgG Antibody test:

  • Mononucleosis
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
  • Blood Smear
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Toxoplasmosis

Conditions where an Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen D IgG Antibody test is recommended:

  • Influenza
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen D IgG Antibody test?

If a person is symptomatic but has a negative mono test, blood tests for Epstein-Barr virus antibodies can help diagnose EBV infection, the most prevalent cause of infectious mononucleosis.

One or more EBV antibody tests, along with testing for cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, and other infections, may be ordered in pregnant women with signs of a viral disease to assist distinguish between EBV and disorders that generate similar symptoms.

These tests may be conducted for asymptomatic people to see if they've been exposed to EBV before or are vulnerable to a primary EBV infection. This is not regularly done, but it may be requested if someone has been in intimate contact with a person who has mono, such as a teenager or an immunocompromised person.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends ordering a variety of tests to assess whether a person is vulnerable to EBV, as well as to detect a recent or earlier infection, or a reactivated EBV infection.

What do my Epstein Barr Virus Early Antigen D antibody test results mean?

When interpreting the findings of EBV antibody testing, caution is advised. The person being tested's indications and symptoms, as well as his or her medical history, must be considered. A healthcare provider may seek the advice of an infectious disease specialist, particularly one who is familiar with EBV testing.

If a person's VCA-IgG and EA-D IgG tests come back positive, it's quite likely that they have an active or recent EBV infection.

In general, growing VCA-IgG levels suggest a current EBV infection, whereas dropping values indicate a recently resolved EBV infection. However, EBV antibody concentrations must be interpreted with caution because the amount of antibody present is unrelated to the severity of the infection or the length of time it will remain. High amounts of VCA-IgG may be present, and they may stay that way for the rest of one's life.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) Antibody (IgG)

Description: The Epstein-Barr Virus VCA IgG Antibody test is a blood test used to detect IgG antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Capsid Antigen in the blood, and is useful in determining whether or not a patient’s flu-like symptoms are due to Epstein Barr Virus or Mono.

Also Known As: EBV VCA IgG AB Test, EBV Antibodies Test, EBV VCA Test, EBV IgG Ab Test, VCA IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Capsid Antigen IgG Antibody test ordered?

When a person has symptoms that would indicate mono but a negative mono test, as well as when a pregnant woman has flu-like symptoms and her doctor wants to know whether the symptoms are caused by EBV or another microorganism, EBV antibody tests may be prescribed.

When a medical professional wants to confirm prior EBV exposure, testing may be required. Testing may occasionally be repeated if the medical professional wants to monitor antibody levels or if the results of the initial test were negative but the doctor still believes that the patient's symptoms are being caused by EBV.

What does an Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Capsid Antigen IgG Antibody blood test check for?

A mild to moderate disease is often brought on by the Epstein-Barr virus. Epstein-Barr virus blood tests aid in the diagnosis of EBV infection by detecting EBV antibodies in the blood.

Infections caused by the Epstein-Barr virus are highly prevalent. The majority of Americans have had EBV infection at some point in their life, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virus is quickly spread from person to person and is very contagious. It can be transmitted through close contact, such as kissing, sharing of utensils or cups, and saliva of sick people.

The incubation period after initial EBV exposure lasts for a number of weeks before any symptoms may manifest. The virus multiplies during the acute initial infection. The infection then starts to become less prevalent and the symptoms start to subside, but it never totally disappears. Latent EBV can reactivate and stays dormant in the body for the rest of a person's life, although it typically poses few risks unless the individual has seriously compromised immune function.

Most persons who receive EBV as children show little to no symptoms. But if the first infection happens in adolescence, it can lead to infectious mononucleosis, sometimes known as mono, which is characterized by fatigue, fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, an enlarged spleen, and occasionally an enlarged liver. About 25% of adolescents and young adults with the infection experience these symptoms, which typically go away in a month or two.

Mono is normally identified by a person's symptoms, a full blood count, and the results of a mono test. A mono test will come back negative in about 25% of patients with mono; this is particularly true of youngsters. These patients do not produce heterophile antibodies. If these persons are currently infected with the EBV virus, it can be determined whether or not their symptoms are caused by that infection using tests for EBV antibodies.

The most typical cause of mono is EBV. The CDC lists CMV, hepatitis A, B, or C, rubella, and toxoplasmosis as examples of additional causes of mono. It can occasionally be crucial to separate EBV from these other diseases. For instance, determining the root of a pregnant woman's viral disease symptoms may be crucial. A primary EBV infection, which has not been proved to harm an unborn child, can be distinguished from CMV, herpes simplex virus, or toxoplasmosis infections through testing because these conditions can complicate pregnancy and provide a risk to the fetus.

Additionally, it may be crucial to rule out EBV infection and search for other potential reasons of the symptoms. Antibiotics must be administered to those who have group A streptococcus-related infections, such as those who have strep throat. It's possible for someone to have strep throat instead of mono, or even both illnesses simultaneously.

There are numerous tests available to check for various EBV antibody types and classes. The body produces antibodies, which are proteins, as an immunological reaction to several Epstein-Barr virus antigens. Each of these EBV antibodies has a fluctuating level during a primary EBV infection as the infection develops. The level of these antibodies in the blood can help with diagnosis and normally informs the medical professional of the infection's stage and whether it is a recent or prior infection.

Antibodies to VCA-IgG Emerges during acute infection, peaking at 2 to 4 weeks, before dipping slightly, stabilizing, and remaining for the rest of one's life.

