Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis Tests and health information

Do you have iron overload?

The hemochromatosis blood test can identify the hereditary hemochromatosis DNA mutation gene, that causes excess iron to accumulate.

Hereditary Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much dietary iron. This excess iron can damage organs and tissues, especially the liver and heart. The disease is most common in people of Northern European descent (Caucasians). Symptoms may not appear until adulthood or later, but early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent serious complications. If left untreated, HH can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, diabetes mellitus, arthritis-like joint pain (due to deposition of excess iron in joints), impotence/infertility (in men), heart failure (in both sexes), and other organ damage.

Do you have a family history of Hemochromatosis?

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with Hemochromatosis, it's important to know if other family members are also affected by this disease. The Hereditary Hemochromatosis DNA Mutation Analysis test can help determine whether someone is at risk for developing this condition and who may need early screening and treatment to prevent serious complications from this disease.

Get tested today! It's easy to order online and get your results quickly! We offer fast turnaround times and provide you with a detailed report of the results typically within 1 to 2 business days of your specimen collection.

Your test results will tell you if you have hereditary Hemochromatosis with just one simple blood draw from your arm! We'll send you notifications directly to your email when your results are available to view on your secure and confidential patient portal, so there's no waiting around for them – we want you healthy as soon as possible!

Order the Hereditary Hemochromatosis DNA Mutation Analysis test now!

For more information on Hemochromatosis (Iron Accumulation) and Lab Testing, click here.

 


Name Matches

Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is an inherited disorder wherein the body accumulates excess iron. This test establishes HH diagnosis in individuals with abnormal iron study results and identifies at-risk family members.


Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


Most Popular

Description: A Ferritin test is a blood test that measures Ferritin levels in your blood’s serum to evaluate the level of iron stored in your body.

Also Known As: Ferritin Serum Test, Ferritin Test, Ferritin Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Ferritin test ordered?

When a CBC test’s implies iron deficiency anemia due to small red blood cells or low hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, the ferritin test, and other iron tests, may be requested, even if other clinical symptoms have not yet arisen.

There are frequently no physical symptoms in the early stages of iron insufficiency. Symptoms rarely develop before hemoglobin falls below dangerous levels. However, when the iron deficit continues, symptoms emerge, prompting a doctor to order ferritin and other iron-related testing. The following are the most prevalent symptoms of iron deficiency anemia:

  • Chronic tiredness/fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Skin that is pale

Shortness of breath, ringing in the ears, sleepiness, and irritability may occur as iron levels are reduced. Chest pain, headaches, limb pains, shock, and even heart failure may occur as the anemia worsens. Learning impairments can occur in children. There are some symptoms that are specific to iron deficiency, in addition to the usual signs of anemia. Pica, a burning feeling in the tongue or a smooth tongue, ulcers at the corners of the mouth, and spoon-shaped finger- and toe-nails are only a few of the symptoms.

When iron overload is suspected, a ferritin level may be requested. Iron overload symptoms differ from person to person and tend to worsen over time. They are caused by an excess of iron in the blood and tissues. Among the signs and symptoms are:

  • Joint discomfort
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Loss of weight
  • Energy deficiency
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Suffering from a lack of sexual desire
  • Hair loss on the body
  • Congestive heart failure is an example of a cardiac issue

Other iron tests including a genetic test for hereditary hemochromatosis may be conducted to confirm the existence of iron excess.

What does a Ferritin blood test check for?

Ferritin is an iron-containing protein that stores iron in cells in its most basic form. The amount of total iron stored in the body is reflected in the little amount of ferritin released into the blood. This test determines how much ferritin is present in the blood.

About 70% of the iron consumed by the body is integrated into the hemoglobin of red blood cells in healthy humans. The remaining 30% is stored primarily as ferritin or hemosiderin, which is a combination of iron, proteins, and other elements. Hemosiderin and ferritin are typically found in the liver, although they can also be found in the bone marrow, spleen, and skeletal muscles.

Iron stores are depleted and ferritin levels fall when available iron is insufficient to meet the body's needs. This can happen owing to a lack of iron, poor absorption, or an increased need for iron, such as during pregnancy or if you have a condition that causes persistent blood loss. Before any indicators of iron shortage appear, significant loss of iron reserves may occur.

