Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Syndrome Lab Tests and health information

The antiphospholipid syndrome tests can help identify the three abnormal antiphospholipid antibodies: anticardiolipin, beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI), and lupus anticoagulant that increases the risk of blood clots. Order from Ulta Lab Tests today, with confidential results available in 24 to 48 hours online.      

Below the list of tests is a guide that explains and answers your questions on what you need to know about antiphospholipid syndrome tests, along with information on antiphospholipid syndrome, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis.


Name Matches
Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than Cardiolipin Antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Cardiolipin antibodies (CA) are seen in a subgroup of patients with autoimmune disorders, particularly Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), who are at risk for vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, cerebral infarct and/or recurrent spontaneous abortion. Elevations of CA associated with increased risk have also been seen in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are members of a family of antibodies with phospholipid specificity. LA may be defined as an immunoglobulin, IgG or IgM or a mixture of both, that interferes with one or more of the in vitro phospholipid (PL) dependent tests of coagulation. These antibodies are not associated with a hemorrhagic diathesis, but rather have been linked to thrombotic events. In addition to thrombosis other clinical complications have been associated with the presence of LA. These include strokes, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, livedo reticularis and a variety of obstetrical complications such as intrauterine fetal death, recurrent spontaneous abortion, fetal growth retardation, early onset preeclampsia and chorea gravidarum.

ANAlyzeR™ ANA, IFA with Reflex Titer/Pattern, Systemic Autoimmune Panel 1

Includes

  • ANA Screen,IFA, with Reflex to Titer and Pattern
  • DNA (ds) Antibody, Crithidia IFA with Reflex to Titer
  • Chromatin (Nucleosomal) Antibody
  • Sm Antibody
  • Sm/RNP Antibody
  • RNP Antibody
  • Sjogren's Antibodies (SS-A, SS-B)
  • Scleroderma Antibody (Scl-70)
  • Jo-1 Antibody
  • Centromere B Antibody
  • Complement Component C3c and C4c
  • Cardiolipin Antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM)
  • Beta-2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM)
  • Rheumatoid Factor (IgA, IgG, IgM)
  • Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) Antibody (IgG)
  • 14.3.3 eta Protein
  • Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPO)

 

  • If ANA Screen, IFA is positive, then ANA Titer and Pattern will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86039).
  • If the DNA (ds) Antibody Screen is positive, then DNA (ds) Antibody Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

 

Alternative Name(s)

Expanded ANA Antibodies,Systemic Autoimmune Disorder,ANA and Expanded AI Testing,ANA and Systemic Autoimmunity,Comprehensive AI Testing,Early Systemic Autoimmune Disease,Autoimmune Disorders


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A PTT test is used to diagnose and monitor bleeding disorders or excessive clotting disorders. The biomarker in the test is used to measure the tsime it takes for the blood to form a clot.

Also Known As: Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Test, aPTT test, PTT Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is Partial Thromboplastin Time test ordered?

When a person has the following symptoms, the PTT may be ordered along with other tests, such as a PT:

  • Bleeding that isn't explained or bruises that isn't easy to get rid of
  • A blood clot in a vein or artery is a serious condition.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • A chronic disorder that affects hemostasis, such as liver disease

A PTT can be requested in the following situations:

  • When a person develops a blood clot or a woman has repeated miscarriages, as part of a lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, or antiphospholipid syndrome examination
  • When a person is on standard heparin therapy, the two are overlapped and both the PTT and PT are monitored until the person has stabilized. When a person is switched from heparin therapy to extended warfarin therapy, the two are combined and both the PTT and PT are monitored until the person has stabilized
  • Prior to surgery, if there is a high risk of blood loss and/or if the patient has a history of bleeding, such as frequent or severe nasal bleeds and easy bruising, which could suggest the presence of a bleeding problem

What does a Partial Thromboplastin Time blood test check for?

The partial thromboplastin time is a screening test that determines a person's capacity to form blood clots properly. It counts how long it takes for a clot to develop in a person's blood sample after chemicals have been administered. The PTT evaluates the number and function of specific proteins known as coagulation factors, which are crucial in blood clot formation.

When bodily tissues or blood vessel walls are harmed, bleeding ensues, and hemostasis is initiated. Platelets are little cell fragments that cling to the damage site and subsequently clump together. A process known as the coagulation cascade begins at the same time, and coagulation factors are activated. Fibrin threads develop and crosslink into a net that attaches to the damage site and stabilizes it as a result of the cascade reactions. This, combined with the platelets sticking, forms a stable blood clot that seals off injuries to blood arteries, prevents further blood loss, and allows damaged areas to heal.

