Antiphospholipid Syndrome

The antiphospholipid syndrome tests can help identify the three abnormal antiphospholipid antibodies: anticardiolipin, beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI), and lupus anticoagulant that increases the risk of blood clots. Order from Ulta Lab Tests today, with confidential results available in 24 to 48 hours online.      

Below the list of tests is a guide that explains and answers your questions on what you need to know about antiphospholipid syndrome tests, along with information on antiphospholipid syndrome, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis.


Name Matches

ANAlyzeR™ ANA, IFA with Reflex Titer/Pattern, Systemic Autoimmune Panel 1

Includes

  • ANA Screen,IFA, with Reflex to Titer and Pattern
  • DNA (ds) Antibody, Crithidia IFA with Reflex to Titer
  • Chromatin (Nucleosomal) Antibody
  • Sm Antibody
  • Sm/RNP Antibody
  • RNP Antibody
  • Sjogren's Antibodies (SS-A, SS-B)
  • Scleroderma Antibody (Scl-70)
  • Jo-1 Antibody
  • Centromere B Antibody
  • Complement Component C3c and C4c
  • Cardiolipin Antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM)
  • Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM)
  • Rheumatoid Factor (IgA, IgG, IgM)
  • Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) Antibody (IgG)
  • 14.3.3 eta Protein
  • Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPO)

 

  • If ANA Screen, IFA is positive, then ANA Titer and Pattern will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86039).
  • If the DNA (ds) Antibody Screen is positive, then DNA (ds) Antibody Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

 

Alternative Name(s)

Expanded ANA Antibodies,Systemic Autoimmune Disorder,ANA and Expanded AI Testing,ANA and Systemic Autoimmunity,Comprehensive AI Testing,Early Systemic Autoimmune Disease,Autoimmune Disorders


Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than Cardiolipin Antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)


Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are members of a family of antibodies with phospholipid specificity. LA may be defined as an immunoglobulin, IgG or IgM or a mixture of both, that interferes with one or more of the in vitro phospholipid (PL) dependent tests of coagulation. These antibodies are not associated with a hemorrhagic diathesis, but rather have been linked to thrombotic events. In addition to thrombosis other clinical complications have been associated with the presence of LA. These include strokes, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, livedo reticularis and a variety of obstetrical complications such as intrauterine fetal death, recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal growth retardation, early onset preeclampsia and chorea gravidarum.

Screening test for deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors other than Factors VII and XIII. The test is also used to monitor patients on heparin therapy.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phosphatidylserine antibody is used to assist in the diagnosis, management, and possible prevention of thrombotic complications as part of the Phospholipid Syndrome.


Clinical Significance

Laboratory testing for Antiphospholipid Antibody is useful in assisting in the diagnosis, management, and possible prevention of thrombotic complications. More specifically, evaluation of Antiphosphatidylserine IgA, IgG, and IgM may be potentially useful in this context.



It has been reported that, on average, 274 people are killed by blood clots every day in the US alone. There is a veritable laundry list of risk factorsassociated with blood clot formation. Some of them, like spending too much time sitting down, recent surgery, or obesity, are pretty obvious.

But one of the most subtle potential causes of blood clots is an autoimmune disorder known as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which can only be diagnosed by performing antiphospholipid syndrome tests.

To learn more about this potentially deadly condition—and the absolute best way to test for it—keep reading.

About Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which may also be referred to as Hughs syndrome, lupus anticoagulant disease, or anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) syndrome, is an autoimmune disease. This type of disease causes your body to go to war against itself.

When it's functioning as it should, your immune system identifies threats posed to your body from the outside (e.g., bacteria, viruses, foreign bodies). It then responds to them by releasing the appropriate countermeasure. This can range from triggering a fever to deploying specialized cells that physically destroy the threat.

This all goes catastrophically wrong when the immune system's means of identifying a threat—proteins known as antibodies—marks some of the body's own tissues for attack. In the case of APS, the body creates antibodies that attack phospholipids, which are a type of fat that is found in all living cells.

Now, your blood cells are living cells, and so are the ones that make up the linings of your blood vessels. If your immune system is on the hunt for phospholipids, they are going to wreak havoc on your circulatory system. And any trauma to your circulatory system leads to the creation of blood clots.

But too much of a good thing is never a good thing.

An overabundance of blood clots can lead to, among other things, stroke, heart attack, deep vein thrombosis, and kidney failure. It can even lead to pregnant women who are suffering from the condition to experience premature births, miscarriages, eclampsia. In fact, one-fifth of women who suffer from recurring miscarriages have been found to have APS. 