When the body absorbs more iron than it needs, iron storage and ferritin levels rise. Chronic iron absorption causes a gradual buildup of iron compounds in organs, which can eventually lead to organ malfunction and failure. Even on a typical diet, this happens in hemochromatosis, a hereditary disorder in which the body absorbs too much iron.

Lab tests often ordered with a Ferritin test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Transferrin
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Zinc Protoporphyrin

Conditions where a Ferritin test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Lead poisoning
  • Pregnancy
  • Restless Leg Syndrome

How does my health care provider use a Ferritin test?

The ferritin test is used to determine the amount of iron a person has in their body. To determine the existence and severity of iron shortage or iron overload, the test is sometimes ordered in conjunction with an iron test and a TIBC test.

One source of iron overload can be the use of iron supplements.

What does my ferritin lab test result mean?

Ferritin levels are frequently measured alongside other iron tests.

Ferritin levels are low in iron deficient people and high in people who have hemochromatosis or have had several blood transfusions.

Ferritin is an acute phase reactant that can be elevated in persons who have inflammation, liver illness, chronic infection, autoimmune disorders, or cancer. Ferritin isn't commonly utilized to detect or monitor these problems.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Ferritin, Iron and TIBC Panel contains: Ferritin, Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)


Most Popular

Description: The Hepatic Function Panel is a blood test that measures multiple markers to evaluate the health of your liver.

Also Known As: Liver Profile Test, Liver Function Test, LFT, Liver Enzyme Test, Liver Test, Liver Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hepatic Function Panel test ordered?

When someone is at risk for liver dysfunction, a liver panel, or one or more of its components, may be requested. Here are a few examples:

  • People who are taking drugs that could harm their liver
  • Those who are alcoholics or who use a lot of alcohol
  • Those who have a history of hepatitis virus exposure, either known or suspected
  • Individuals with a history of liver illness in their families
  • Overweight people, especially those with diabetes and/or high blood pressure

When a person exhibits signs and symptoms of liver disease, a liver panel may be done; however, most people with liver disease do not have any of these symptoms until the disease has been present for years or is very severe. Here are a few examples:

  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Appetite loss.
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Swelling and/or pain in the abdomen
  • Jaundice
  • Urine that is dark in color and feces that is light in color
  • Pruritus
  • Diarrhea

To make a diagnosis, no single collection of liver tests is usually used. Several liver panels are frequently done over the course of a few days or weeks to aid in determining the source of the liver illness and assessing its severity.

When liver illness is discovered, the liver panel or one or more of its components can be used to monitor it on a regular basis over time. A liver panel may be conducted on a regular basis to assess the efficacy of treatment for the liver condition.

What does a Hepatic Function Panel blood test check for?

A liver panel is a collection of tests used to diagnose, evaluate, and track the progression of liver illness or damage. The liver is one of the largest organs in the body, and it is placed behind the lower ribs in the upper right section of the belly. Drugs and substances that are detrimental to the body are metabolized and detoxified by the liver. It makes blood clotting factors, proteins, and enzymes, as well as regulating hormone levels and storing vitamins and minerals. Bile, a fluid produced by the liver, is delivered to the small intestine via ducts to aid in fat digestion or to the gallbladder to be stored and concentrated for later use.

Inflammation, scarring, bile duct blockages, liver tumors, and liver dysfunction can all be caused by a range of disorders and infections that cause acute or chronic liver damage. Toxins, alcohol, narcotics, and some herbal medications can all be dangerous. Before signs like jaundice, dark urine, light-colored feces, itching, nausea, exhaustion, diarrhea, and unexplained weight loss or increase appear, there may be considerable liver damage. To reduce damage and preserve liver function, early identification is critical.

