All STD Tests

Low-cost confidential STD testing for Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Herpes, Hepatitis B or C, Trichomoniasis, and HIV/AIDS is available through Ulta Lab Tests. 

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections passed from one person to another by sexual contact. Sexual contact includes vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, oral-genital contact, skin-to-skin contact in the genital area, kissing, and the use of sex aids such as vibrators. These diseases usually affect the genital area, including the penis or vagina. Examples of STDs are Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Herpes, Hepatitis B or C, Trichomoniasis, and HIV/AIDS.

SEE BELOW THE LIST OF TESTS FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and Lab Tests


Name Matches
Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1, apolipoprotein H, is a cofactor in antiphospholipid antibody binding and is the critical antigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1 Antibody is more specific than cardiolipin antibody that may express reactivity in patients with syphilis and other infectious diseases.

Most Popular

Chlamydia trachomatis RNA, TMA

Patient Preparation 

Urine specimens: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube labe

Clinical Significance

C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the united states. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.


Most Popular

Chlamydia/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA

Patient Preparation 

Urine specimen: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube label.

 

Clinical Significance

C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydialinfections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.


Includes
Chlamydophila pneumoniae (IgG, IgM and IgA), Chlamydia trachomatis (IgG, IgM and IgA), Chlamydophila psittaci (IgG, IgM and IgA)

Clinical Significance

Chlamydia/chlamydophila species includes C. pneumoniaeC. psittaci, and C. trachomatis. Each may cause pneumonia and other overlapping medical conditions.

 

 


Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with infections of the mucous membranes of the urogenital system, the upper respiratory tract, and the eye. In industrialized countries, C. trachomatis usually causes sexually transmitted disease. In developing countries, it is the major cause of preventable blindness (trachomatis). Sexually transmitted diseases caused by C. trachomatis include nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis, epididymitis, proctitis and Lymphogranuloma venereum. Infections are often asymptomatic. Thus, infected individuals may unknowingly transmit chlamydial disease to others. Coinfection with C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is common, with multiple chlamydial infections of the upper respiratory tract occurring primarily in newborns exposed at parturition through an infected birth canal. Approximately 10-20% of such infants develop pneumonia and 50% develop inclusion conjunctivitis. In adults, eye disease is often transmitted by the hands from genital secretions or from eye secretion of infected babies. Isolation in tissue culture remains the reference method for diagnosis of chlamydial infection, especially when testing individuals under the age of 13 years. The usefulness of serological tests depends on the site of infection, duration of disease, infecting serovars and pre-vious exposure to chlamydial antigens. Because C. trachomatis is ubiquitous, there is a high prevalence of antibodies in sexually active populations. Antibodies may persist even after treatment, making assessment of a single IgG titer difficult. Consequently, serological diag-nosis is seldom used to diagnose active, superficial genital tract infections.


Most Popular

Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA 

Patient Preparation 

Urine specimen: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

2 mL urine using APTIMA® Urine Specimen Collection Kit.

Alternative Specimen(s) 

Urine (no preservatives): 2 mL of urine, specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® Urine Transport Medium within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed • ThinPrep® vial • SurePath™ vial

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube label.

Transport Container 

APTIMA® Transport tube


Includes

Hepatitis A Antibody, Total; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Qualitative; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation; Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total; Hepatitis C Antibody with Reflex to HCV, RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation: Positive samples will be confirmed based on the manufacturer's FDA approved recommendations at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87341).


If Hepatitis C Antibody is reactive, Hepatitis C Viral RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87522).


Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®) 

Tests for HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB to diagnose HSV-1 infection when lesions are absent. A positive HSV-1 IgG antibody test indicates a previous infection.

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative 
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal 
  • >1.09 Positive 

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.


Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®) 

  1. HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB
  2. HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

Diagnose HSV infection when lesions are absent; determine HSV type

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal
  • >1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV Type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV Type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.



Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®) 

HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB - Diagnose HSV-2 infection when lesions are absent.

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal
  • >1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.


Herpes Virus 6 DNA, Qualitative, Real-Time PCR 

HERPES VIRUS 6 DNA,QL REAL TIME PCR


HHV-6 is a distinct herpes virus that typically causes a self-limiting illness in patients who are not immunocompromised. In some patients, especially if immumocompromised, HHV-6 can cause febrile convulsions in infants, encephalitis mononucleosis-like symptoms, and hepatitis.