For appropriate blood clot formation, each component of this hemostatic mechanism must operate effectively and be present in sufficient quantities. If one or more of these factors are deficient, or if they function improperly, a stable clot may not form, and bleeding may continue.

A PTT compares a person's sample to a normal clotting time reference period. A person's PTT is considered "prolonged" if it takes longer than usual to clot. A prolonged PTT could be caused by a disease that causes one or more coagulation factors to diminish or become dysfunctional. It's also possible that it's caused by a disorder in which the body creates antibodies that attack one or more coagulation factors, impairing their activity.

A PTT may take longer than expected if the person being tested creates an autoantibody termed an antiphospholipid antibody, which interferes with the test. Because it targets phospholipids, which are employed in the PTT, this type of antibody has an effect on the test findings. Antiphospholipid antibodies can extend the PTT test result, although they are linked to increased clotting in the body. A person who makes these antibodies may be more susceptible to blood clots. A PTT could be used to assess someone who has signs and symptoms of excessive clotting or antiphospholipid syndrome.

A PTT is frequently ordered in conjunction with a prothrombin time while investigating bleeding or clotting episodes. The results of these tests will be analyzed by a health professional in order to discover the reason of bleeding or clotting episodes.

Coagulation tests like the PT and PTT are now known to be reliant on what happens artificially in the test setting and so do not always reflect what happens in the body. They can, however, be utilized to assess certain aspects of the hemostasis system. The PTT and PT tests measure coagulation components that are part of the intrinsic, extrinsic, and common chemical reaction pathways in the cascade, respectively.

Lab tests often ordered with a Partial Thromboplastin Time test:

  • PT and INR
  • Fibrinogen
  • D-Dimer
  • Lupus Anticoagulant
  • ACT
  • Coagulation Factors
  • Platelet Count
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Von Willebrand Factor
  • Antiphospholipid Antibodies

Conditions where a Partial Thromboplastin Time test is recommended:

  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Excessive Clotting Disorders
  • Vitamin K Deficiency
  • DIC
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome

How does my health care provider use a Partial Thromboplastin Time test?

The PTT is mostly used to look into unexplained bleeding or clotting. It may be ordered in conjunction with a prothrombin time test to assess hemostasis, the body's process of forming blood clots to stop bleeding. Excessive bleeding or clotting issues are frequently investigated with these tests as a starting point.

Coagulation factors are proteins that have a role in hemostasis and the development of blood clots. When an injury occurs and bleeding begins, coagulation factors are triggered in a series of events that finally assist in the formation of a clot.

Prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen, as well as coagulation factors XII, XI, IX, VIII, X, V, II, and I, are all assessed using the PTT. The coagulation factors VII, X, V, II, and I are evaluated in a PT test. A health practitioner can determine what type of bleeding or clotting condition is present by combining the findings of the two tests. The PTT and PT aren't diagnostic, but they can help you figure out if you need more tests.

The following are some examples of PTT applications:

  • To detect coagulation factor deficit; if the PTT is extended, additional tests can be performed to ascertain whether coagulation factors are deficient or malfunctioning, or to see if the blood contains an antibody to a coagulation factor.
  • Nonspecific autoantibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant, can be detected and are linked to clotting episodes and recurrent miscarriages. As a result, PTT testing may be included in a clotting disorder panel to aid in the investigation of recurrent miscarriages or the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. The LA-sensitive PTT, a version of the PTT, could be used for this.
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant medicine that is given intravenously or by injection to prevent and treat blood clots; it is used to monitor routine heparin anticoagulant therapy. PTT is extended as a result of it. Heparin must be constantly managed when it is used for medicinal purposes. If too much is given, the patient may bleed excessively; if not enough is given, the patient may continue to clot.

The PTT and PT tests are sometimes used to screen for potential bleeding tendencies before surgical or other invasive treatments based on carefully acquired patient histories.

Other tests that may be done in conjunction with a PTT or in response to aberrant results include:

  • Platelet count — should be checked often during heparin therapy to detect any thrombocytopenia caused by the drug.
  • Thrombin time testing – used to rule out the possibility of heparin contamination.
  • Fibrinogen testing - to rule out a low level of fibrinogen as the cause of a delayed PTT.
  • A second PTT test is conducted after a first PTT is delayed by mixing the person's plasma with pooled normal plasma.  If the PTT time returns to normal, it indicates that one or more coagulation factors in the person's plasma are deficient. If the condition persists, it could be caused by the presence of an aberrant specific factor inhibitor or nonspecific lupus anticoagulant.
  • Coagulation factor tests are used to determine how active coagulation factors are. They can identify low protein levels or proteins that aren't working properly. A coagulation factor's antigen level is occasionally tested.
  • If the presence of lupus anticoagulant is suspected, a test for dilute Russell viper venom may be performed.
  • Von Willebrand factor is a test that is sometimes conducted to see if von Willebrand disease is causing a prolonged PTT.