Lab tests often ordered with an Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Capsid Antigen IgG Antibody test:

  • Epstein Barr Virus Early Antigen D Antibody IgG
  • Mononucleosis Test
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Cytomegalovirus Test

Conditions where an Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Capsid Antigen IgG Antibody test is recommended:

  • Epstein Barr Virus
  • Mono
  • Influenza
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Capsid Antigen IgG Antibody test?

If a person has symptoms but a negative mono test, blood tests for Epstein-Barr virus antibodies can be done to assist detect EBV infection, the most prevalent cause of infectious mononucleosis.

One or more EBV antibody tests may be requested in addition to tests for cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, and other infections in pregnant women who exhibit symptoms of a viral disease in order to help differentiate between EBV and other disorders that may present with similar symptoms.

An asymptomatic person may be given these tests to determine whether they have ever been exposed to EBV or are predisposed to developing a primary EBV infection. Although it is not usually done, it may be requested if a person—such as a teenager or someone with an impaired immune system—has recently been in close proximity to someone who has mono.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advise running a number of tests to assist identify someone's susceptibility to EBV, as well as to look for recent, past, or reactivated EBV infections.

What do my Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Capsid Antigen IgG Antibody test results mean?

Results of EBV antibody testing must be interpreted carefully. It is necessary to take into account the test subject's indications and symptoms in addition to their medical background. A physician may seek the advice of an expert in infectious illnesses, particularly one with knowledge of EBV testing.

If someone tests positive for VCA-IgM antibodies, they most likely have an EBV infection and the sickness may still be in its early stages. Even if the mono test came back negative, the person will likely be diagnosed with mono if they also exhibit symptoms of the illness.

It is quite likely that someone has an active or recent EBV infection if both the VCA-IgG and the EA-D IgG tests are positive.

It is most likely that the person examined had an earlier EBV infection if the VCA-IgM test is negative but the VCA-IgG and an EBNA antibody are both positive.

A person who exhibits no symptoms and tests negative for VCA-IgG has probably never been exposed to EBV and is therefore susceptible to infection.

Rising VCA-IgG concentrations typically signify an ongoing EBV infection, whereas declining amounts typically signify a recent EBV infection that is healing. However, as the amount of antibody present does not correspond with the severity of the infection or how long it will remain, caution must be used when interpreting EBV antibody concentrations. There may be high levels of VCA-IgG and they could stay there for the rest of the person's life.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Primary infection by EBV causes infectious mononucleosis, usually a self-limiting disease in children and young adults. Infection with EBV can cause lymphoproliferative disorders including tumors. VCA-IgM is typically detectable at clinical presentation, then declines to undetectable levels within a month in young children and within 3 months in other individuals.

Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: The cytomegalovirus antibodies test is used to detect antibodies to cytomegalovirus in the blood’s serum from a recent or past infection.

Also Known As: CMV Test, CMV Antibodies Test, CMV IgG IgM Test, Cytomegalovirus Test, Cytomegalovirus IgG IgM Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Cytomegalovirus Antibodies test ordered?

When a younger person, a pregnant woman, or an immune-compromised individual exhibits flu- or mono-like signs and symptoms, CMV tests, as well as tests for influenza, mononucleosis, and EBV, may be requested.

When a health care provider is assessing the effectiveness of antiviral therapy, one or more CMV tests might be requested at regular intervals.

CMV antibody testing may be requested as a screening test to discover if a person has been exposed to CMV in the past when they are a candidate for an organ or marrow transplant.

What does a Cytomegalovirus Antibodies blood test check for?

Cytomegalovirus is a widespread virus that is found all over the world but only rarely causes symptoms. CMV infection affects between 50 and 85 percent of individuals in the United States. The majority of persons get infected as children or young adults and have no noticeable symptoms or health problems.

CMV testing entails measuring CMV antibodies, immunological proteins produced in response to CMV infection, or detecting the virus itself. Culturing CMV or detecting the virus's genetic material in a fluid or tissue sample might be used to identify the virus during an active infection.

During an active infection, CMV can be discovered in a variety of body fluids, including saliva, urine, blood, breast milk, sperm, vaginal secretions, and cerebrospinal fluid. Close personal touch or interaction with infected materials, like as diapers or toys, makes it easy to spread to others. CMV, like other members of the herpes family, becomes dormant or latent after the initial "primary" infection has cured. Unless a person's immune system is considerably impaired, cytomegalovirus can live in them for the rest of their lives without creating any symptoms. The virus may reactivate if this occurs.

In three scenarios, CMV can cause serious health problems:

  • Primary CMV infection in young adults can induce a flu-like or mononucleosis-like disease. Extreme weariness, fever, chills, body pains, and/or headaches are common symptoms of this ailment, which normally goes away in a few weeks.
  • Primary CMV infection in babies can result in major physical and developmental issues. This happens when a pregnant woman becomes infected for the first time and then distributes the infection to her unborn child through the placenta. Most infected neonates appear healthy at birth, but within a few months, they may develop hearing or vision abnormalities, pneumonia, convulsions, and/or impaired mental development. Some babies are stillborn, while others show signs including jaundice, anemia, an enlarged spleen or liver, and a small head when they are born.
  • CMV can cause significant disease and death in people who have weaker immune systems. This includes those living with HIV/AIDS, people who have undergone organ or bone marrow transplants, and people who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. People with weakened immune systems who become infected for the first time may have the most severe symptoms, and their CMV infection may be active for a long time. Those who have previously been exposed to CMV may experience reactivation of their infection. Their eyes, digestive tract, lungs, and brain could all be affected. Spleen and liver problems are also possible, and people who have had organ or bone marrow transplants may have some rejection. Active CMV also weakens the immune system, making it easier for secondary infections like fungal infections to develop.