Risk Factors

Although antiphospholipid syndrome affects both sexes, it is more common in females. And although the disorder occurs in patients of all ages, APS does more commonly affect females of child-bearing age. 

Furthermore, APS is more likely to occur in those already suffering from other autoimmune disorders such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. In fact, APS affects 10% of those suffering from lupus.

Other factors that aren't related to other autoimmune conditions, but still pose an increased risk, include smoking, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease, the use of birth control pills, and being treated with hormone therapy.

Signs or Symptoms

The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in an individual doesn't necessarily mean that they'll show any signs of antiphospholipid syndrome. However, there are some sure signs that an antiphospholipid syndrome test should be taken, all of which are related to the complications that blood clots can cause.

Major Signs

  • Shortness of breath
  • Stroke
  • Transient ischemic attacks (a sort of short-lived stroke)
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • High blood pressure
  • Angina (chest pain caused by decreased blood flow to the heart muscle)
  • Heart attack
  • Swelling, redness, and sensitivity in the limbs
  • Persistent headaches
  • Changes in speech
  • Discomfort in the upper body (i.e., arms, back, neck, and jaw)
  • Nausea

Minor Signs

  • Heart valve issues
  • Loss of vision or other disturbances
  • Diminished balance or mobility
  • Difficulty concentrating

Lab Tests for APS

Antiphospholipid syndrome must be diagnosed accurately so that it can be treated effectively. This can also help rule out other potential causes of the above complications.

The substances most commonly tested for in the lab (via blood testing) when seeking a diagnosis of APS are:

  • Lupus anticoagulants (present)
  • Cardiolipin antibodies (present in medium-to-high levels)
  • Beta-2 glycoprotein I antibodies (present in high levels)

Results should be consistent across at least two blood tests that are taken 12 or more weeks apart.

Because the presence of the above autoantibodies in the blood doesn't necessarily lead to symptoms, a positive diagnosis can only be made by considering clinical indicators. These include the occurrence of abnormal clotting in any blood vessels, which must be verified by imaging (e.g., CT scan, MRI, ECG) or tissue biopsy.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is there a cure for antiphospholipid syndrome?

Unfortunately, although research is ongoing, there is no cure for APS at present. However, medications are available that can help treat its symptoms and prevent further complications.

What kind of medication will I need to take to manage my APS?

Your doctor may prescribe you anticoagulant medications ("blood thinners") like heparin, warfarin, and/or aspirin. To ensure that these drugs don't decrease your blood's ability to clot so much that you develop potentially life-threatening conditions like internal bleeding, your doctor may want to perform other blood tests (like the PT test) regularly while you're on them.

If you're curious about having us at Ulta Lab Tests take care of your blood testing, here are some more quick answers about that.

Your Antiphospholipid Syndrome Tests

Getting blood work done for antiphospholipid syndrome tests can be costly, complicated, and time-consuming, but we at Ulta Lab Tests have endeavored to make the process as affordable and convenient as possible. All of our tests have been specially designed with accuracy and reliability in mind, allowing you to make the best informed decision you can.

You can learn more about how it all works here.

You can easily take charge of your health by ordering your own APS antibody panel with us. Results will be provided to you online, securely, and confidentially within 24 to 48 hours. No insurance or referral is needed, and the doctor's order is included in the price.

And most importantly, Ulta Lab Tests offers a 100% satisfaction guarantee!

Antiphospholipid Syndrome is also known as APS. This autoimmune disorder is a condition where the human body’s very own immune system produces proteins called antibodies. These antibodies mistakenly attack the tissues and cells of their own host body. APS is known to increase risks of inappropriate formations of blood clots, meaning it’s deemed an excessive clotting disorder or thrombophilia. 

Antibodies are normally a line of defense for the body against any infections. However, with APS, antibodies go out and attack the lipid-proteins present in cell membranes and platelets. These autoantibodies wind up interfering with the process of blood clotting in a manner that, as of the time of writing, is still not understood. APS relates to several conditions, including thrombotic episodes (blood clots), thrombocytopenia (low platelet numbers), and complications with pregnancy, such as recurrent miscarriages and pre-eclampsia. 

Several primary antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with the condition of Antiphospholipid Syndrome. They include the following: 

  • β2GP1 or beta-2 glycoprotein antibody 
  • Cardiolipin antibody 
  • Lupus anticoagulant 

These antibodies increase the risk of someone developing recurrent and inappropriate blood clots in arteries and veins alike. Individuals who have APS might experience one or even multiple blood clots. Complications and symptoms might range from minor to major. 