The Lactoferrin IBD-CHEK® is a qualitative (QL) Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for measuring concentrations of fecal lactoferrin, a marker for leukocytes. A positive level is an indicator of intestinal inflammation. The test can be used as an in vitro diagnostic aid to distinguish patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from those with non inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Clinical Significance

Assists in evaluating helper and suppressor cell immune status in immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS.


Microsporidia infection was first recognized as a cause of chronic diarrhea in patients infected with HIV. Microsporidia may also cause pneumonia, acute bilateral keratoconjunctivitis, and infection of the biliary and pancreatic ducts.

Includes

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Antibody Screen, RBC with Reflex to Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing 
  • ABO Group and Rh Type
  • RPR (Diagnosis) with Reflex to Titer and Confirmatory Testing
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation*
  • Rubella Antibody (IgG), Immune Status
  •  
  • If Antibody Screen is positive, Antibody Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86870, 86886, 86905).
  • If RPR screen is reactive, RPR Titer and FTA Confirmatory testing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86593, 86780).
  • If Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive, confirmatory testing based on the manufacturer's FDA approved recommendations will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87341).
  •  

The major proteins seen in the serum are albumin and globulin-the latter being primarily alpha 1 and alpha 2 globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin. Albumin accounts for more than 50% of the total serum proteins. The albumin to globulin (A/G) ratio has been used as an index of disease state, however, it is not a specific marker for disease because it does not indicate which specific proteins are altered. The normal A/G ratio is 0.8-2.0. The A/G ratio can be decreased in response to a low albumin or to elevated globulins. Total globulins may be increased in some chronic inflammatory diseases (TB, syphilis) multiple myeloma, collagen disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Decreased levels are seen in hepatic dysfunction, renal disease and various neoplasms.

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by infection with M. tuberculosis complex. Infection results in either acute disease or Latent TB Infection (LTBI), a non-communicable asymptomatic condition. The main purpose of diagnosing the latent stage is to consider medical treatment for preventing overt disease. Until recently, the tuberculin skin test was the only available method for diagnosing LTBI.

QuantiFERON®-TB gold eliminates false positive skin test due to BCG vaccination and most Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and is an objective, reproducible qualitative test. There are no side effects or adverse reactions due to patient hypersensitivity, and no "booster effect", whereby the first test induces a false positive response on re-testing. There is no need for follow-up patient visits to obtain test results.

The TB blood test has several advantages over a skin test.  Blood testing requires only one visit to the lab while skin testing requires multiple visits to a doctor's office.  Blood testing for Tuberculosis is typically more accurate than a skin test.  Skin testing has a higher likelihood of false positive results, especially if a person has been previously vaccinated for TB. 

 


Most Popular
Elevated RF is found in collagen vascular diseases such as SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, Sjögren's Syndrome, and in other conditions such as leprosy, tuberculosis, syphilis, malignancy, thyroid disease and in a significant percentage of otherwise normal elderly patients.

RPR (Diagnosis) with Reflex to Titer and Confirmatory Testing

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS IS A REFLUX TEST - The price charged for this test is only for the RPR. ADDITIONAL CHARGES WILL OCCUR FOR THE REFLUX TO TITER AND CONFIRMATION TESTING .

Clinical Significance

This is a non-treponemal screening test for syphilis. False positive results may occur due to systemic lupus erythematosus, leprosy, brucellosis, atypical pneumonia, typhus, yaws, pinta, or pregnancy. Monitoring of RPR is helpful in assessing effectiveness of therapy.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

Alternative Name(s) 

Premarital RPR,Syphilis Serology Screen, Blood,ART,Rapid Plasma Reagin,Automated Reagin Test


RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer 

Reference Range(s)

  • Non-Reactive

Clinical Significance

This is a non-treponemal screening test for syphilis. False positive results may occur due to systemic lupus erythematosus, leprosy, brucellosis, atypical pneumonia, typhus, yaws, pinta, or pregnancy. Monitoring of RPR is helpful in assessing effectiveness of therapy.

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen must be followed by a specific treponemal antibody test (e.g., FTA-ABS):

A positive result on the second method confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

Alternative Name(s) 

Syphilis


The STD - Basic panel contains the following tests:

  • Chlamydia/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA
  • RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®)

Due to the consultation and reporting requirements, we are unable to offer HIV testing at this time.