Lab tests often ordered with a Cytomegalovirus antibodies test:

  • Epstein Barr Virus Antibodies
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Varicella Zoster Virus

Conditions where a Cytomegalovirus antibodies test is recommended:

  • Epstein Barr Virus
  • HIV
  • Herpes
  • Chicken Pox and Shingles

How does my health care provider use a Cytomegalovirus antibodies test?

Cytomegalovirus testing is performed to see if someone has an active CMV infection based on their signs and symptoms. It's sometimes ordered to see if someone has ever been infected with CMV before.

CMV is a widespread virus that affects a large percentage of the population but rarely produces symptoms or serious health concerns. In neonates and persons with weaker immune systems, such as transplant recipients, cancer patients, people taking immunosuppressive medicines, and people living with HIV, primary CMV infection can cause serious sickness and consequences.

Antibody testing on blood samples can be used to detect if someone has been exposed recently or previously. IgM and IgG are the two types of CMV antibodies produced in response to a CMV infection, and one or both might be seen in the blood.

The first antibodies produced by the body in response to a CMV infection are IgM antibodies. Within a week or two of the initial exposure, they are present in the majority of people. Antibody production of IgM increases for a brief period before declining. CMV IgM antibody levels frequently decline below detectable levels after many months. When latent CMV is triggered, more IgM antibodies are generated.

The body produces IgG antibodies several weeks after the original CMV infection, which defend against secondary infections. IgG levels rise during active infection, then level off as the CMV infection fades and the virus becomes dormant. After being exposed to CMV, a person's blood will contain quantifiable amounts of CMV IgG antibodies for the rest of their lives. Along with IgM testing, CMV IgG antibody testing can be used to establish the existence of a current or previous CMV infection.

CMV antibody testing can be used to determine immunity to primary CMV infections in people who are awaiting organ or bone marrow transplantation, as well as in HIV/AIDS patients. CMV infection is common and causes minimal difficulties in those with healthy immune systems, hence general population screening is uncommon.

What do my CMV IgG and IgM test results mean?

When interpreting the findings of CMV testing, caution is advised. The results are compared to clinical data, such as signs and symptoms, by a health professional. It's not always easy to tell the difference between a latent, active, or reactivated CMV infection. This is attributable to a number of factors, including:

A healthy individual who has been infected with CMV will carry the virus for the rest of their lives. CMV can reactivate on a regular basis, frequently in a subclinical manner, shedding small amounts of virus into body fluids but causing no symptoms.

Even if the individual has an active case of CMV, an immune-compromised person may not have a significant antibody response to the infection; the person's IgM and IgG levels may be lower than predicted.

It's possible that the virus isn't present in large enough numbers in the fluid or tissue being analyzed to be detected.

A symptomatic person with positive CMV IgG and IgM has most likely been exposed to CMV for the first time or has had a previous CMV infection reactivated. IgG levels can be measured again 2 or 3 weeks later to confirm this. A high IgG level is less essential than an increasing level. If the IgG level in the first and second samples differs by fourfold, the person is infected with CMV.

A positive CMV IgM and negative IgG indicates that the person was infected recently.

In someone who is symptomatic, a negative IgG and/or IgM or low levels of antibodies may indicate that the person has a problem other than CMV or that their immune system is not responding correctly.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns. Antibody IgG may represent prior exposure or recent infection if there is a significant change in titer between acute and convalescent specimens.

CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns.

Sera are intially screened for IgG and IgM antibodies recognizing and nucleocapsid protein common to all hantaviruses.


Description: The Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test is a blood test used to screen for recent exposure to Hepatitis A and to help diagnose liver infection.

Also Known As: HAV AB Test, Hepatitis A Virus Antibody Test, Anti HAV Test, Anti Hepatitis A Virus Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test ordered?

When someone shows evidence of an acute infection, testing for hepatitis A antibodies is recommended.

When a person is suspected to have been exposed to the virus, regardless of whether or not symptoms are present, a HAV test may be conducted.

Testing is also often ordered to show proof of immunization.

What does a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody blood test check for?

Hepatitis A is a highly infectious liver infection caused by hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis is a condition marked by inflammation and enlargement of the liver, and it can be caused by a variety of things. This test looks for antibodies produced by the immune system in response to a hepatitis A infection in the blood.

Hepatitis A is one of five hepatitis viruses known to cause the disease, with the others being B, C, D, and E. Hepatitis A can cause a severe, acute illness that lasts 1 to 2 months, but unlike the other hepatitis viruses, it does not create a persistent infection.

Hepatitis A is transmitted from person to person most usually by stool contamination or by swallowing food or water contaminated by an infected person's stool. Direct contact with an infected person, international travel, direct contact with a newly arrived international adoptee, a recognized foodborne outbreak, men having sex with men, and use of illegal drugs are all recognized risk factors for hepatitis A.

Hepatitis can be caused by a variety of things, but the symptoms are all the same. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in hepatitis. It can't remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body since it can't digest them. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood can rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin or a liver panel can inform a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they don't tell them what's causing it. Hepatitis viral antibody testing may aid in determining the etiology.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test:

  • Hepatitis A IgG Antibody test
  • Hepatitis B Testing
  • Hepatitis C Testing
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • AST
  • ALT
  • ALP
  • Bilirubin

Conditions where a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test is recommended:

  • Liver Disease
  • Viral Hepatitis
  • Traveler’s Diseases
  • Food and Waterborne Illness

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis A IgM Antibody test?

This test is used to diagnose a hepatitis A virus caused liver infection. Hepatitis and its symptoms can be caused by a variety of things, therefore this test can help you figure out if your symptoms are caused by hepatitis A.