The liver panel assesses the enzymes, proteins, and chemicals generated, processed, or removed by the liver, as well as those that are altered by liver injury. Some are produced by damaged liver cells, while others indicate a reduction in the liver's ability to execute one or more activities. When these tests are performed combined, they provide a picture of a person's liver's health, an indication of the severity of any liver injury, changes in liver status over time, and a starting point for further diagnostic testing.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatic Function Panel test:

  • GGT
  • Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio
  • LD
  • Hepatitis A Testing
  • Hepatitis B Testing
  • Hepatitis C Testing
  • Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing
  • Ethanol
  • ANA
  • Smooth Muscle Antibody
  • Anti-LKM-1
  • Drugs of Abuse Testing
  • Copper
  • Ceruloplasmin
  • DCP
  • AFP Tumor Markers
  • Alpha-1
  • Antitrypsin
  • Acetaminophen
  • Ammonia

Conditions where a Hepatic Function Panel test is recommended:

  • Liver Disease
  • Jaundice
  • Hepatitis
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Wilson Disease
  • Cirrhosis

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a Hepatic Function Panel test?

A liver panel can be performed to check for damage to the liver, especially if someone has an illness or is taking a medication that could harm the liver. For regular screening, a comprehensive metabolic panel, which is commonly conducted as part of a general health checkup, may be ordered instead of a liver panel. The majority of the liver panel is included in this group of tests, as well as other tests that evaluate other organs and systems in the body.

If a person has signs and symptoms that indicate suspected liver malfunction, a liver panel or one or more of its component tests may be done to assist identify liver disease. If a person has a known illness or liver disease, testing may be done at regular intervals to assess the liver's health and the efficiency of any therapies. To evaluate and monitor a jaundiced newborn, a variety of bilirubin tests may be ordered.

Abnormal tests on a liver panel may necessitate a repeat study of one or more tests, or the entire panel, to evaluate if the elevations or declines continue, and/or additional testing to discover the etiology of the liver dysfunction.

Typically, a panel consists of numerous tests performed simultaneously on a blood sample.

What do my Liver Panel Test results mean?

The findings of a liver panel test are not diagnostic of a specific condition; rather, they show that the liver may be malfunctioning. Abnormal liver test results in a person who has no symptoms or recognized risk factors may signal a transitory liver injury or reflect something going on elsewhere in the body, such as the skeletal muscles, pancreas, or heart. It could potentially signal the presence of early liver disease, necessitating more testing and/or periodic monitoring.

The results of liver panels are generally compared. Several sets of results from tests conducted over several days or weeks are sometimes analyzed together to see if a pattern emerges. Each person's test findings will be unique, and they will most likely alter over time. A healthcare professional examines the combined findings of liver tests to learn more about the underlying disease. Further testing is frequently required to discover the cause of the liver damage and/or illness.

Abnormal test results may signal a need to review a person's dosage or medication choice if they are taking medicines that may impact their liver. When a person with liver disease is being monitored, the healthcare provider will look at the findings of the liver panel together to see if liver function or damage is getting worse or better. Increased abnormalities in bilirubin, albumin, and/or PT, for example, may suggest a decline in liver function, whereas steady or improved findings may indicate liver function preservation or improvement.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity is a blood panel used to determine iron levels in your blood, your body’s ability to transport iron, and help diagnose iron-deficiency and iron overload.

Also Known As: Serum Iron Test, Serum Fe Test, Iron Binding Capacity Test, IBC Test, Serum Iron-Binding Capacity Siderophilin Test, TIBC Test, UIBC Test, Iron Lab Test, TIBC Blood test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test ordered?

When a doctor feels that a person's symptoms are caused by iron overload or poisoning, an iron and TIBC test, as well ferritin assays, may be done. These may include the following:

  • Joint discomfort
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Energy deficiency
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Suffering from a lack of sexual desire
  • Problems with the heart

When a child is suspected of ingesting too many iron tablets, a serum iron test is required to detect the poisoning and to determine its severity.

A doctor may also request iron and TIBC when the results of a standard CBC test are abnormal, such as a low hematocrit or hemoglobin, or when a doctor suspects iron deficiency based on signs and symptoms such as:

  • Chronic tiredness/fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Headaches
  • Skin that is pale

What does a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity blood test check for?

Iron is a necessary ingredient for survival. It is a vital component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that binds and releases oxygen in the lungs and throughout the body. It is required in small amounts to help form normal red blood cells and is a critical part of hemoglobin, the protein in RBCs that binds oxygen in the lungs and releases it as blood circulates to other parts of the body.