Chlamydia/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA

Patient Preparation 

Urine specimen: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube label.

 

Clinical Significance

C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydialinfections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.

Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®) 

HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

Diagnose HSV infection when lesions are absent; determine HSV type

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

<0.90 Negative

0.90-1.09 Equivocal

>1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV Type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV Type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.

 

Syphilis RPR ( RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer)

Reference Range(s)

Non-Reactive

Clinical Significance

This is a non-treponemal screening test for syphilis. False positive results may occur due to systemic lupus erythematosus, leprosy, brucellosis, atypical pneumonia, typhus, yaws, pinta, or pregnancy. Monitoring of RPR is helpful in assessing effectiveness of therapy.

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen must be followed by a specific treponemal antibody test (e.g., FTA-ABS):

A positive result on the second method confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.



Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one person to another by sexual contact. Sexual contact includes vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, oral-genital contact, skin-to-skin contact in the genital area, kissing, and the use of sex aids such as vibrators. These diseases usually affect the genital area, including the penis or vagina. Examples of STDs are Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Herpes, Hepatitis B or C, Trichomoniasis, and HIV/AIDS.

STDs affect men and women of all backgrounds and economic status. They are most common in people younger than 25, and the number of people affected by STDs is rising. Sometimes STDs do not cause symptoms, so a person who is infected may not know it and may transfer the infection to a sex partner. When diagnosed and treated early, many STDs can be cured.  Some STDs caused by viruses, such as herpes, HIV, and genital warts, have no cure, but many treatments are available to lessen or avoid complications.

STDs are caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites and are usually passed between partners during sex. The best way to prevent STDs is to avoid sexual contact. However, if you are sexually active here are some steps you should take to reduce your risk of contracting an STD: (a) delay having sexual relations as long as possible – the younger you are when you begin having sex, the more likely it is that you will develop an STD; (2) have just one sexual partner who you know does not have an infection and is not sexually active with anyone else; and (3) practice safe sex by always using condoms during any sexual contact.

If you are sexually active, have regular tests for STDs. If you think you may have an STD or might have been exposed to an STD, stop sexual activity and get a medical exam. Common symptoms of some STDs include burning or pain when urinating, strange-smelling discharge from the vagina or penis, and rashes, sores, blisters, or growths around the vagina, penis, or rectum.

You should not be embarrassed to seek care or ask for information. STD checks are a part of routine care at most medical practices and clinics. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and keep you from spreading the disease to your partner. You can get more information and treatment from your healthcare professional, the state health department, or a family planning or STD clinic.

About certain STDs

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

Bacterial Vaginosis is the most common vaginal infection in women ages 15-44. Any woman can get BV. Some women with BV don’t know they have it because they have no symptoms.  Having BV can increase your chance of getting an STD. For more information on BV and treatments for BV, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STD in the United States and can infect both men and women.  It can cause severe and permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system.  This can make it difficult or impossible for her to get pregnant later.  Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb). Women under 25 and older women with risk factors need testing every year. Chlamydia can be cured with the right treatment. For more information on chlamydia and treatments for chlamydia, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

Gonorrhea

Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea. Gonorrhea can cause serious complications when not treated but can be cured with the right medication. Sexually active women younger than 25 years or women with new or multiple sex partners, or a sex partner who has an STD should be tested every year. Gonorrhea can be cured with the right medication. Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious health problems in both women and men. For more information on gonorrhea and treatments for gonorrhea, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver cancer and the most common reason for liver transplantation. Viral hepatitis may be in the form of Hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E. For more information on hepatitis and treatments for hepatitis, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is a common STD, and most people with genital herpes infection do not know they have it. You can get genital herpes from an infected partner, even if your partner has no herpes symptoms. There is no cure for herpes, but medication is available to reduce symptoms and make it less likely that you will spread herpes to a sex partner. For more information on Genital Herpes and treatments for Genital Herpes, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection

HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States.  There are many different types of HPV.  Some types can cause health problems including genital warts and cancers.  But there are vaccines that can stop these health problems from happening.  All boys and girls ages 11 or 12 years should get vaccinated. There is no treatment for the virus itself. However, there are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause. For more information on HPV and treatments for HPV caused health problems, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