This test will also come back positive after a person has received the Hepatitis A vaccine, therefore it can be used to see if they have developed immunity following immunization.

Other tests, such as bilirubin, hepatic function panel, ALT, and AST, may be used in conjunction with viral hepatitis testing to assist diagnose the condition in acute hepatitis.

What do my Hepatitis A Antibody test results mean?

A total antibody test identifies both IgM and IgG antibodies without distinguishing between the two.

If the test is positive and the person has never been vaccinated against HAV, then person has been exposed to the virus. Hepatitis A antibodies are found in about 30% of persons over the age of 40.

If the test is negative, then the person has neither been exposed or vaccinated against the Hepatitis A Virus.

Results of this hepatitis testing may indicate the following:

  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is positive the results indicate Acute or recent Hepatitis A virus infection.
  • If Hepatitis A IgM Antibody is negative and the Hepatitis A Antibody, Total is positive then the results indicate no active infection but previous Hepatitis A virus exposure; has developed immunity to Hepatitis A virus or recently vaccinated for Hepatitis A virus.
  • Dietary supplements containing biotin may interfere in assays and may skew analyte results to be either falsely high or falsely low. For patients receiving the recommended daily doses of biotin, draw samples at least 8 hours following the last biotin supplementation. For patients on mega-doses of biotin supplements, draw samples at least 72 hours following the last biotin supplementation.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.



Description: Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Qualitative is a test that will determine if there are Hep B antibodies present in the blood.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, Hep B Surface Antibody Test, Hep B Antibody Test, Hepatitis B Antibody Test, Hep B Surface Ab Test, HBV Antibody Test, HBV Surface Antibody Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test ordered?

When someone exhibits acute hepatitis-related signs and symptoms, a hepatitis B test may be requested to evaluate whether the symptoms are caused by HBV infection.

When the findings of normal testing, such as ALT and/or AST, are increased, hepatitis B tests may be performed as a follow-up. Since they may only cause minor symptoms that can be mistaken for the flu, acute forms of hepatitis can occasionally be identified in this way. Chronic hepatitis is more frequently found when routine test results are abnormal and more frequently has no symptoms.

When a person is at high risk for developing chronic hepatitis B, a test for hepatitis B surface antigen may be utilized for screening.

Hepatitis B tests may be run on a regular basis to check on persons with chronic hepatitis B infections. Since HBeAg may disappear on its own in certain individuals, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen measurements are often performed every six to twelve months. HBeAg and HBV DNA testing can be used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment in patients with chronic HBV.

What does a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test check for?

Hepatitis B tests look for chemicals that indicate a recent or past hepatitis B virus infection. While some tests look for viral proteins or antibodies created in response to an infection, others look for or assess the virus' genetic makeup. A person who has immunity as a result of prior exposure or who now has an active infection can be determined by the pattern of test findings.

The symptoms of hepatitis include inflammation and liver enlargement. It can be caused by a number of different things, one of which is virus infection. One of the five "hepatitis viruses" that have been found thus far is HBV. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E make up the remaining four.

Contact with blood or other bodily fluids from an infected person can transfer HBV. For instance, sharing needles for IV drug usage or having sex without protection can expose someone. Greater risk applies to people who reside in or travel to regions of the world where hepatitis B is common. Rarely, generally during or after birth, women might transmit the virus to their newborns. The virus cannot be spread by innocuous actions like shaking hands, coughing, or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood. It can also spread through the sharing of objects like toothbrushes or razors with an infected individual.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the United States since 1981, and starting in 1991, medical professionals there started immunizing newborns. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the virus is present in between 804,000 and 1.4 million Americans, the majority of whom are unaware that they are infected.

HBV infections can range in severity from a brief, mild form to a more dangerous, chronic variant that lasts for years. Serious side effects from persistent HBV can occasionally include cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Acute HBV infection, albeit potentially dangerous, typically goes away on its own in most adults. Children and infants are more likely than adults to have a persistent infection. 90% of newborns with HBV infection go on to acquire a chronic illness. Between 25% and 50% of children between the ages of one and five are at risk of acquiring chronic hepatitis. Only 6% to 10% of HBV infections that start after age five progress to chronic disease.

Most people with persistent infections won't show any symptoms. The signs and symptoms of acute infections are quite similar to those of other acute hepatitis types. Fever, exhaustion, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are among the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally when someone has acute hepatitis. It might not eliminate toxins or waste materials from the body, such bilirubin. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. Although tests like bilirubin or a liver panel can show a doctor that a patient has hepatitis, they cannot tell them what is causing it. The cause may be found with tests that look for hepatitis virus infection.

Testing for hepatitis B can be done in the absence of symptoms, to identify if an infection is acute or chronic, or to keep track of a chronic infection and how well therapy is working.

Lab tests often ordered with a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test:

  • Hepatitis A Antibody Testing
  • Hepatitis C Antibody Testing

Conditions where a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Disease

How does my health care provider use a Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test?

Antibody generated in response to HBV surface antigen is detected by hepatitis B surface antibody test. It is used to determine the necessity for immunization or if a person has recovered from an infection and is immune. It can also arise from effective vaccination.

What do my Qualitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test results mean?

If antibodies are not detected, it indicates that a person has not developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

If antibodies are detected, it indicates that a person has developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

Clinical Significance

The detection of anti-HBs is indicative of a prior immunologic exposure to the antigen or vaccine. To determine immune status as ≥10 mIU/mL as per CDC guidelines, please order Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative is a test that will determine if there are Hep B antibodies present in the blood.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, Hep B Surface Antibody Test, Hep B Antibody Test, Hepatitis B Antibody Test, Hep B Surface Ab Test, HBV Antibody Test, HBV Surface Antibody Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test ordered:

Hepatitis B antibody testing is generally ordered to determine immunity to Hepatitis B through the detection of antibodies in the blood. This testing is often requested for medical records related to school and healthcare professions.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative blood test check for?