By detecting numerous components in the blood, iron tests are ordered to determine the quantity of iron in the body. These tests are frequently ordered at the same time, and the data are analyzed together to determine the diagnosis and/or monitor iron deficiency or overload.

The level of iron in the liquid component of the blood is measured by serum iron.

Total iron-binding capacity is a measurement of all the proteins in the blood that may bind to iron, including transferrin.

The percentage of transferrin that has not yet been saturated is measured by the UIBC. Transferrin levels are also reflected in the UIBC.

Low iron levels can cause anemia, resulting in a decrease in the production of microcytic and hypochromic RBCs. Large amounts of iron, on the other hand, might be hazardous to the body. When too much iron is absorbed over time, iron compounds build up in tissues, particularly the liver, heart, and pancreas.

Normally, iron is absorbed from food and distributed throughout the body by binding to transferrin, a liver protein. About 70% of the iron delivered is used in the synthesis of hemoglobin in red blood cells. The rest is stored as ferritin or hemosiderin in the tissues, with minor amounts being utilized to make other proteins like myoglobin and enzymes.

Insufficient intake, limited absorption, or increased dietary requirements, as observed during pregnancy or with acute or chronic blood loss, are all signs of iron deficiency. Excessive intake of iron pills can cause acute iron overload, especially in children. Excessive iron intake, genetic hemochromatosis, multiple blood transfusions, and a few other disorders can cause chronic iron overload.

Lab tests often ordered with a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Ferritin
  • Transferrin
  • Zinc Protoporphyrin

Conditions where a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis

How does my health care provider use a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test?

The amount of circulating iron in the blood, the capacity of the blood to carry iron, and the amount of stored iron in tissues can all be determined by ordering one or more tests. Testing can also assist distinguish between different types of anemia

The level of iron in the blood is measured by serum iron.

Total iron-binding capacity is a measurement of all the proteins in the blood that may bind to iron, including transferrin. The TIBC test is a useful indirect assessment of transferrin because it is the predominant iron-binding protein. In response to the requirement for iron, the body generates transferrin. Transferrin levels rise when iron levels are low, and vice versa. About one-third of the binding sites on transferrin are used to transport iron in healthy humans.

The reserve capacity of transferrin, or the part of transferrin that has not yet been saturated, is measured by UIBC. Transferrin levels are also reflected in the UIBC.

The iron test result, as well as TIBC or UIBC, are used to calculate transferrin saturation. It represents the proportion of transferrin that is iron-saturated.

Ferritin is the major storage protein for iron inside cells, and serum ferritin represents the quantity of stored iron in the body.

These tests are frequently ordered together, and the results can assist the doctor figure out what's causing the iron deficit or overload.

Additional information about iron

A balance between the quantity of iron received into the body and the amount of iron lost is required to maintain normal iron levels. Because a tiny quantity of iron is lost each day, a deficiency will develop if too little iron is consumed. In healthy persons, there is usually enough iron to prevent iron deficiency and/or iron deficiency anemia, unless they eat a bad diet. There is a greater need for iron in some circumstances. People who have persistent gut bleeding or women who have heavy menstrual periods lose more iron than they should and can develop iron deficiency. Females who are pregnant or breastfeeding lose iron to their babies and may develop an iron shortage if they do not consume enough supplemental iron. Children may require additional iron, especially during periods of rapid growth, and may suffer iron shortage.

Low serum iron can also arise when the body is unable to adequately utilize iron. The body cannot correctly utilize iron to generate additional red cells in many chronic disorders, particularly malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and chronic infections. As a result, transferrin production slows, serum iron levels drop because little iron is absorbed from the stomach, and ferritin levels rise. Malabsorption illnesses like sprue syndrome can cause iron deficiency.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: Iron is a blood test used to determine iron levels in your blood, your body’s ability to transport iron, and help diagnose iron-deficiency and iron overload.

Also Known As: Serum Iron Test, Serum Fe Test, Iron Total Test, IBC Test, Iron Lab Test, Iron Blood test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: The patient should be fasting 9-12 hours prior to collection and collection should be done in the morning.