PID is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs.  It is a complication often caused by some STDs, like chlamydia and gonorrhea.  If PID can be treated if it is diagnosed early. For more information on PID and treatments for PID, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause serious health problems if it is not treated. Syphilis is divided into stages (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary). Without treatment, syphilis can spread to the brain and nervous system (neurosyphilis) or the eye (ocular syphilis). This can happen during any of the stages described above. Syphilis can be cured with the right antibiotics. However, treatment will not undo any damage that the infection has already caused. For more information on syphilis and treatment for syphilis, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is an infection that both women and men can get. Many people who have trichomoniasis don’t know it. The infection often has no symptoms. It is easy to treat and cure. For more information on trichomoniasis and treatment for trichomoniasis, please see the following from the Centers for Disease Control .

HIV

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.  It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) if not treated.  Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment.  So, once you get HIV, you have it for life.

HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections. Untreated, HIV reduces the number of T cells in the body, making the person more likely to get other infections or infection-related cancers. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a week immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection.

No effective cure currently exists, but with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. The medicine used to treat HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART. If taken the right way, every day, this medicine can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV, keep them healthy, and significantly lower their chance of infecting others. Before the introduction of ART in the mid-1990s, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Today, someone diagnosed with HIV and treated before the disease is far advanced can live nearly as long as someone who does not have HIV.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that everyone 13 to 64 years old gets tested for HIV at least once and that people at high risk of the infection get tested more often.  Risk factors for HIV infection include: having unprotected sex (sex without a condom) with someone who is HIV positive or whose HIV status you don’t know; having sex with many partners; and injecting drugs and sharing needles, syringes, or other drug equipment with others. The CDC recommends that all pregnant women get tested for HIV as early as possible during each pregnancy.

[Sources:  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]

About HIV Testing

The only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested.  CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 gets tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care and that people at high risk of infection get tested more often.

Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information to help you take steps to keep you and your partner healthy.

The HIV Antibody test shows if you have antibodies to HIV in your body. (HIV antibodies are a sign that HIV has entered your body.)  A blood sample will be taken from you and be tested.  If the first test shows that you have the antibodies, a different test will be done to make sure the first test was right. The test for HIV antibodies is extremely accurate and reliable.  However, in rare instances, the test may be positive in individuals who are not infected with the virus (false positive), and occasionally it may be negative in persons infected with HIV (false negative), especially when infection occurred within the 3-6 months before testing.

A negative test means you’re probably not infected with HIV.  But it takes the body time to produce HIV antibodies.  It may just be too soon for the antibodies to be seen in the test.  If you recently had sex without a condom or shared needles with someone who may be infected, you may want to be tested again in three to six months.  Please talk to your doctor about this.

A positive confirmatory test result means you are infected with HIV.  It doesn’t necessarily mean you have AIDS, but HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.  It also means you could give the virus to other people.  People who are infected can pass the virus during sex or by sharing needles during drug use.  A pregnant woman who is infected can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

If you test positive for HIV, you should see your primary care physician for a referral to an Infectious Disease physician or seek information from your local health department.

[Sources: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Connecticut Department of Public Health]

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The most common sexually transmitted infections among Americans is known as human papilloma virus (HPV). It is important to note that some health issues associated with HPV are preventable by vaccine. 

Basic Information About HPV 

HPV holds the title as the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S. There are many different types of HPV spread among the estimated 79 million people in the U.S. who have the infection. Keep in mind that HPV is not the same as HIV or HSV viruses. 

Certain types of HPV can cause health problems, most notably, genital warts and cancer. HPV vaccines can prevent these problems. 

Research shows that people from late teens to early 20s are the most likely to be infected. 

The Spreading Of HPV 

Any sexual contact with a person that carries the virus creates an opportunity to spread HPV. The interaction is not limited to vaginal and anal intercourse. Oral sex can also spread the virus spread. Essentially, all it takes to be vulnerable to HPV is to be sexually active. 

Even in cases where the person carrying the virus does not show any signs or symptoms, HPV can still be passed on, and it only requires sex with a single individual. As symptoms for HPV can take years to develop, tracking exactly when the virus was contracted may be challenging. 

Possible Health Problems From HPV?

In general, the virus will naturally go away and not cause any health problems. But there are certain situations when HPV causes more significant issues like genital warts and cancer. 

