The Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) Antibody (IgG) test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.
Description: The Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Antibody test is used to detect IgG Antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen which appear 2-4 months after initial infection of Epstein-Barr Virus.
Also Known As: EBNA Test, EBNA Ab Test, EBV Nuclear Antigen Antibody Test, EBV NA Ab Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When is an Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Antibody test ordered?
When a person has symptoms that would indicate mono but a negative mono test, as well as when a pregnant woman has flu-like symptoms and her doctor wants to know whether the symptoms are caused by EBV or another microorganism, EBV antibody testing may be recommended. Some indications and symptoms of mono include:
- extreme tiredness or weakness
- unwell throat
- enlarged lymph nodes in the armpits or neck
- enlarged liver or spleen
When a medical professional wants to confirm prior EBV exposure, testing may be required. Testing may occasionally be repeated if the medical professional wants to monitor antibody levels or if the results of the initial test were negative but the doctor still believes that the patient's symptoms are being caused by EBV.
What does an Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Antibody blood test check for?
A mild to moderate disease is often brought on by the Epstein-Barr virus. Epstein-Barr virus blood tests aid in the diagnosis of EBV infection by detecting EBV antibodies in the blood.
Infections caused by the Epstein-Barr virus are highly prevalent. The majority of Americans have had EBV infection at some point in their life, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virus is quickly spread from person to person and is very contagious. It can be transmitted through close contact, such as kissing, sharing of utensils or cups, and saliva of sick people.
The incubation period after initial EBV exposure lasts for a number of weeks before any symptoms may manifest. The virus multiplies during the acute initial infection. The infection then starts to become less prevalent and the symptoms start to subside, but it never totally disappears. Latent EBV can reactivate and stays dormant in the body for the rest of a person's life, although it typically poses few risks unless the individual has seriously compromised immune function.
Most persons who receive EBV as children show little to no symptoms. But if the first infection happens in adolescence, it can lead to infectious mononucleosis, sometimes known as mono, which is characterized by fatigue, fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, an enlarged spleen, and occasionally an enlarged liver. About 25% of adolescents and young adults with the infection experience these symptoms, which typically go away in a month or two.
Mono is normally identified by a person's symptoms, a full blood count, and the results of a mono test. A mono test will come back negative in about 25% of patients with mono; this is particularly true of youngsters. These patients do not produce heterophile antibodies. If these persons are currently infected with the EBV virus, it can be determined whether or not their symptoms are caused by that infection using tests for EBV antibodies.
The most typical cause of mono is EBV. The CDC lists CMV, hepatitis A, B, or C, rubella, and toxoplasmosis as examples of additional causes of mono. It can occasionally be crucial to separate EBV from these other diseases. For instance, determining the root of a pregnant woman's viral disease symptoms may be crucial. A primary EBV infection, which has not been proved to harm an unborn child, can be distinguished from CMV, herpes simplex virus, or toxoplasmosis infections through testing because these conditions can complicate pregnancy and provide a risk to the fetus.
Additionally, it may be crucial to rule out EBV infection and search for other potential reasons of the symptoms. Antibiotics must be administered to those who have group A streptococcus-related infections, such as those who have strep throat. It's possible for someone to have strep throat instead of mono, or even both illnesses simultaneously.
There are numerous tests available to check for various EBV antibody types and classes. The body produces antibodies, which are proteins, as an immunological reaction to several Epstein-Barr virus antigens. Each of these EBV antibodies has a fluctuating level during a primary EBV infection as the infection develops. The level of these antibodies in the blood can help with diagnosis and normally informs the medical professional of the infection's stage and whether it is a recent or prior infection.
Antibodies against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen generally does not manifest until the acute illness has subsided; it appears 2 to 4 months after the initial infection and then persists for the rest of one's life.
Lab tests often ordered with an Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Antibody test:
- Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Panel
- Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen D Antibody IgG
- Complete Blood Count (CBC)
- Mono Test
Conditions where an Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Antibody test is recommended:
- Epstein-Barr Virus
How does my health care provider use an Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Antibody test?
If a person has symptoms but a negative mono test, blood tests for Epstein-Barr virus antibodies can be done to assist detect EBV infection, the most prevalent cause of infectious mononucleosis.
One or more EBV antibody tests may be requested in addition to tests for cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, and other infections in pregnant women who exhibit symptoms of a viral disease in order to help differentiate between EBV and other disorders that may present with similar symptoms.
An asymptomatic person may be given these tests to determine whether they have ever been exposed to EBV or are predisposed to developing a primary EBV infection. Although it is not usually done, it may be requested if a person—such as a teenager or someone with an impaired immune system—has recently been in close proximity to someone who has mono.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advise running a number of tests to assist identify someone's susceptibility to EBV, as well as to look for recent, past, or reactivated EBV infections.
What do my Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen Antibody test results mean?
Results of EBV antibody testing must be interpreted carefully. It is necessary to take into account the test subject's indications and symptoms in addition to their medical background. A physician may seek the advice of an expert in infectious illnesses, particularly one with knowledge of EBV testing.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.