When is an Iron Total test ordered?

When a doctor feels that a person's symptoms are caused by iron overload or poisoning, an iron test, as well ferritin assays, may be done. These may include the following:

  • Joint discomfort
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Energy deficiency
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Suffering from a lack of sexual desire
  • Problems with the heart

When a child is suspected of ingesting too many iron tablets, a serum iron test is required to detect the poisoning and to determine its severity.

A doctor may also request iron testing when the results of a standard CBC test are abnormal, such as a low hematocrit or hemoglobin, or when a doctor suspects iron deficiency based on signs and symptoms such as:

  • Chronic tiredness/fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Headaches
  • Skin that is pale

What does an Iron Total blood test check for?

Iron is a necessary ingredient for survival and is a critical component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that binds oxygen in the lungs and releases it to other parts of the body. It is required in small amounts to help form normal red blood cells and is a critical part of hemoglobin, the protein in RBCs that binds oxygen in the lungs and releases it as blood circulates to other parts of the body.

By detecting numerous components in the blood, iron tests are ordered to determine the quantity of iron in the body. These tests are frequently ordered at the same time, and the data are analyzed together to determine the diagnosis and/or monitor iron deficiency or overload.

The level of iron in the liquid component of the blood is measured by serum iron.

Low iron levels can cause anemia, resulting in a decrease in the production of microcytic and hypochromic RBCs. Large amounts of iron, on the other hand, might be hazardous to the body. When too much iron is absorbed over time, iron compounds build up in tissues, particularly the liver, heart, and pancreas.

Normally, iron is absorbed from food and distributed throughout the body by binding to transferrin, a liver protein. About 70% of the iron delivered is used in the synthesis of hemoglobin in red blood cells. The rest is stored as ferritin or hemosiderin in the tissues, with minor amounts being utilized to make other proteins like myoglobin and enzymes.

Insufficient intake, limited absorption, or increased dietary requirements, as observed during pregnancy or with acute or chronic blood loss, are all signs of iron deficiency. Excessive intake of iron pills can cause acute iron overload, especially in children. Excessive iron intake, genetic hemochromatosis, multiple blood transfusions, and a few other disorders can cause chronic iron overload.

Lab tests often ordered with an Iron Total test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Ferritin
  • Transferrin
  • Zinc Protoporphyrin

Conditions where an Iron Total test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis

How does my health care provider use an Iron Total test?

The amount of circulating iron in the blood, the capacity of the blood to carry iron, and the amount of stored iron in tissues can all be determined by ordering one or more tests. Testing can also assist distinguish between different types of anemia

The level of iron in the blood is measured by serum iron.

Total iron-binding capacity is a measurement of all the proteins in the blood that may bind to iron, including transferrin. The TIBC test is a useful indirect assessment of transferrin because it is the predominant iron-binding protein. In response to the requirement for iron, the body generates transferrin. Transferrin levels rise when iron levels are low, and vice versa. About one-third of the binding sites on transferrin are used to transport iron in healthy humans.

The reserve capacity of transferrin, or the part of transferrin that has not yet been saturated, is measured by UIBC. Transferrin levels are also reflected in the UIBC.

The iron test result, as well as TIBC or UIBC, are used to calculate transferrin saturation. It represents the proportion of transferrin that is iron-saturated.

Ferritin is the major storage protein for iron inside cells, and serum ferritin represents the quantity of stored iron in the body.

These tests are frequently ordered together, and the results can assist the doctor figure out what's causing the iron deficit or overload.

Additional information about iron

A balance between the quantity of iron received into the body and the amount of iron lost is required to maintain normal iron levels. Because a tiny quantity of iron is lost each day, a deficiency will develop if too little iron is consumed. In healthy persons, there is usually enough iron to prevent iron deficiency and/or iron deficiency anemia, unless they eat a bad diet. There is a greater need for iron in some circumstances. People who have persistent gut bleeding or women who have heavy menstrual periods lose more iron than they should and can develop iron deficiency. Females who are pregnant or breastfeeding lose iron to their babies and may develop an iron shortage if they do not consume enough supplemental iron. Children may require additional iron, especially during periods of rapid growth, and may suffer iron shortage.