Genital warts usually appear as a single or group of bumps in the area of the genitals. These bumps can also be large or small, flat or raised, or shaped like a cauliflower. A healthcare provider can often diagnose warts with an examination. 

Can HPV Lead To Cancer? 

Unfortunately, HPV can cause various types of cancer. The areas where HPV can cause cancer include:

– Vagina,

– Vulva,

– Penis,

– Anus, 

– Back of throat/base of tongue and tonsils.

Cancer caused by HPV will often take years to develop. In certain instances, cancer development from HPV can take decades. However, the types of HPV that lead to genital warts are not the same types of HPV that can cause cancer. 

There is no way to predict which people who get HPV are going to develop cancer or other health issues, or even if any reaction is to be expected. Individuals with weaker or compromised immune systems, such as those fighting HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk of developing problems due to HPV. 

Can You Lower The Risk Of An HPV Infection? 

By using preventative measures instead of treatment, you can lower the risk by several means. Here are some suggestions: 

– Vaccinate: 

Getting vaccinated against the HPV virus is safe and effective, especially when done at the recommended age. According to the CDC, it is best to receive the vaccination around 11 or 12 years of age. Alternatively, vaccination for HPV can be administered for children as young as nine and is recommended for everyone through the age of 26. More information about the vaccination process and benefits can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/public/index.html. 

– Regular Screening 

Regular screening for cervical cancer is recommended for women between the ages of 21 and 65. 

– Use Condoms 

Using condoms properly can lower your chances of getting HPV. But areas not covered by a condom may be vulnerable to infection. 

– Stick To One Sexual Partner

It helps to be in a relationship where you only have sexual intercourse with your partner (and vice versa). 

Who Should Get Vaccinated For HPV? 

Vaccination is not recommended for adults older than 26. It is best to speak with your healthcare provider before getting vaccinated. Given the long-term exposure to HPV already, you want to get clarity about how vaccination may help.

The truth is that you expose yourself to a new HPV risk every time you have new sexual partners. 

How Can I Tell If I Have HPV? 

Medical research and technology have yet to create a test to determine HPV status. Nor is there a test to find HPV in the mouth or throat. The truth is most people only realize HPV is a problem when other health issues surface. 

There are, however, HPV tests to screen for cervical cancer. These tests are only recommended for women ages 30 and older. HPV tests are not recommended for children, men, or women younger than 30. 

Most people who have HPV do not know they are infected and never develop symptoms or health problems from it. Some find out when they get genital warts. Women may find out they have HPV when they get an abnormal Pap test result (during cervical cancer screening). Still others may only find out once they’ve developed more serious problems from HPV, such as cancers.

How Common Is HPV Really? 

To give you a good idea of how common HPV really is, consider that, on average, 14 million people are newly infected every year. Almost every sexually active person will get the virus at some point if they have not already been vaccinated. 

Health Problem Statistics Related To HPV 

– Genital Warts: 

The rough estimation of men and women suffering from HPV caused genital warts before the vaccination option was between 340,000 and 360,000 per year. It is also interesting to note that one in about every 100 sexually active adults has genital warts at any given time. 

– Cervical Cancer: 

An estimated 12,000 American women are diagnosed with cervical cancer on an annual basis. A sadder statistic is that 4,000 of these women will die due to cervical cancer.

– Other Health Issues: 

HPV is not limited to genital warts and cervical cancer, as established earlier. Findings show that an average of 19,400 women (along with 12,100 men) are affected every year by cancer caused by HPV. 

How Does HPV Affect Pregnancy? 

While pregnant, general risks include genital warts and abnormal cell changes on your cervix. The latter can be detected via regular cervical cancer screening tests. It is recommended to get these routine checks even if you are pregnant. 

Is There Treatment For HPV? 

Unfortunately, there is no cure or treatment for HPV itself. But treatments are available for the health problems created by the virus. For instance, genital warts can be addressed with medication from your healthcare provider. Cervical precancer is treatable if caught early on; women who have regular Pap tests and follow up can identify problems before cancer develops. Early diagnosis and treatment will aid in fighting other HPV related cancers. You can get more insight at www.cancer.org.

Where can I get more information?

