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27 Essential Vitamins and Minerals to Spot Deficiencies

  • Calcium [ 303 ]
  • Carotene [ 311 ]
  • Chloride [ 330 ]
  • Cholinesterase, Serum [ 37965 ]
  • Copper [ 363 ]
  • Iodine, Serum/Plasma [ 16599 ]
  • Iron, Total [ 571 ]
  • Magnesium [ 622 ]
  • Molybdenum, Serum/Plasma [ 6213 ]
  • Phosphate (as Phosphorus) [ 718 ]
  • Potassium [ 733 ]
  • QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS [ 92888 ]
  • Selenium [ 5507 ]
  • Sodium [ 836 ]
  • Vitamin A (Retinol) [ 921 ]
  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), LC/MS/MS [ 90353 ]
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) and Folate Panel, Serum [ 7065 ]
  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Plasma [ 36399 ]
  • Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic acid) [ 91029 ]
  • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) [ 91030 ]
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal Phosphate ) [ 926 ]
  • Vitamin B7 (Biotin) [ 391 ]
  • Vitamin C [ 929 ]
  • Vitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxy, LC/MS/MS [ 16558 ]
  • Vitamin E (Tocopherol) [ 931 ]
  • Vitamin K [ 36585 ]
  • Zinc [ 945 ]

Warfarin (Coumadin®) therapy is associated with significant complications because of its narrow therapeutic index and large interpatient dosage variation necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic response. This variation is due to both genetic and environmental factors. A promoter variant (-1639 G?A) of the Vitamin K epoxide complex subunit 1 (VCR) accounts for 25%-44% of this variability and variants of the cytochrome P enzyme C (SPCA) account for 10%-15% of this variability. Identification of these warfarin sensitive variants of the VKORC1 and the CYP2C9 genes may allow a more individualized therapy and reduced risk of bleeding complications.

Individuals undergoing hemodialysis are at risk for aluminum toxicity. Prolonged accumulation may cause encephalkopathy, and vitamin d-resistant osteomalacia. Also workers exposed to high levels or to long-term low levels of aluminum dust are at increased risk of toxicity.

Collection Instructions

Allow sample to clot for 30 minutes, spin at 3,000 RPM for 10 minutes and transfer serum to plastic, amber vial. If amber vial is not available, wrap tube in aluminum foil to protect from light. Freeze within 30 minutes and send frozen.

Boron, Urine

Clinical Significance

Boron is used in cleaning agents, preservatives, and fungicides. Boron may cause dermatitis, cough, and shortness of breath. Most is excreted by the kidney.


Patient Preparation

Avoid exposure to gadolinium based contrast media for 48 hours prior to sample collection


C4B is a complement binding protein that specifically binds 50% circulating protein S, a vitamin K dependent cofactor of protein C activation. Since C4B may be elevated in certain disease states, this may affect the available "free protein S" to engage in anticoagulant activity.

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Serum calcium is involved in the regulation of neuromuscular and enzyme activity, bone metabolism and blood coagulation. Calcium blood levels are controlled by a complex interaction of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcitonin and adrenal cortical steroids. Calcium measurements are useful in the diagnosis of parathyroid disease, some bone disorders and chronic renal disease. A low level of calcium may result in tetany.

Urinary calcium reflects dietary intake, rate of calcium absorption by the intestine and bone resorption. Urinary calcium is used primarily to evaluate parathyroid function and the effects of vitamin D. A significant number of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism will have elevated urinary calcium. However, there are other clinical entities that may be associated with increased urine calcium: Sarcoidosis, Paget's disease of bone, vitamin D intoxication, hyperthyroidism and glucocorticoid excess. Decreased urine calcium is seen with thiazide diuretics, vitamin D deficiency and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.

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The ionized calcium is determined by an ion selective electrode methodology. The result that is generated is pH adjusted. The result is empirically based on a measured pH and ionized calcium concentration normalized to a pH of 7.40. This calculation compensates for in vitro changes in pH due to loss of CO2 through specimen handling. Ionized calcium represents the true "bioavailable" calcium in the circulation. In situations where the total calcium is normal but does not fit the clinical picture, e.g., hyperparathyroidism, a determination of the ionized calcium will, many times, show an elevation in the "bioavailable" calcium component. This may be due to alterations in protein concentrations, especially albumin, that binds most of the calcium in the circulation.

Measurement of serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations provide a good index of circulating vitamin D activity in patients not suffering from renal disease. Lower than normal 25-OH vitamin D levels can result from a dietary deficiency, poor abosrption of the vitamin or impaired metabolism of the sterol in the liver. A 25-OH vitamin D deficiency can lead to bone diseases such as rickets and osteomalacia. Above normal levels can lead hypercalcemia. This assay employs liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to independently measure and report the two common forms of 25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25OH D3 - the endogenous form of the vitamin and 25OH D2 - the analog form used to treat 25OH Vitamin D3 deficiency.