Antibodies to the hepatitis B virus are detected in hepatitis B antibody tests, which indicate a past infection or immunization against the virus.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is disseminated through coming into touch with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who reside in or travel to places of the world where hepatitis B is common are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, generally during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing infants at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test:

  • Hepatitis A antibody test
  • Hepatitis C antibody test
  • Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin Fractionated
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • AST
  • ALT
  • Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Liver Disease

How does my health care provider use a Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test?

Antibody generated in response to HBV surface antigen is detected by hepatitis B surface antibody test. It is used to determine the necessity for immunization or if a person has recovered from an infection and is immune. It can also arise from effective vaccination.

What do my Hepatitis B antibody test results mean?

If antibodies are not detected, it indicates that a person has not developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

If antibodies are detected, it indicates that a person has developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hepatitis B Surface antigen test is a blood test that checks for hepatitis b antigen in your blood’s serum. If hepatitis B antigen is detected, confirmation testing will be performed.

Also Known As: Hep B Test, HBsAg Test, Hepatitis B Antigen Test, HBV Test, HBV Surface Antigen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS IS A REFLUX TEST - The price charged for this test is only for the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. ADDITIONAL CHARGE OF $39 WILL OCCUR FOR THE REFLUX CONFIRMATION if the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive.

When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test ordered?

When someone develops signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis, hepatitis B tests may be conducted to see if they are caused by HBV infection.

When standard test findings such as ALT and/or AST are elevated, hepatitis B testing may be ordered as a follow-up. Acute varieties of hepatitis can sometimes be diagnosed this way since they only generate minor symptoms that are easily confused with the flu. Chronic hepatitis is more typically diagnosed when routine test results are abnormal and has no symptoms.

When someone falls into one of the high risk categories for chronic hepatitis B, a test for hepatitis B surface antigen may be utilized for screening.

Hepatitis B tests may be repeated on a regular basis to monitor persons who have chronic hepatitis B infections. Hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis Be antigen are normally evaluated every 6 months to a year since HBeAg can disappear on its own in certain persons. HBeAg and HBV DNA testing can be used to detect whether or not a patient is receiving effective treatment for chronic HBV.

What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen blood test check for?

Hepatitis B tests look for chemicals that indicate a present or former hepatitis B infection. Some tests look for viral antigen or antibodies produced in response to an infection, while others look for or analyse the virus's genetic material. A person with a current active infection or immunity as a result of earlier exposure can be identified by the pattern of test findings.

Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.

HBV is transmitted through contact with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who live in or go to locations where hepatitis B is widespread are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, usually during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by exchanging razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.

Efficient hepatitis B vaccines have already been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing newborns at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.

HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Acute HBV infection, albeit potentially dangerous, normally goes away on its own in most adults. Infants and children are more likely than adults to get a persistent infection. Ninety percent of newborns affected with HBV will develop a chronic illness. Between the ages of one and five, the risk of having chronic hepatitis lowers to 25% to 50%. Only 6% to 10% of HBV illnesses become chronic in children over the age of five.

The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and hepatic enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.

Hepatitis B testing can be used to detect infection in the absence of symptoms, to establish whether an infection is acute or chronic, and to track the progress of a chronic infection and its treatment.

Lab tests often ordered with a a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test:

  • Hepatitis A Test
  • Hepatitis C Test
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Bilirubin
  • AST
  • AST
  • GGT
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver Disease
  • HIV

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis B Antigen test?

Hepatitis B viral tests can be used for a number of different reasons. Some tests look for antibodies produced in response to HBV infection, while others look for antigens produced by the virus and yet others look for viral DNA.

In most cases, one set of tests is used as an initial panel of tests to diagnose HBV infection or determine the reason of acute symptoms, while another set of tests may be performed after a diagnosis to track disease progression, detect chronic infection, and/or determine carrier status.

What do my Hepatitis B Surface antigen test results mean?

Hepatitis B tests can be requested alone, although they are frequently ordered in combination, depending on the purpose for testing. The results of the tests are usually compared. The significance of one test result may be influenced by the outcome of another. However, not everyone is subjected to all tests.

If the findings of initial and follow-up testing suggest that a person has chronic hepatitis B, the individual may be treated with medication, and the effectiveness of that therapy can be tracked using HBe antigen and antibody tests, as well as HBV DNA tests.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hepatitis C antibody test is a test that looks for the antibodies for hepatitis C, if they are found more testing will be performed. The additional test for a positive hepatitis C antibody result is a quantitative test that will measure the amount of the virus that is present. This can be used for treating hepatitis C. This test also may be used to rule out hepatitis C in many cases.

Also Known As: Anti HCV Test, HCV Antibody Test, Hep C Antibody Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT - THIS IS A REFLEX TEST AND AN ADDITIONAL CHARGE OF $179 WILL BE APPLIED IF THE Hepatitis C Antibody is reactive.

If Hepatitis C Antibody is reactive, then Hepatitis C Viral RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR will be performed at an additional charge of $179.00

When is a Hepatitis C Antibody test ordered?