STD information

HPV Information

HPV Vaccination

Cancer Information

Cervical Cancer Screening

CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

STD information and referrals to STD Clinics

CDC-INFO

1-800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)

TTY: 1-888-232-6348

 In English, en Español

CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)

P.O. Box 6003

Rockville, MD 20849-6003

E-mail: npin-info@cdc.gov

National HPV and Cervical Cancer Prevention Resource Center American Sexual Health Association (ASHA)external icon

 P. O. Box 13827

 Research Triangle Park, NC

 27709-3827

 919-361-8488

 E-mail: info@ashasexualhealth.org

Content source: Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and T.B. Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

 

Most of those with trichomoniasis don’t show any symptoms.

What Specifically Is Trichomoniasis Anyway?

Trichomoniasis is also known just as ‘trich’, but whatever you refer to it as, it’s a sexually transmitted disease. It’s also a very frequently diagnosed STD. The source of it is an infection that has a protozoan parasite known as trichomonas vaginalis. Even though symptoms of this disease can vary, the majority of those who have the parasite do not know that they are infected.

How Common Is This STD?

Trichomoniasis is the most frequently diagnosed among curable STDs. Inside the United States, estimates suggest that 3.7 million people have this infection. Having said that, less than a third of them develop any of the known symptoms. Infection is more prevalent in women as compared to men. Also, older women are more likely to have a trichomoniasis infection than younger women.

How Is It That People Even Get Trichomoniasis in the First Place?

This parasite is one that can pass from an infected host to someone that is not infected during the act of sexual intercourse. For women, the parts of their body that are infected most frequently are the lower genital tract, including the urethra, cervix, vagina, and vulva. For men, the urethra (or interior of the penis) is the most common area of infection. During sexual intercourse, the parasite can spread from a vagina to a penis, or vice-versa. It can even spread from one vagina to another. It’s uncommon for this parasite to wind up infecting other body parts, such as the anus, mouth, or hands. It’s not clear why some individuals who have this infection wind up with symptoms when others don’t. It likely depends on numerous factors, possibly including a person’s total health and specific age. Those who are infected but show no symptoms can still pass this infection onto others.

What Symptoms and Signs Are Associated with Trichomoniasis?

More than two-thirds of those infected don’t show either symptoms or signs. When symptoms do arise from trichomoniasis, they can range anywhere from mild levels of irritation up to severe inflammation. Some of those who do have symptoms first get them anywhere from 5 days up to 4 weeks after the initial infection.

Others don’t wind up developing symptoms until a lot later. Symptoms, in any case, may come and go periodically.

Men who have trichomoniasis might notice the following:

  • Irritation or itching inside their penis
  • A burning sensation following ejaculation or urination
  • Penile discharge.

 

Women who have trichomoniasis might notice the following:

  • Genital soreness, redness, burning or itching
  • Discomfort with urination
  • Changes in vaginal discharge, increased volume or thin discharge, that may be yellowish, white, clear, or greenish with a strange fishy smell.

Having this STD can make sexual intercourse unpleasant. If you don’t get treatment, then this infection might last months to years.

What Are the Potential Complications?

Trichomoniasis makes it easier to spread or become infected with other STDs. For instance, the genital inflammation that can result from trichomoniasis makes it easier for you to contract HIV or pass on the virus to others.

How Does Trichomoniasis Impact Pregnant Women and Babies?

An expecting woman with this STD is someone with a higher likelihood of preterm delivery, where she has her child born too soon. Also, babies delivered from infected mothers are more likely to have a low birth weight of under 5.5 lbs.

How Do Healthcare Professionals Diagnose Trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis can’t be diagnosed just based on symptoms. Healthcare professionals can examine men and women alike and can order the lab tests used in diagnosing this disease.

How Is Trichomoniasis Treated?

At the time of writing, two different medications are used for treating trichomoniasis – tinidazole and metronidazole (both pills that are ingested by mouth). Pregnant women can usually take this medication safely. Individuals are advised to avoid drinking alcohol in the first 24 hours after taking either drug.

Anyone who gets treated for this STD can wind up getting it again. Roughly 20 percent of all trichomoniasis patients wind up having a new infection within 3 months following their initial treatment. To avoid reinfection, you need to be sure that any sex partners you have also get treated. After your partner(s) and you are treated, wait a week to 10 days before resuming sexual intercourse. If either of you has symptoms that return, both of you should get checked out again.

Is Trichomoniasis Preventable?