Beta Carotene, a fat soluble nutrient, is a precursor to vitamin A. Deficiencies may lead to vitamin A deficiency. Excessive vitamin A intake may lead to headaches, loss of appetite, nausea and diarrhea, skin changes, and potential birth defects.

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Decreased levels of ceruloplasmin are found in Wilson''s Disease, fulminant liver failure, intestinal malabsorption, renal failure resulting in proteinuria, chronic active hepatitis and malnutrition. Elevated levels are found in primary biliary cirrhosis, pregnancy (first trimester), oral contraceptive use and in acute inflammatory conditions since ceruloplasmin is an acute phase reactant

Serum chloride is the major extracellular anion and counter-balances the major cation, sodium, maintaining electrical neutrality of the body fluids. Two thirds of the total anion concentration in extracellular fluids is chloride and it is significantly involved in maintaining proper hydration and osmotic pressure. Movement of chloride ions across the red blood cell membrane is essential for the transport of biocarbonate ions in response to changing concentrations of carbon dioxide. Chloride measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of electrolyte and metabolic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and diabetic acidosis.

Approximately 1 in every 2500 individuals has inherited a defective enzyme or a deficiency of the enzyme (Pseudocholinesterase) that metabolizes succinylcholine (an anesthetic agent). With a "normal" dosage, these individuals have prolonged apnea. Such individuals are responsive at much smaller concentrations of this anesthetic agent than the general population. Low concentrations of Pseudocholinesterase are observed in individuals exposed to organophosphorous insecticides and in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

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This assay is useful to monitor exposure to chromium, progress of medical treatment or determine nutritional status.

Occupational exposure and exposure to environmental contamination of chromium may lead to toxicity. The need for chromium supplements is unproven. Supplements taken in excess may also lead to chromium toxicity.

Chromium is used in the manufacturing of stainless steel and for plating other metals. It is also a component of cement. Chromic acid or its salts constitute an industrial hazard. They may lead to ulceration of the skin and respiratory passages. Ingestion can cause violent gastroenteritis.

Occupational exposure and exposure to environmental contamination of Chromium may lead to toxicity. The need for Chromium supplements is unproven. Supplements taken in excess may also lead to Chromium toxicity.

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CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10)

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a substance similar to a vitamin. It is found in every cell of the body. Your body makes CoQ10, and your cells use it to produce energy your body needs for cell growth and maintenance. It also functions as an antioxidant, which protects the body from damage caused by harmful molecules.

A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)

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Copper is an essential element that is a cofactor of many enzymes. Copper metabolism is disturbed in Wilson's disease, Menkes disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, and Indian childhood cirrhosis. Copper concentrations increase in acute phase reactions and during the third trimester of pregnancy. Copper concentrations are decreased with nephrosis, malabsorption, and malnutrition. Copper concentrations are also useful to monitor patients, especially preterm newborns, on nutritional supplementation. Results of copper are often interpreted together with ceruloplasmin.

When we were kids, our elders often told us to take our vitamins, but this advice is equally important for managing the health of adults. The latest data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has the following to say: 

  • More than 10% of Americans, 30 million of them, have a vitamin deficiency 
  • Vitamin B6 deficiency affects 32% of adults 
  • Vitamin D deficiency affects 95% 
  • A magnesium deficiency affects 61% 

If you want to maintain your bodily health, it is essential that you go in for a vitamin and mineral test.  

It does not mean you need to pay for a costly visit to the doctor for a prescription. The services we render are fast, secure, and easy for you to get your results. 

Tests for vitamins are simple, but the challenge is to know which test you need to undertake and why. Our vitamin test guide can help you make an informed choice when picking which test or panel to order. Let's start by learning about vitamins and minerals. 

Vitamin and Mineral Tests: What are they? 

A healthy diet is one that will give you a balanced intake of both vitamins and minerals, or if you have dietary restrictions, you may need supplements. The following are the vitamins and minerals that you need: 

  • Vitamins: A, C, D, E, and K 
  • B vitamins: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, and B12 
  • Minerals: Magnesium, calcium, folate, iron, and zinc 

A sample of your blood will be used in vitamin and mineral tests so that the levels of all these minerals and vitamins can be determined. With Ulta Lab Tests, you can visit an authorized patient service center so that a phlebotomist can draw your blood, which will then be forwarded to a national laboratory for the needed tests. 

The testing begins as soon as the specimen comes to the lab, and the results will be posted in your online patient portal within a few days once the lab completes the tests. 