If a blood clot forms, it can obstruct the flow of blood, resulting in tissue and organ damage. 

If blood clots travel to the heart, lungs, kidneys, or brain, then they can trigger kidney damage, a stroke, a heart attack, and/or a pulmonary embolism. 

Among those with Antiphospholipid Syndrome, a small subset might have a widely spread thrombotic disease known as ‘catastrophic’ APS because of the damage that occurs with many of the bigger internal organs of the human body. 

APS can impact anyone, but those who have lupus and women of potential child-bearing age are two groups afflicted more often than others. Antiphospholipid antibodies are discovered routinely in anywhere from 1 up to 5 percent of a healthy population of general people. APS has an incidence rate of approximately 5 cases among every 100,000 people each year, with a reported prevalence of 40 to 50 cases for every 100,000 people. This is the most frequent reason for strokes in the population segment under 50 years of age. Twenty percent of women experiencing recurrent miscarriages are afflicted with APS. 

Those persons who have antiphospholipid antibodies might have multiple antibodies present without any associated symptoms, but they might also have APS at the same time they have a concurrent autoimmune disorder, like lupus. Low antiphospholipid antibody levels can also be associated with Lyme disease, HIV, and certain cancers. APS is also seen temporarily during some infections, in the elderly, and with certain medications. These medications include the antibiotic amoxicillin, psychiatric drugs like phenothiazines, and procainamide, the hearth rhythm regulator. If someone has a family member already known to have APS, that can potentially increase the person’s risk. 

Signs/Symptoms/Complications 

Thrombosis or a blood clot forming inside a blood vessel is sometimes the first apparent sign resulting in a diagnosis of APS. Two other possibilities include recurrent pregnancy loss or thromboembolism, where a clot gets in the way of blood flow to one of the vital organs, like lungs or the human brain. 

Women who have Antiphospholipid Syndrome and get pregnant are at heightened risk for various complications, including loss of the pregnancy through miscarriage, premature childbirth, placenta underdevelopment, pre-eclampsia, and deep vein thrombosis. However, they might not experience any symptoms or signs of this condition in advance of getting pregnant. 

Health issues frequently associated with the condition of APS might include any of the following: 

  • Hypertension, or high blood pressure 
  • DVT or deep vein thrombosis is the formation of blood clots down in the legs before they move up into the lungs where they can trigger a pulmonary embolism that is possibly life-threatening 
  • Strokes 
  • TIAs, also known as transient ischemic attacks or just ‘mini-strokes,’ which happen when the blood flow to the brain is temporarily disrupted 
  • Heart attack or angina, which is chest pain resulting from a reduction in blood flow into the human heart 
  • Skin conditions that are related to clot formation in blood vessels supplying the skin, including necrosis or death of the skin tissue, skin ulcers, and livedo reticularis 
  • Nasal or gum bleeding due to thrombocytopenia, a low count of platelets 
  • Less common symptoms and signs can include the following possibilities, among others: 
  • Heart valve issues 
  • Visual disturbances or loss of vision 
  • Repetitive migraines or headaches 
  • Mobility and balance problems 
  • Difficulty in thinking clearly or concentrating 

Laboratory Criteria

Testing goals include the diagnosis of Antiphospholipid Syndrome and distinguishing it from any other sources of complications and symptoms. Not all who have antiphospholipid antibodies winds up having complications and/or symptoms. 

A positive test for one of the various autoantibodies on at least two occasions a minimum of three months apart: 

  • Lupus anticoagulant: must be present, per the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis guidelines 
  • Anticardiolipin antibody: must be present at either a medium or even high level. 
  • Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 antibody: must be present at a very high level, as the testing laboratory must establish it as being over the 99th normal percentile 

Laboratory Testing 

Blood testing can be useful in the detection of autoantibody presence. These tests include: 

Lupus anticoagulant testing (for example, DRVVT & hexagonal phase phospholipid neutralization test or dilute Russell viper venom test) 

Cardiolipin antibodies 

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 antibodies 

Other tests might be ordered for the evaluation of blood cells and clotting. These might include: 

PTT: Partial thromboplastin time 

PT: Prothrombin time 

CBC: Complete blood count for evaluating platelets and blood cells. 

Other additional tests for evaluating other potential causes of symptoms, like a 1:1 Mix study (dilute PTT) for screening the blood for lupus anticoagulant.