The only surefire way of avoiding all STDs is by avoiding oral, anal, or vaginal sex. If you are currently sexually active, then you can take certain steps to minimize your odds of contracting trichomoniasis:

  • Stay within a long-running, sexually monogamous relationship where both of you are tested for STDs and have negative results.
  • Always use latex condoms whenever you have sexual intercourse. Also, use them properly. This will reduce your odds of contracting trichomoniasis, but condoms don’t cover all potential areas of infection.
  • Talk to your new partners about the risk of possible STDs before having intercourse with them the first time. This lets you make educated decisions about your comfort level in terms of risk with your sex life. Consult a healthcare professional if you or anyone you know has any questions about STDs such as trichomoniasis.

Content source: Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

 

All women are at risk of developing Bacterial Vaginosis. Getting this condition will increase your chances of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

Bacterial Vaginosis Defined: Bacterial Vaginosis is a condition that occurs when there is an excess of certain bacteria in the vagina. This condition directly impacts the natural bacterial balance in the vagina.

How Widespread Is Bacterial Vaginosis?

The most common vaginal infection in women between 15 and 44 years of age is bacterial vaginosis.

 

What Causes Bacterial Vaginosis and How Does It Spread?

 

Scientists are still unaware of the exact cause of BV. The fact is that bacterial vaginosis occurs in sexually active women. BV is associated with an imbalance between “good” and “harmful” bacteria that populate a woman’s vagina. This bacterial imbalance can be linked to intercourse with a new partner or with multiple partners, as well as by douching. All these increase the risk for a woman to get bacterial vaginosis.

We are also unaware of how sex contributes to BV. There are no studies to evidence that treating a sex partner has a direct influence on the chances that the woman gets BV. However, women who suffer from BV have a higher risk of contracting various STDs.

BV is almost nonexistent in women who haven’t had sex and you cannot get BV from bed sheets, swimming pools, or toilet seats.

Is There A Way I Can Avoid Getting BV?

Although medical doctors don’t totally understand how this condition spreads, there are things you can do to minimize your risk of getting BV – refraining from having sex, limiting the number of your sex partners, and not douching.

I’ve Been Diagnosed While Pregnant. Will Bacterial Vaginosis Affect My Newborn Baby?

Pregnant women can get bacterial Vaginosis. Premature birth and low birth weight are among the most common risks of women suffering from BV. Treatment is particularly important for pregnant women.

 

What Are The Main Symptoms Of Bacterial Vaginosis?

 

In many women, the condition can be asymptomatic.

The most commonly encountered symptoms are:

  • A vaginal discharge, either gray or white
  • A strong fish-like odor that intensifies after sex
  • A burning sensation during urinating
  • Itches around the outer portion of the vagina

How Will My Doctor Determine Whether I Have Bacterial Vaginosis?

Your doctor will start by examining you for vaginal discharge. Laboratory tests on a sample of vaginal fluid can determine whether or not you have BV.

What Is The Treatment For Bacterial Vaginosis?

Sometimes, BV may go away without the need for any medication or treatment. However, you shouldn’t overlook your symptoms of BV, but rather seek for medical help. It is also essential to stick to the treatment and take all medicines as prescribed by your doctor. Sometimes, healthcare providers recommend antibiotics as the first treatment option. Nevertheless, BV may return even after such treatments. The correct treatment may lower your risk for some STDs.

Male sex partners of women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis don’t usually require any treatment. Infected women can transmit the disease to their female sex partners.

What If I Don’t Seek Treatment?

BV can lead to some significant health risks.

Here are a few of them:

  • It increases your risk to get HIV if you have sex with an HIV infected partner
  • If you are HIV positive, you’ll have higher chances to pass it to your sex partners
  • If you have BV during pregnancy, you risk premature delivery of your baby

Suffering from BV increases your risks to get chlamydiagonorrhea, or other STDs. These bacteria can also trigger pelvic inflammatory disease, making it difficult or even impossible for you to bear children.

Information:

STD information and referrals to STD Clinics

CDC-INFO

1-800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)

TTY: 1-888-232-6348

CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)

P.O. Box 6003

Rockville, MD 20849-6003

E-mail: npin-info@cdc.gov

American Sexual Health Association (ASHA)

P. O. Box 13827

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3827

919-361-8488

Content source: Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Tests

STD Basic Panel

STD Comprehensive Panel

 

Are STDs associated with HIV?

You are more likely to contract HIV or transmit the disease to other sexual partners if you have an STD.