Benefits of this Testing 

Vitamins and minerals play a large part in our bodily functions, right from maintaining bone density to the functioning of the brain. They can also affect chronic diseases and other health conditions such as: 

  • Osteoporosis 
  • Hypertension 
  • Diabetes 
  • Heart disease 
  • Anemia 
  • Autoimmune disease 
  • Bone loss 
  • Depression 

Most people, in general, never monitor their intake of minerals and vitamins. Testing for vitamins and minerals can reveal whether you have a deficiency or are in danger of developing one. 

A deficiency in vitamins can often be an early warning sign that you will develop health issues that can become serious. Catch it early, and you can avoid conditions like anemia and diabetes. It's best to catch early signs and prevent diseases than to treat them later. 

Both in the U.S. and the rest of the world, heart disease has become the number one cause of death. You can mitigate these risk factors if you have a healthy intake of essential vitamins and minerals. 

Vitamins and Mineral Tests you can order

Ulta Lab Tests offer four test panels for vitamins and minerals: 

·      Vitamins and Minerals - Basic 

·      Vitamins and Minerals - Basic Plus 

·      Vitamins and Minerals - Advanced 

·      Vitamins and Minerals- Comprehensive 

The Vitamins and Minerals - Basic panel includes four tests and six biomarkers. This panel can detect anemia with the iron and ferritin markers included in it. It also checks for folate and magnesium levels 

The Vitamins and Minerals - Basic Plus panel comes with eight tests and 13 biomarkers. Besides testing for anemia, this panel includes tests for prealbumin, Vitamin D, and Vitamin B12, which can screen for a broader range of illnesses.

The Vitamins and Minerals - Advanced panel comes with 22 tests and 115 biomarkers. This panel tests for multiple deficiencies and includes a urinalysis test that will check for infections and kidney and urinary health. 

The Vitamins and Minerals- Comprehensive panel, conducts 24 tests and 34 biomarkers, testing for a full range of more than twenty vitamins and minerals that are deemed essential. 

Your doctor will determine whether you need just a basic panel or have to order something more comprehensive. 

FAQ About Vitamin tests 

It is very easy to have a mineral and vitamin test done, and it can get you many benefits. It will allow you to take active control of matters regarding your health and also ensure that you are taking the right nutrition so that health issues can be prevented from developing. 

Even if you don't have any dietary restrictions and take plenty of supplements, vitamins, and minerals, tests can reveal deficiencies you were not aware of.

How Can a Vitamin Test Help? 

Most Americans' diets are high in salt, sugar, and fat and are not of very high nutritional value. 

Our culture is workaholic and fast-paced. It is quite normal to go in for fast food. Millions of Americans live in what can be called a food desert where there is no access to healthy food. 

A person can have developmental and health problems that do not directly point to a deficiency. The symptoms can also point to a health issue that you are already aware of. 

For example, depression is correlated with a deficiency in Vitamin D, but the symptoms like body aches and fatigue are the same. To know the underlying cause of these symptoms, a vitamin test is required. 

Vitamin deficiencies can cause other symptoms, such as: 

  • Shifts in moods 
  • Changes in personality 
  • Inability to sleep or insomnia 
  • Muscle cramps and weakness 
  • Lightheadedness and dizziness 
  • Becoming short of breath 
  • Upset digestion and nausea 

You may have access to plenty of food, but it may not be the best for vitamin intake. Vitamin deficiencies can develop even in countries that have low levels of food insecurity. 

The most prevalent deficiency is Vitamin D, and that is why testing for just Vitamin D can benefit most adults. 

What must you do if your tests reveal a deficiency? Fortunately, when your vitamin and mineral level results are low, they are easy to correct. 

Minor adjustments will have to be made to your diet, or you will need to take supplements of vitamins and minerals. Your doctor may even prescribe prescription supplements. Repeat testing in a few months will reveal the impact dietary changes and supplements made on your vitamins and minerals levels. 

If the deficiency points to serious health issues, the test for vitamins and minerals will also indicate any further tests that are specifically needed. Your intake can be healthy, but if the vitamins are not absorbed, it is an indication of a potential malabsorption problem. 

Diseases like Chron's disease or celiac disease can affect the absorption of Vitamin B12. It is necessary to understand your test results and what they indicate about your health. 

Benefits of Vitamins and Minerals tests from Ulta Lab Tests 

The tests offered by Ulta Lab Tests are very accurate and reliable so that you can make informed decisions about your nutritional health. There are many things that you will find about Ulta Lab Tests that you will like, such as: 

  • Results that are secure and confidential 
  • No health insurance is needed 
  • No physician's referrals required
  • Affordable prices
  • Guaranteed 100% satisfaction 

Order your vitamin and mineral tests to take control of your nutritional health. You will receive your results in your private online patient portal in 24 to 48 hours for most tests and 5-7 days for tests that are complicated.

Take charge of your health today with Ulta Lab Tests.