Low serum iron can also arise when the body is unable to adequately utilize iron. The body cannot correctly utilize iron to generate additional red cells in many chronic disorders, particularly malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and chronic infections. As a result, transferrin production slows, serum iron levels drop because little iron is absorbed from the stomach, and ferritin levels rise. Malabsorption illnesses like sprue syndrome can cause iron deficiency.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: Transferrin is a blood test used to measure the amount of transferrin in the blood's serum. It is used to evaluate if there is a proper amount of iron being transport throughout the body. A test called Total Iron Binding Capacity, or TIBC, will tell you how much of that transferrin is capable of transporting, or binding to the iron in the blood.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for at least 12 hours is required

When is a Transferrin test ordered?

When a doctor wants to analyze or monitor a person's nutritional health, a transferrin test may be ordered along with additional tests like prealbumin.

What does a Transferrin blood test check for?

The primary protein in the blood that bonds to iron and transfers it across the body is transferrin. Total iron binding capacity, unsaturated iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation are all measures of how much transferrin is available to bind to and transport iron.

The transferrin serum test, along with TIBC, UIBC, and transferrin saturation, measures the blood's ability to bind and transport iron, and is an indicator of iron storage.

Lab tests often ordered with a Transferrin test:

  • Iron Total
  • Iron Total and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Ferritin
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • Reticulocyte Count

Conditions where a Transferrin test is recommended:

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Liver Disease
  • Malnutrition

How does my health care provider use a Transferrin test?

When assessing a person's nutritional state or liver function, a transferrin test is commonly performed. Transferrin will be low in people with liver disease because it is produced in the liver. Transferrin levels fall when there isn't enough protein in the diet, so this test is used to keep track of your diet.

What do my transferrin test results mean?

The findings of transferrin testing are frequently compared to the results of other iron tests.

If you have the following conditions, you may have a low transferrin level:

  • Hemochromatosis
  • Anemia caused by a build-up of iron in the body can cause a variety of symptoms.
  • Malnutrition
  • Inflammation
  • Hepatitis
  • A kidney ailment that causes protein loss in the urine such as nephrotic syndrome

When there is an iron deficit, transferrin saturation decreases, and when there is an overabundance of iron, such as in iron overload or poisoning, it increases.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.



Hemochromatosis is a blood disorder that causes the body to accumulate more iron than it needs. This is an iron metabolism disorder that may be acquired or inherited. Because the human body does not have the ability to excrete excess iron, a progressive build-up of iron occurs in the tissues and organs. Eventually, this causes an iron overload that can lead to life-threatening conditions that cause the dysfunction and failure of vital organs in the body, notably the liver, heart, and the endocrine portion of the pancreas. 

Complications of hemochromatosis include: 

  • Arthritis 
  • Liver cirrhosis 
  • Diabetes 
  • Heart arrhythmias 
  • Heart failure 
  • Increased skin pigmentation (bronzing) 

Types of Hemochromatosis

There are two types of hemochromatosis: Primary or Inherited Hemochromatosis, that is passed on from generation to generation; Secondary Hemochromatosis that is caused by another disease or underlying condition in the body. 

  • Primary or Inherited Hemochromatosis (HH) 

Inherited hemochromatosis is thought to be caused by a mutation in the HFE gene that controls the amount of iron absorbed by the body from food and is passed on from parents to children. Each person inherits 2 copies of this gene – one from their father and one from their mother.  

These mutations cause changes to occur in the building blocks of proteins called amino acids and are commonly referred to according to the amino acid changes they induce. There are 2 common mutations in the HFE gene – C282Y and H63D. For example, C282Y is one of the most common mutations that involve the change of the amino acid cysteine (C) into tyrosine (Y) that occurs in the 282nd amino acid of the protein created by the HFE gene. This is the most common type of hemochromatosis. 

In the United States, it is one of the most common genetic disorders that affect more than one million people, mostly Caucasians. The probability of iron overload in the body will depend on the combination of inherited genes. Genetic testing can be done to find out whether you have mutations in your HFE gene that can increase your risk of hemochromatosis. 