People in the U.S. who have syphilisherpes, or gonorrhea often also have HIV or are at a higher risk of getting HIV.

Why does having STDs put you at higher risk for contracting HIV?

Having an STD puts you at a higher risk of getting HIV because the same circumstances and behaviors that may put you at risk for STDs also can put you at greater risk of getting HIV. Additionally, when STDs result in breaks in the skin or sores, HIV may enter your body more easily. For these two reasons, it is more likely that you will get HIV if you have an STD.

It is highly recommended to get tested regularly for both HIV and STDs if you are sexually active. Even if you aren’t experiencing any of the symptoms of an STD/HIV or if you are having sex with only one partner, get tested.

Which activities can increase the risk of getting both STDs and HIV?

  • Not using a condom while having oral, vaginal, or anal sex.
  • Having more than one sex partner.
  • Having sex with anonymous people.
  • Being under the influence of drugs or alcohol can lead to lower inhibitions, which can lead to taking greater sexual risks.

How Can I Avoid getting an STD or HIV?

There is only one way to be 100% sure that you can’t get HIV or an STD, and that is to abstain from all sexual activity, which means no oral, vaginal or anal sex. However, there are some steps that you can take to lower your chances of contracting these diseases if you choose to be sexually active:

  • Choose sexual activities that are less risky.
  • Wear a new condom or insist that your partner wears a new condom for each oral, vaginal, or anal sexual act throughout the entire act.
  • Reduce the number of sexual partners.
  • Don’t drink or use drugs that affect your decision-making behavior regarding sex.
  • Talk openly and honestly with a healthcare provider and get tested for HIV and STDs regularly.
  • Ask your healthcare provider whether pre (PrEP) or post-exposure (PEP) prophylaxis may be a good option for you.

If I already have HIV and get an STD, does this increase the risk of transmitting HIV to my sexual partner(s)?

Getting infected with an STD can increase the risk of transmitting HIV to your sex partner(s). You can lower the risk by taking the following steps:

  • Get treated for your HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and make sure that you stay on the medication. Taking HIV medication can reduce the viral load or the amount of the virus that is present in your bloodstream. In fact, ART’s can reduce a viral load to such an extent that it becomes undetectable in HIV tests. If you have an undetectable viral load, it is much less likely that you will transmit HIV to your sexual partners. However, it is important to note that an undetectable viral load does not mean that you are cured.
  • Engage in less risky sexual activities.
  • Always use a new condom for each oral, vaginal, or anal sex act and wear the condom throughout the act from the beginning to the end. 
  • Your sexual partner may want to consider taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and discuss this with a qualified healthcare provider to determine if this is a suitable option. PrEP is highly effective at reducing the risk of contracting HIVwhen taken daily. Inconsistently taking the prophylactic treatment lowers the efficacy. Be aware that PrEP is not intended to prevent the transmission of other STDs and, therefore, still use condoms.

Will STD treatment stop me from getting HIV?

The answer is No. Treatment for STDs is primarily to help prevent complications and the transmission of the disease to other sexual partners. Treatment for an STD is different from the treatment for HIV and therefore, will not prevent spreading HIV. STD treatment is not sufficient to prevent HIV. If you have been diagnosed with an STD, talk to your healthcare provider or doctor about how to prevent getting reinfected with the same STD, or getting HIV.

Where can I get more information regarding STDs and HIV?

HIV/AIDS and STDs

www.cdc.gov/std/hiv/

PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis)

www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/prep.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

www.cdc.gov/std

CDC-INFO Contact Center

1-800-CDC-INFO

(1-800-232-4636)

https://wwwn.cdc.gov/dcs/

CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)

https://npin.cdc.gov/disease/stds

American Sexual Health Association (ASHA)

http://www.ashasexualhealth.org

P. O. Box 13827

Research Triangle Park, NC

27709-3827

919-361-8488

Content source: Division of STD PreventionNational Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB PreventionCenters for Disease Control and Prevention

Tests:

STD PANEL: https://www.ultalabtests.com/testing/search?itemName=std

SYPHILIS/RPR: https://www.ultalabtests.com/test/Syphilis-RPR-FTA-ABS

HERPES 1/2: https://www.ultalabtests.com/test/Herpes-1-2

GONORRHEA: https://www.ultalabtests.com/test/Gonorrhea