The CDC recommends using an HCV antibody test to check for HCV infections in patients who:

  • Have ever injected illegal substances
  • Before July 1992, received a blood transfusion or an organ transplant.
  • Have ever received clotting factor concentrates before to 1987
  • ave ever been on long-term dialysis
  • Children born to HCV-positive women
  • Have been exposed to hepatitis C-infected blood
  • Are healthcare, emergency medical, or public safety employees who have been exposed to HCV-positive blood through needlesticks, sharps, or mucosal contact
  • Have been diagnosed with chronic liver disease
  • Have HIV and were born between 1945 and 1965, irrespective of any HCV risk factors

Since 1992, the blood supply in the United States has been regulated, and any units of blood that test positive for HCV are not used in another person. HCV infection from transfused blood is now estimated to be one case per two million transfused units.

When someone has abnormal liver panel findings, for example, or signs and symptoms of hepatitis, HCV antibody testing may be performed. It may be done as part of an acute hepatitis panel in these circumstances. Most persons who are newly infected with HCV have no symptoms or have symptoms that are so minor that they rarely induce a person to seek medical help and get tested for HCV. However, approximately 10-20% of people may have signs and symptoms such as weariness, stomach pain, decreased appetite, and jaundice.

When an antibody test is positive, an HCV RNA test or viral load is requested as follow-up testing to confirm an active infection. If the HCV antibody test is positive, some laboratories will do this test automatically.

When a person is diagnosed with HCV infection, genotyping is often requested before therapy begins to help with treatment selection.

HCV viral load testing may be ordered at the start of treatment, on a regular basis to monitor treatment response, and at the end of treatment to assess its effectiveness.

What does a Hepatitis C Antibody blood test check for?

Hepatitis C is a virus that causes a liver infection that results in liver inflammation and damage. Hepatitis C tests are a collection of tests used to detect, diagnose, and track the progress of a hepatitis C virus infection. The most frequent HCV test searches for antibodies produced in response to an HCV infection in the blood. Other assays detect viral RNA, quantify the amount of viral RNA present, or define the virus's unique subtype.

Hepatitis C is one of five hepatitis viruses known to cause the disease, with the others being A, B, D, and E. HCV is spread by contact with contaminated blood, primarily through intravenous drug users sharing needles, but also through sharing blood-contaminated personal items like razors, sex with an infected person, healthcare occupational exposure, and, less commonly, from mother to baby during childbirth. HCV was commonly spread via blood transfusions before HCV tests became accessible in the 1990s.

While HCV is not as contagious as hepatitis B, no vaccination exists to prevent infection. In North America, hepatitis C infection is a common cause of chronic liver disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were about 30,500 instances of acute hepatitis C in the United States in 2014, with 2.7 to 3.9 million persons living with chronic hepatitis C.

Many people who are afflicted have no symptoms and are unaware that they are infected. The acute HCV infection may produce few to mild nonspecific symptoms, and the chronic infection may go unnoticed for a decade or two before producing enough liver damage to impair liver function.

A positive antibody test is followed with a hepatitis C RNA test, which detects virus genetic material, because the antibody test can remain positive in most patients even after they have eliminated the infection. A positive RNA test result indicates that the virus is present, that the infection has not cured, and that the person may need treatment. To help guide treatment, the hepatitis C genotyping test establishes which strain of virus is present.

A liver panel, which is a collection of tests used to examine the health of the liver, can also be ordered by healthcare providers.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis C Antibody test:

  • Hepatitis A Antibody
  • Hepatitis B Antibody
  • Hepatitis Panel
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • ALT
  • AST
  • GGT
  • Bilirubin
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where a Hepatitis C Antibody test is recommended:

  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • HIV
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Liver Disease
  • Hepatitis

How does my health care provider use a Hepatitis C Antibody test?

Hepatitis C tests are used to detect and diagnose hepatitis C virus infection, as well as to advise therapy and/or monitor the course of treatment.

An HCV antibody test is performed to determine whether or not you have been exposed to the virus before. It looks for antibodies to the virus, which indicates HCV infection. This test will not tell you if you have an active or prior HCV infection. There is some evidence that a "weakly positive" test could be a false positive. All positive antibody tests should be followed by an HCV RNA test, which identifies viral RNA in the blood to assess whether or not the person has a current infection, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The HCV antibody test can be used to establish which of the most prevalent hepatitis viruses is causing a person's symptoms as part of an acute viral hepatitis panel.

The tests listed below can help identify an infection and advise and monitor treatment:

HCV RNA tests: A quantitative HCV RNA test detects and counts viral RNA particles in the blood. This test can be used to confirm the virus's presence and diagnose a live infection. Viral load assays are also used before and throughout treatment to compare the amount of virus present before and after treatment to measure treatment response.

HCV RNA, Qualitative is used to determine whether an infection is present or past. If any HCV viral RNA is identified, the result is reported as "positive" or "detected"; otherwise, the result is ""negative"" or "not detected." This test is no longer often used.

To help guide treatment, viral genotyping is done to detect the kind, or genotype, of HCV present. HCV has five basic kinds and more than 50 subtypes; the most common, genotype 1, accounts for around 75% of infections in the United States. The medications chosen for treatment are influenced by the genotype of HCV infection.

What do my Hepatitis C Antibody test results mean?

Antibody tests for HCV are usually reported as "positive" or "negative."

If the virus is present, the results of HCV viral load tests are provided as a number. The result is frequently reported as "negative" or "not found" if no virus is present or if the amount of virus is too small to detect.

The table below shows how the HCV screening and follow-up tests are interpreted. If the HCV antibody test is positive, the person tested is infected or has likely been infected with hepatitis C at some point. If the HCV RNA test comes back positive, the person is currently infected. If no HCV viral RNA is found, the person either does not have an active infection or has very low levels of the virus.