  • Secondary or Acquired Hemochromatosis 

This type of hemochromatosis is caused by an acquired iron overload due to certain other diseases and conditions that include the following: 

  • Alcohol abuse 
  • Excessive oral iron supplementation (rarely) 
  • Multiple blood transfusions 

Signs and Symptoms 

Not everyone who has the disorder will have signs and symptoms and, though estimates vary, according to the National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute, as many as half of those may not have any initial symptoms. Symptoms tend to be like those of other conditions and take a long time before they emerge and increase in severity. 

Inherited hemochromatosis is present at birth, but symptoms often only appear later in life, usually after the age of 60 in women and 40 in men. Symptoms in women are more likely to appear after menopause when the body no longer loses iron due to menstruation and pregnancy. Early symptoms of hereditary hemochromatosis can be difficult to diagnose as stiff joints and fatigue may be caused by other underlying conditions. 

The severity of signs and symptoms of hemochromatosis may vary from person to person but usually include: 

-Weakness and fatigue 

  • Joint pain 
  • Abdominal pain 
  • Liver dysfunction or abnormal liver blood tests 
  • Increased blood glucose levels 
  • Lack of menstruation in women 
  • Decreased sex drive or erectile dysfunction in men 
  • Hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels) 
  • Changes in skin color e.g., turning bronze or grey 

Testing for Hemochromatosis 

Tests can be carried out to evaluate the severity of iron overload in body organs and to detect and diagnose hemochromatosis. Genetic testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis; however, since most people never develop any symptoms, the most reliable method of diagnosis is blood tests. 

Laboratory tests usually include the following: 

  • Serum iron testing to determine iron levels in the blood 
  • TIBC (total iron-binding capacity) testing to measure the total amount of iron that can bond to proteins in the blood; this is a good indirect measurement of the availability of the primary iron-building protein transferrin. 
  • Transferrin saturation is a calculation derived from the results of the iron and TIBC tests that represent the percentage of transferrin in the body saturated with iron. Transferrin saturation is elevated in people with HH (hereditary hemochromatosis) but is not specific to it. 
  • Ferritin testing is used to evaluate the iron stores in the body; ferritin levels may be elevated in hereditary hemochromatosis but not specific to it. Normal levels of ferritin in those with HH gene mutations indicate a low risk that organ damage will develop. 
  • Liver Panel is a group of tests that evaluates liver function. 
  • Liver Biopsy is done to determine the extent of damage to the liver; the examination of a liver biopsy specimen is not usually needed to confirm a diagnosis for iron accumulation but is useful in determining damage. 
  • Genetic testing can help to confirm an HH diagnosis. In most cases, HH is caused by 2 copies of a C292Y mutation. The presence of 2 copies of this mutation in the HFE gene can mean an increased risk of the disorder but does not necessarily indicate that the person will develop HH.  

The largest population study in the U.S. has found that men are more likely to be affected with a risk of 25% compared to 1% of women. Sometimes HH may be caused by 2 copies of H63D or S65C mutations or by paired combinations of the 3. On rare occasions, HH can be attributed to another genetic abnormality. 

Possible Gene Combinations for the HFE gene 

  • 2 copies of C282Y or a copy of C282Y together with a copy of H63D/S65C mutant genes will place a person is at the highest risk for HH. 
  • 2 copies each of H63D; S65C; or 1 copy each of H63D, and S65C is rarely associated with HH and will place a person in a low-risk category. Although carriers will not develop HH, they may pass it on to children they have with someone else who is also a carrier. 

Because other genes can affect the ability of a person to metabolize iron, no combination of genes can guarantee that a person will or will not develop HH. As mentioned before, only an estimated 25% of men and 1% of women with 2 copies of C282Y mutations will ever be at risk of developing organ damage that is related to excess iron. 

Two other forms of HH occur in young children and teens – neonatal and juvenile hemochromatosis. These two disorders are caused by mutations that occur in a different gene called HJV.  HJV causes changes in the protein hemojuvelin that affects iron metabolism.  

A small percentage of HH is due to mutations in the gene coding for other proteins, apart from HJV, which also affects iron metabolism. These include hemojuvelin, hepcidin, and transferrin receptor 2. However, tests are not widely available for these mutations.