Hepatic Function Panel Most Popular

The Hepatic Function Panel test contains 1 test with 10 biomarkers.

Description: The Hepatic Function Panel is a blood test that measures multiple markers to evaluate the health of your liver.

Also Known As: Liver Profile Test, Liver Function Test, LFT, Liver Enzyme Test, Liver Test, Liver Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

Average Processing Time: 1 to 2 days

When is a Hepatic Function Panel test ordered?

When someone is at risk for liver dysfunction, a liver panel, or one or more of its components, may be requested. Here are a few examples:

  • People who are taking drugs that could harm their liver
  • Those who are alcoholics or who use a lot of alcohol
  • Those who have a history of hepatitis virus exposure, either known or suspected
  • Individuals with a history of liver illness in their families
  • Overweight people, especially those with diabetes and/or high blood pressure

When a person exhibits signs and symptoms of liver disease, a liver panel may be done; however, most people with liver disease do not have any of these symptoms until the disease has been present for years or is very severe. Here are a few examples:

  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Appetite loss.
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Swelling and/or pain in the abdomen
  • Jaundice
  • Urine that is dark in color and feces that is light in color
  • Pruritus
  • Diarrhea

To make a diagnosis, no single collection of liver tests is usually used. Several liver panels are frequently done over the course of a few days or weeks to aid in determining the source of the liver illness and assessing its severity.

When liver illness is discovered, the liver panel or one or more of its components can be used to monitor it on a regular basis over time. A liver panel may be conducted on a regular basis to assess the efficacy of treatment for the liver condition.

What does a Hepatic Function Panel blood test check for?

A liver panel is a collection of tests used to diagnose, evaluate, and track the progression of liver illness or damage. The liver is one of the largest organs in the body, and it is placed behind the lower ribs in the upper right section of the belly. Drugs and substances that are detrimental to the body are metabolized and detoxified by the liver. It makes blood clotting factors, proteins, and enzymes, as well as regulating hormone levels and storing vitamins and minerals. Bile, a fluid produced by the liver, is delivered to the small intestine via ducts to aid in fat digestion or to the gallbladder to be stored and concentrated for later use.

Inflammation, scarring, bile duct blockages, liver tumors, and liver dysfunction can all be caused by a range of disorders and infections that cause acute or chronic liver damage. Toxins, alcohol, narcotics, and some herbal medications can all be dangerous. Before signs like jaundice, dark urine, light-colored feces, itching, nausea, exhaustion, diarrhea, and unexplained weight loss or increase appear, there may be considerable liver damage. To reduce damage and preserve liver function, early identification is critical.

The liver panel assesses the enzymes, proteins, and chemicals generated, processed, or removed by the liver, as well as those that are altered by liver injury. Some are produced by damaged liver cells, while others indicate a reduction in the liver's ability to execute one or more activities. When these tests are performed combined, they provide a picture of a person's liver's health, an indication of the severity of any liver injury, changes in liver status over time, and a starting point for further diagnostic testing.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatic Function Panel test:

  • GGT
  • Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio
  • LD
  • Hepatitis A Testing
  • Hepatitis B Testing
  • Hepatitis C Testing
  • Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing
  • Ethanol
  • ANA
  • Smooth Muscle Antibody
  • Anti-LKM-1
  • Drugs of Abuse Testing
  • Copper
  • Ceruloplasmin
  • DCP
  • AFP Tumor Markers
  • Alpha-1
  • Antitrypsin
  • Acetaminophen
  • Ammonia

Conditions where a Hepatic Function Panel test is recommended:

  • Liver Disease
  • Jaundice
  • Hepatitis
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Wilson Disease
  • Cirrhosis

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a Hepatic Function Panel test?

A liver panel can be performed to check for damage to the liver, especially if someone has an illness or is taking a medication that could harm the liver. For regular screening, a comprehensive metabolic panel, which is commonly conducted as part of a general health checkup, may be ordered instead of a liver panel. The majority of the liver panel is included in this group of tests, as well as other tests that evaluate other organs and systems in the body.

If a person has signs and symptoms that indicate suspected liver malfunction, a liver panel or one or more of its component tests may be done to assist identify liver disease. If a person has a known illness or liver disease, testing may be done at regular intervals to assess the liver's health and the efficiency of any therapies. To evaluate and monitor a jaundiced newborn, a variety of bilirubin tests may be ordered.

Abnormal tests on a liver panel may necessitate a repeat study of one or more tests, or the entire panel, to evaluate if the elevations or declines continue, and/or additional testing to discover the etiology of the liver dysfunction.

Typically, a panel consists of numerous tests performed simultaneously on a blood sample.

What do my Liver Panel Test results mean?

The findings of a liver panel test are not diagnostic of a specific condition; rather, they show that the liver may be malfunctioning. Abnormal liver test results in a person who has no symptoms or recognized risk factors may signal a transitory liver injury or reflect something going on elsewhere in the body, such as the skeletal muscles, pancreas, or heart. It could potentially signal the presence of early liver disease, necessitating more testing and/or periodic monitoring.

The results of liver panels are generally compared. Several sets of results from tests conducted over several days or weeks are sometimes analyzed together to see if a pattern emerges. Each person's test findings will be unique, and they will most likely alter over time. A healthcare professional examines the combined findings of liver tests to learn more about the underlying disease. Further testing is frequently required to discover the cause of the liver damage and/or illness.

Abnormal test results may signal a need to review a person's dosage or medication choice if they are taking medicines that may impact their liver. When a person with liver disease is being monitored, the healthcare provider will look at the findings of the liver panel together to see if liver function or damage is getting worse or better. Increased abnormalities in bilirubin, albumin, and/or PT, for example, may suggest a decline in liver function, whereas steady or improved findings may indicate liver function preservation or improvement.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Also known as: LFTs, Liver Function Tests, Liver Panel


Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.

Albumin/Globulin Ratio

The ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G ratio) is calculated from measured albumin and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin). Normally, there is a little more albumin than globulins, giving a normal A/G ratio of slightly over 1. Because disease states affect the relative amounts of albumin and globulin, the A/G ratio may provide a clue as to the cause of the change in protein levels. A low A/G ratio may reflect overproduction of globulins, such as seen in multiple myeloma or autoimmune diseases, or underproduction of albumin, such as may occur with cirrhosis, or selective loss of albumin from the circulation, as may occur with kidney disease (nephrotic syndrome). A high A/G ratio suggests underproduction of immunoglobulins as may be seen in some genetic deficiencies and in some leukemias. More specific tests, such as liver enzyme tests and serum protein electrophoresis, must be performed to make an accurate diagnosis. With a low total protein that is due to plasma expansion (dilution of the blood), the A/G ratio will typically be normal because both albumin and globulin will be diluted to the same extent.

Alkaline Phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.


Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in release of the substance into the blood.


AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in high amounts in liver, heart, and muscle cells. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.

Bilirubin, Direct

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Bilirubin, Indirect

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Bilirubin, Total

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.


Globulins is the collective term for most blood proteins other than albumin. Identifying the types of globulins can help diagnose certain disorders. Globulins are roughly divided into three groups: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Gamma globulines include various types of antibodies such as immunoglobulins (Ig) M, G, and A.

Protein, Total

The total protein is the total amount of two classes of proteins, albumin and globulin that are found in the fluid portion of your blood. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Your albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels and your globulins are an important part of your immune system.
*Process times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. The lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

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