Antibody to HCV HCV RNA Negative for HCV infection There is no infection or it is too soon after exposure for the test to be reliable; if suspicion persists, retesting at a later period may be necessary.

Positive or inconclusive Negative Past infection or no illness; if necessary, additional tests

Positive, Negative, or Indeterminate Infection currently present

An HCV viral load can be used to determine whether or not treatment is working for monitoring purposes. A high or increasing viral load could indicate that treatment isn't working, whereas a low, declining, or undetectable viral load could indicate that it is.

Successful treatment reduces viral load by 99 percent or more shortly after starting treatment and frequently results in undetectable viral load when treatment is finished. An undetectable viral load in a treated person's blood 12 weeks after the conclusion of treatment indicates that the HCV infection has responded to therapy, according to guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Disease Society of America.

The findings of the HCV genotype test determine the strain of HCV a person has and aid in treatment selection and duration. Treatment options vary depending on a number of criteria, including the person's HCV genotype and liver condition.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Includes

Hepatitis A Antibody, Total; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Qualitative; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation; Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total; Hepatitis C Antibody with Reflex to HCV, RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation: Positive samples will be confirmed based on the manufacturer's FDA approved recommendations at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87341).


If Hepatitis C Antibody is reactive, Hepatitis C Viral RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87522).


Description: The Herpes simplex virus 1/2 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 IgG Type-Specific Antibodies, Herpes, Herpes 1 and 2 Test, Herpes 1 Test, Herpes 2 Test, Herpes IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw            

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 1 and 2 antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture. The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 1 and 2 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgG antibody test for HSV-1 or HSV-2 implies a past infection.

When comparing data from acute and convalescent samples, a large increase in HSV IgG antibodies indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Heterophile antibodies, in patients with infectious mononucleosis, may be present as early as the fourth day of illness, and by the twenty-first day of illness, 90% of patients will exhibit a positive test. The Epstein-Barr virus causes infectious mononucleosis.

Description: The Rubella test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgG antibodies, which may be present because of a previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Titer Test, Rubella Infections test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibodies test ordered?

When a woman is pregnant or planning to become pregnant, an IgG rubella test is ordered. It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibodies test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibodies test:

  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Rubella Antibodies test is recommended:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibodies test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella antibodies test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Rubella IgM test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgM antibodies, which may be present because of an active infection.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Infection Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibody IgM test ordered?

It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever (mild)
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibody IgM blood test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibody IgM test:

  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Varicella Zoster Virus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Rubella Antibody IgM test is recommended:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibody IgM test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella Antibody IgM test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection (immune). A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: The Rubella test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgG antibodies, which may be present because of a previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Titer Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibody IgG test ordered?

When a woman is pregnant or planning to become pregnant, an IgG rubella test is ordered. It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibody IgG blood test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibody IgG test:

  • Measles IgG Antibody
  • Mumps IgG Antibody
  • Varicella Zoster Virus IgG Antibody
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B Antibody
  • Hepatitis C Antibody

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella IgG Antibody test:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibody IgG test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella Antibody IgG test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.



No doubt you've heard about mononucleosis before. You've probably heard it called the "kissing disease" when you were young. 

But this kissing disease is much more than that. The Epstein Barr Virus EBV causes it, and it's more common than people realize. Over 95% of adults and 50% of children have had EBV in the US alone.

If you have EBV, you're in the right place and are looking for more information about the Epstein Barr Virus and Epstein Barr virus lab tests.

EBV infects your blood and causes your immune system to react. The Epstein Barr virus lab test can detect this reaction by detecting the antibodies produced. Keep reading to find out all about EBV and blood tests.

What Is the Epstein Barr Virus?

The Epstein Barr Virus EBV is a herpes virus that infects humans. EBV infections are common, and most of the time, you'll never know you had the virus in the first place.

You might automatically associate the Epstein Barr Virus with mononucleosis (mono), but the truth is EBV doesn't always result in infectious mononucleosis. This is because many people can test positive for the EBV virus even when they've never had infectious mononucleosis before.

Risk Factors for Epstein Barr Virus

Risk factors include having close contact with another person's bodily secretions like sexual intercourse and kissing. 

Young children and teenagers sharing toys, toothbrushes, cell phones, or food are also at increased risk.

If you've received an organ transplant or blood transfusion, you have a slight risk of getting EBV from the donor.

Cause of Epstein Barr Virus and Mono

An EBV infection occurs when your B cells become infected with EBV. Once your B cells are infected, the infection travels through your liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.

If your body responds enough to the presence of EBV, you'll develop symptoms of infectious mononucleosis.

How Do You Get EBV

EBV is spread by bodily fluids, mainly saliva, which explains the term kissing disease. You can also get EBV by sharing things like your toothbrush, eating utensils, or a drink. EBV is also spread by blood and semen.

You can infect other people with EBV from the moment you get infected. And you don't need to have symptoms of EBV to pass it on to other people. You're contagious for as long as the virus is active in your body.

Signs and Symptoms of the Epstein Barr Virus

EBV infections are more likely to cause infections in teenagers and adults than in children. When EBV develops into mononucleosis (mono) infection, you'll notice symptoms like:

  • Fevers
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Swollen tonsils
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Rash

Unfortunately, symptoms can be severe and last up to a month. And feelings of fatigue tend to linger on much longer.

EBV Reactivation

Once you get infected with the EBV virus, it remains inactive in your body for the rest of your life. Sometimes the virus can reactivate in your body but cause no symptoms.

However, EBV can reactivate and cause symptoms similar to mono if you have a weakened immune system.