What do my Partial Thromboplastin Time test results mean?

PTT findings are usually available in seconds. A normal clotting function is usually indicated by a PTT result that falls within a laboratory's reference interval. However, a single coagulation factor deficiency may be present in low to moderate amounts. The PTT should not be extended until the factor levels have dropped to 30% to 40% of normal. Lupus anticoagulant may also be present, but it is unlikely to affect the PTT result. A more sensitive LA-sensitive PTT or a dilute Russell viper venom time can be used to test for the lupus anticoagulant if it is suspected.

A delayed PTT indicates that clotting is taking longer than usual and could be caused by a number of factors. This frequently indicates that the body's clotting ability is being harmed by a coagulation factor deficit or a particular or nonspecific antibody. Defects in coagulation factors can be acquired or inherited.

It's possible that prolonged PTT tests are caused by:

  • Von Willebrand disease is the most prevalent inherited bleeding disorder, and it inhibits platelet function because von Willebrand factor levels are low.
  • Hemophilia A and B are two more inherited bleeding disorders that are caused by a lack of factors VIII and IX, respectively.
  • Other coagulation factors, such as factors XII and XI, are deficient.

Deficiencies in acquired factors:

  • A vitamin K insufficiency. Vitamin K is required for the production of clotting factors. Vitamin K deficiency is uncommon, but it can occur as a result of a poor diet, malabsorption issues, or the use of certain antibiotics over an extended period of time, for example.
  • Because the liver produces the majority of coagulation components, liver illness might result in extended PT and PTT. PT is more likely to be prolonged than PTT in patients with liver disease and vitamin K insufficiency.
  • A nonspecific inhibitor, such as lupus anticoagulant—the presence of these inhibitors is usually linked to abnormal clotting, but they can also lengthen the PTT. For further information, see the individual test articles.
  • Antibodies that selectively target certain coagulation factors, such as antibodies that target factor VIII, are known as specific inhibitors. They can form in people who are receiving factor replacements or they can develop spontaneously as an autoantibody in people who have a bleeding condition. Factor-specific inhibitors have the potential to induce serious bleeding.
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant that will prolong a PTT if it is present in the sample as a contaminant or as part of anticoagulation therapy. The goal PTT for anticoagulant therapy is usually 1.5 to 2.5 times longer than the pretreatment level.
  • The PTT is not used to monitor warfarin anticoagulation therapy, but it may be influenced by it. The PT is commonly used to track warfarin therapy.
  • Anticoagulation therapy with a direct thrombin inhibitor or a direct factor Xa inhibitor are examples of other anticoagulants.
  • Leukemia, severe bleeding in pregnant women prior to or after delivery, and recurrent miscarriages can all cause elevated PTT levels

The PTT results are frequently combined with the PT results to determine what ailment is present.

PTT testing may be shortened as a result of:

  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation—circulating procoagulants shorten the PTT in the early phases of DIC.
  • Extensive cancer
  • An acute-phase reaction is a disease that causes significant tissue inflammation or trauma, which causes factor VIII levels to rise. It's frequently a one-time occurrence that isn't tracked with a PTT test. The PTT will return to normal once the condition that caused the acute phase reaction is resolved.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phospholipid autoantibodies specific to phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidic acid (PA), cardiolipin (CL) and sphingomyelin are found in hematologic autoimmune diseases, especially anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). APS is characterized by arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and recurrent fetal loss; thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia also occur in SLE and are associated with the presence of phospholipid autoantibodies.

Phosphatidylserine antibody is used to assist in the diagnosis, management, and possible prevention of thrombotic complications as part of the Phospholipid Syndrome.


Clinical Significance

Laboratory testing for Antiphospholipid Antibody is useful in assisting in the diagnosis, management, and possible prevention of thrombotic complications. More specifically, evaluation of Antiphosphatidylserine IgA, IgG, and IgM may be potentially useful in this context.



It has been reported that, on average, 274 people are killed by blood clots every day in the US alone. There is a veritable laundry list of risk factors associated with blood clot formation. Some of them, like spending too much time sitting down, recent surgery, or obesity, are pretty obvious.

But one of the most subtle potential causes of blood clots is an autoimmune disorder known as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which can only be diagnosed by performing antiphospholipid syndrome tests.

To learn more about this potentially deadly condition—and the absolute best way to test for it—keep reading.

About Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which may also be referred to as Hughs syndrome, lupus anticoagulant disease, or anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) syndrome, is an autoimmune disease. This type of disease causes your body to go to war against itself.

When it's functioning as it should, your immune system identifies threats posed to your body from the outside (e.g., bacteria, viruses, foreign bodies). It then responds to them by releasing the appropriate countermeasure. This can range from triggering a fever to deploying specialized cells that physically destroy the threat.

This all goes catastrophically wrong when the immune system's means of identifying a threat—proteins known as antibodies—marks some of the body's own tissues for the attack. In the case of APS, the body creates antibodies that attack phospholipids, which are a type of fat that is found in all living cells.

Now, your blood cells are living cells, and so are the ones that make up the linings of your blood vessels. If your immune system is on the hunt for phospholipids, they are going to wreak havoc on your circulatory system. And any trauma to your circulatory system leads to the creation of blood clots.

But too much of a good thing is never a good thing.

An overabundance of blood clots can lead to, among other things, stroke, heart attack, deep vein thrombosis, and kidney failure. It can even lead to pregnant women who are suffering from the condition to experience premature births, miscarriages, eclampsia. In fact, one-fifth of women who suffer from recurring miscarriages have been found to have APS. 

Risk Factors

Although antiphospholipid syndrome affects both sexes, it is more common in females. And although the disorder occurs in patients of all ages, APS does more commonly affect females of child-bearing age. 

Furthermore, APS is more likely to occur in those already suffering from other autoimmune disorders such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or psoriasis. In fact, APS affects 10% of those suffering from lupus.

Other factors that aren't related to other autoimmune conditions, but still pose an increased risk, include smoking, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease, the use of birth control pills, and being treated with hormone therapy.

Signs or Symptoms

The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in an individual doesn't necessarily mean that they'll show any signs of antiphospholipid syndrome. However, there are some sure signs that an antiphospholipid syndrome test should be taken, all of which are related to the complications that blood clots can cause.

Major Signs

  • Shortness of breath
  • Stroke
  • Transient ischemic attacks (a sort of short-lived stroke)
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • High blood pressure
  • Angina (chest pain caused by decreased blood flow to the heart muscle)
  • Heart attack
  • Swelling, redness, and sensitivity in the limbs
  • Persistent headaches
  • Changes in speech
  • Discomfort in the upper body (i.e., arms, back, neck, and jaw)
  • Nausea

Minor Signs

  • Heart valve issues
  • Loss of vision or other disturbances
  • Diminished balance or mobility
  • Difficulty concentrating

Lab Tests for APS

Antiphospholipid syndrome must be diagnosed accurately so that it can be treated effectively. This can also help rule out other potential causes of the above complications.

The substances most commonly tested for in the lab (via blood testing) when seeking a diagnosis of APS are:

Results should be consistent across at least two blood tests that are taken 12 or more weeks apart.

Other tests might be ordered for the evaluation of blood cells and clotting. These might include: 

Other additional tests for evaluating other potential causes of symptoms, like a 1:1 Mix study (dilute PTT) for screening the blood for lupus anticoagulant.

Because the presence of the above autoantibodies in the blood doesn't necessarily lead to symptoms, a positive diagnosis can only be made by considering clinical indicators. These include the occurrence of abnormal clotting in any blood vessels, which must be verified by imaging (e.g., CT scan, MRI, ECG) or tissue biopsy.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is there a cure for antiphospholipid syndrome?

Unfortunately, although research is ongoing, there is no cure for APS at present. However, medications are available that can help treat its symptoms and prevent further complications.

What kind of medication will I need to take to manage my APS?

Your doctor may prescribe you anticoagulant medications ("blood thinners") like heparin, warfarin, and/or aspirin. To ensure that these drugs don't decrease your blood's ability to clot so much that you develop potentially life-threatening conditions like internal bleeding, your doctor may want to perform other blood tests (like the PT test) regularly while you're on them.

If you're curious about having us at Ulta Lab Tests take care of your blood testing, here are some more quick answers about that.

Your Antiphospholipid Syndrome Tests

Getting blood work done for antiphospholipid syndrome tests can be costly, complicated, and time-consuming, but we at Ulta Lab Tests have endeavored to make the process as affordable and convenient as possible. All of our tests have been specially designed with accuracy and reliability in mind, allowing you to make the best-informed decision you can.

You can learn more about how it all works here.

You can easily take charge of your health by ordering your own APS antibody panel with us. Results will be provided to you online, securely, and confidentially within 24 to 48 hours. No insurance or referral is needed, and the doctor's order is included in the price.

And most importantly, Ulta Lab Tests offers a 100% satisfaction guarantee!