EBV Complications

Usually, your body takes care of EBV with no issues. But sometimes, complications can occur. Complications include:

  • Anemia
  • Low levels of platelets
  • A ruptured spleen
  • Inflammation of the heart muscle

EBV can also cause nervous system conditions like Guillain-Barre syndrome, meningitis, and encephalitis

EBV is thought to be linked with certain autoimmune disorders. EBV appears to change how some of our genes are expressed, which sometimes leads to an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune conditions linked to EBV are:

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Celiac disease
  • Graves disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis

EBV Cancers

Another vital thing to know about EBV is that it can increase your risk of developing certain types of cancers, including:

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Burkitt Lymphoma
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer
  • Stomach cancer

Cancers linked to EBV aren't common in North America but still occur. You'll mostly find EBV cancers in Africa and parts of Southeast Asia. It's estimated that EBV contributes to approximately 1.5% of all human cancer cases worldwide.

Scientists are still studying how viral proteins, RNA, and the overall understanding of viruses better understand the link to cancer. Cell mutations from EBV can eventually lead to cancerous changes in your cells.

Epstein Barr Virus Lab Test

A blood test is helpful to distinguish between mono, EBV, or some other illness. Some people may want to get tested because they have a compromised immune system; other people may be looking to explain their symptoms.

Also, if you're pregnant or breastfeeding, it's even more important to understand the cause of the symptoms you're having.

Whatever the case, both mononucleosis tests and an EBV blood test are excellent diagnostic tools.

You'll want to find a comprehensive EBV panel at Ulta Lab Tests. A complete look at your EBV biomarkers will better determine your infection state, whether past or present.

It's important to know there is more than one EBV antibody test. And not all EBV antibody tests will show antibodies to EBV.

How are the tests used?

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody blood tests are used to assist with diagnosing EBV infection, which is the most common cause of mono (infectious mononucleosis) if an individual is symptomatic, but their mono test is negative.

In pregnant women who have viral illness symptoms, one or several EBV antibody tests might be ordered in addition to tests for toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and other infections (that are sometimes part of the TORCH screen) to assist with distinguishing between EBV and other conditions that might result in similar symptoms.

Those tests might be ordered if an asymptomatic individual has been exposed to EBV previously or is susceptible to developing a primary EBV infection. It is not performed routinely but might be ordered when a person, such as an immunocompromised individual or an adolescent, has come into close contact with someone who has mononucleosis. 

It is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that several tests be ordered to help determine whether an individual is susceptive to EBV or for detecting a reactivated EBV infection, prior infection, or recent infection.

Those tests include the following:

Standard laboratory tests in this panel include:

First is the EBV-VCA IgG/IgM test (viral capsid antigen VCA). If this is positive, it means you're currently infected, or you've been infected in the past.

A positive EBV-EBNA IgG (nuclear antigen) or an antibody to EBNA means you've had past infections.

A positive EBV-EA-D IgG (early antigen) means you may have an active or reactive EBV infection.

The EBV antibody test or Epstein Barr, EBV Early Antigen test will let you know if your EBV virus is active.

The Monospot Test

heterophile antibody test or a Monospot test is one of the best initial tests to diagnose a mono-infection. Heterophile antibody testing is excellent because heterophile antibodies can be present in the first five days of illness from infectious mononucleosis.

Heterophile antibody tests are quick, inexpensive, and easy to use. A positive heterophile antibody test should be followed with more antibody testing.

Be sure to discuss your test results with your doctor or infectious disease specialist to get the best interpretation and course of action based on your results.

EBV Treatment

EBV doesn't have any specific treatment or even a vaccine. And since a virus causes EBV, antibiotics won't do the trick. Your best course of action in managing symptoms of EBV include:

  • Getting plenty of rest
  • Drinking lots of fluids
  • Taking Tylenol or Advil to relieve pain and fever
  • Avoid heavy lifting
  • Avoid extreme physical activity 

Sometimes doctors might prescribe steroid treatment for severe symptoms like throat and spleen inflammation.

Children with EBV and infectious mononucleosis should stay home from school for at least 2 to 4 weeks or attend half days or until their symptoms of fatigue have improved. Children also need to avoid contact sports for up to a month or until cleared by their doctor. 

Frequently Asked Questions 

Never be afraid to find the answers to your questions. Even though EBV and mononucleosis are common worldwide, many people are unaware of the details.

Chances are, many other people have the same questions you do. Let's take a look at some FAQs now to get you started. 

  • Infectious mononucleosis mainly occurs between 15 and 24 years old
  • False-negative test rates occur almost 25% of the time in the first week 
  • You can be contagious for up to a year after getting EBV
  • You usually don't get mono a second time
  • There is no cure for mono
  • You can have mono and not realize it if you have mild symptoms

More Interesting EBV Facts

Symptoms of mono don't start straight away and often take 4 to 6 weeks to show up after you're exposed. 

College students and people serving in the military are among the most common groups of people to get mono.

Adults are rarely infected with mono because they usually get it as a child. But when adults do get mono, they tend to have less lymph node swelling and throat pain and more liver enlargement, and even jaundice.

The term infectious mononucleosis was coined in 1920 to describe the specific collection of symptoms doctors would often find.

Your EBV Blood Test

Your health is essential, so choose Ulta Lab Tests for your Epstein Barr Virus lab test. Ulta Lab Tests are highly accurate, reliable, and affordable.

The best part is you don't need a referral or insurance coverage. Your results are kept secure and confidential. And you'll typically receive your result in just 24 to 48 hours for most tests.

So take charge of your health today and get tested with Ulta Lab Tests.