Neurological Disorders

Blood tests monitor levels of therapeutic drugs used to treat neurological disorders, identify the medical causes of neuropathy, and help diagnose dementia and or rule out medical conditions adversely affecting the neurological system. 

Order your lab tests for neurological disorders today, and your results will be provided to you securely and confidentially online in 24 to 48 hours for most tests. Take control with Ulta Lab Tests today!


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The tricyclics are used to treat depression. Nortriptyline is an active metabolite of Amitriptyline. Therapeutic drug levels are monitored to assist the physician assessing therapeutic response and to avoid toxicity.


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Clinical Significance

Aripiprazole (Abilify®) is an atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and clinical depression. The analysis of aripiprazole is used to monitor compliance with drug therapy.


Increased CRP levels are found in inflammatory conditions including: bacterial infection, rheumatic fever, active arthritis, myocardial infarction, malignancies and in the post-operative state. This test cannot detect the relatively small elevations of CRP that are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

Carnitine, LC/MS/MS Includes: Carnitine, Total; Carnitine, Free; Carnitine, Esters; Esterified/Free Ratio

 

Clinical Significance

Serum carnitine analysis is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with carnitine deficiency (either primary or secondary). Primary carnitine deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited genetic condition that affects carnitine uptake by cells and tissues through a defect in the plasma membrane carnitine transporter. Secondary carnitine deficiency can be seen in some disease states or in patients on carnitine-poor diets, but is also seen in a number of metabolic disorders. In these disorders, carnitine complexes with the accumulated substrate of the blocked metabolic step, and the resulting acylcarnitine ester is excreted in the urine, leading to a depletion of carnitine in the patient


A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)


See individual tests

The Digestive Health - Advanced contains the following tests

  • C-Reactive Protein (CRP) 
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) 
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®) 
  • Ferritin
  • Folate, Serum
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS 
  • Transferrin
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) 
  • Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel (w/ Reflexes)

Specimens from children less than 4 years of age (i.e., less than 48 months) are not appropriate for this test. The test for children 4 years of age and younger is the Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel, Infant (test code 15981).

Includes

Tissue Transglutaminase, IgA with Reflexes; Total IgA with Reflex

IMPORTANT - Note this is Reflex Test which if additional tests are run you will be charged for the specific tests that the lab peforms. Additional test will be run if the following criteria are met.


If the Tissue Transglutaminase IgA is positive, 

1. Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86255).

If the Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) is positive, 

2. Endomysial Antibody Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

If the Total IgA is less than the lower limit of the reference range, based on age

3. Tissue Transglutaminase IgG will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 83516).

Clinical Significance

Celiac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten in genetically sensitive individuals. The diagnosis is largely based on a biopsy of the small intestine, but serologic tests also help support a diagnosis and may assist identification of patients who may require biopsy.

Tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG, IgA) is a marker with 95% sensitivity and specificity. Total IgA is measured because 2-3% of celiac disease patients are IgA deficient. Because tTG, IgA, and anti-Gliadin IgA tend to decrease in patients on a gluten-free diet, these markers are also used to assess dietary compliance.

The endomysial antibody (EMA, IgA) assay has high specificity for celiac disease and is used to confirm positive anti-tTG results.


Digestive Health - Basic contains the following tests

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) 
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®) 
  • Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel (w/ Reflexes)

Specimens from children less than 4 years of age (i.e., less than 48 months) are not appropriate for this test. The test for children 4 years of age and younger is the Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel, Infant (test code 15981).

Includes

Tissue Transglutaminase, IgA with Reflexes; Total IgA with Reflex

IMPORTANT - Note this is Reflex Test which if additional tests are run you will be charged for the specific tests that the lab peforms. Additional test will be run if the following criteria are met.


If the Tissue Transglutaminase IgA is positive, 

1. Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86255).

If the Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) is positive, 

2. Endomysial Antibody Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

If the Total IgA is less than the lower limit of the reference range, based on age

3. Tissue Transglutaminase IgG will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 83516).

Clinical Significance

Celiac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten in genetically sensitive individuals. The diagnosis is largely based on a biopsy of the small intestine, but serologic tests also help support a diagnosis and may assist identification of patients who may require biopsy.

Tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG, IgA) is a marker with 95% sensitivity and specificity. Total IgA is measured because 2-3% of celiac disease patients are IgA deficient. Because tTG, IgA, and anti-Gliadin IgA tend to decrease in patients on a gluten-free diet, these markers are also used to assess dietary compliance.

The endomysial antibody (EMA, IgA) assay has high specificity for celiac disease and is used to confirm positive anti-tTG results.


Digestive Health - Basic Plus contains the followwing tests: 

  • C-Reactive Protein (CRP) 
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) 
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®) 
  • Ferritin
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel (w/ Reflexes)

 Specimens from children less than 4 years of age (i.e., less than 48 months) are not appropriate for this test. The test for children 4 years of age and younger is the Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel, Infant (test code 15981).

Includes

Tissue Transglutaminase, IgA with Reflexes; Total IgA with Reflex

IMPORTANT - Note this is Reflex Test which if additional tests are run you will be charged for the specific tests that the lab peforms. Additional test will be run if the following criteria are met.


If the Tissue Transglutaminase IgA is positive, 

1. Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86255).

If the Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) is positive, 

2. Endomysial Antibody Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

If the Total IgA is less than the lower limit of the reference range, based on age

3. Tissue Transglutaminase IgG will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 83516).

Clinical Significance

Celiac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten in genetically sensitive individuals. The diagnosis is largely based on a biopsy of the small intestine, but serologic tests also help support a diagnosis and may assist identification of patients who may require biopsy.

Tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG, IgA) is a marker with 95% sensitivity and specificity. Total IgA is measured because 2-3% of celiac disease patients are IgA deficient. Because tTG, IgA, and anti-Gliadin IgA tend to decrease in patients on a gluten-free diet, these markers are also used to assess dietary compliance.

The endomysial antibody (EMA, IgA) assay has high specificity for celiac disease and is used to confirm positive anti-tTG results.


Digestive Health - Comprehensive contains the following tests: 

  • C-Reactive Protein (CRP) 
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets) 
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Fecal Globin by Immunochemistry (InSure®) 
  • Ferritin
  • Folate, Serum
  • Gliadin (Deamidated Peptide) Antibody (IgA) 
  • Gliadin (Deamidated Peptide) Antibody (IgG) 
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Lipid Panel with Ratios
  • Magnesium
  • Prealbumin 
  • QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS 
  • Transferrin
  • TSH
  • Vitamin A (Retinol)
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) 
  • Vitamin K
  • Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel (w/ Reflexes)

Specimens from children less than 4 years of age (i.e., less than 48 months) are not appropriate for this test. The test for children 4 years of age and younger is the Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel, Infant (test code 15981).

Includes

Tissue Transglutaminase, IgA with Reflexes; Total IgA with Reflex

IMPORTANT - Note this is Reflex Test which if additional tests are run you will be charged for the specific tests that the lab peforms. Additional test will be run if the following criteria are met.


If the Tissue Transglutaminase IgA is positive, 

1. Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86255).

If the Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA) is positive, 

2. Endomysial Antibody Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

If the Total IgA is less than the lower limit of the reference range, based on age, 

3. Tissue Transglutaminase IgG will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 83516).

Clinical Significance

Celiac disease is caused by an immune response to gluten in genetically sensitive individuals. The diagnosis is largely based on a biopsy of the small intestine, but serologic tests also help support a diagnosis and may assist identification of patients who may require biopsy.

Tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG, IgA) is a marker with 95% sensitivity and specificity. Total IgA is measured because 2-3% of celiac disease patients are IgA deficient. Because tTG, IgA, and anti-Gliadin IgA tend to decrease in patients on a gluten-free diet, these markers are also used to assess dietary compliance.

The endomysial antibody (EMA, IgA) assay has high specificity for celiac disease and is used to confirm positive anti-tTG results.


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Serum glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasm.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressnt drug used to treat depression. Therapeutic drug monitoring is used to optimize dose and to avoid toxicity.

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The methylmalonic acid (MMA) test may be used to help diagnose an early or mild vitamin B12 deficiency. It may be ordered by itself or along with a homocysteine test as a follow-up to a vitamin B12 test result that is in the lower end of the normal range.


Methylmalonic acid is metabolized as methylmalonyl CoA from the catabolism of certain amino acids and fatty acids. Methylmalonyl CoA is then converted to Succinic acid by the following reaction: Methylmalonic Acid Methylmalonyl CoA Mutase + B12 Succinic Acid The enzyme Methylmalonyl CoA mutase requires Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) as a cofacter. MMA is used to evaluate cobalamin deficiency. Elevated serum MMA reflects decreased tissue cobalamin levels and is an early indicator of vitamin B12 deficiency. Cobalamin dependent neurological disease with normal hematologic parameters and serum B12 levels is frequently associated with significant elevations of serum methylmalonic acid. Methylmalonic Acidemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism, in which there is a deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase, resulting in a large accumulation of MMA in serum and urine. There is also a combined defect in the cobalamin pathway with elevation of both MMA and homocysteine.


Useful in the diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia Gravis is a neurological disorder characterized by a decrease in acetylcholine receptors. Patients exhibit skeletal muscle weakness and fatigability. Approximately 80% of patients with Myasthenia Gravis, excluding ocular involvement only, have detectable acetylcholine receptor antibody.

Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Antibody
Acetylcholine Receptor Blocking Antibody
Acetylcholine Receptor Modulating Antibody


Antibodies against myelin are found in multiple sclerosis and other neurological diseases. However, the diagnostic value of this serum antibody is controversial, as high titers in healthy subjects can also be detected. Antibodies against myelin-associated glycoproteins are present at times with Guillain-Barre syndrome.


Myelin Associated Glycoprotein (MAG)-SGPG Antibody (IgM)

Myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and sulphated glucuronyl paragloboside (SGPG) antibodies are present in a subgroup of sensory demyelinating neuropathies. Axonal neuropathies can present with only monoclonal IgM anti-SGPG activity. Presence of anti-SGPG antibodies alone is more characteristic of axonal non-demyelinating neuropathy. There is a relationship between the titer of anti-MAG antibodies and the degree of demyelination.

Result Name: MAG SGPG AB (IGM),EIA

Component Name: Myelin associated glycoprotein-sulfated glucuronic paragloboside Ab.IgM

 


Clinical Significance

Neuropeptide Y - Neuropeptide Y is a 36 amino acid peptide very similar throughout all species of mammals. It is found primarily in the sympathetic nervous system, gut and brain. Neuropeptide Y is closely related structurally to Peptide YY and Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide. Neuropeptide Y has key roles in cardiovascular and hypothalamic function. It potentiates vasoconstriction, causing an increase in blood pressure. Levels are increased by stress, Dexamethasone, septic shock, relaxation of colon, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, water and sodium secretion, Luteinizing Hormone and ACTH. Levels are inhibited by Amphetamines, and are decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neuropeptide Y inhibits Norepinephrine, the effect of Cholecystokinin, Renin release, Insulin and Glucagon secretion, and the Melanotropins. Actions of Y are enhanced by a2 adrenoreceptor agonists.

Patient Preparation

Patient should be fasting 10-12 hours prior to collection of specimen. Medications that affect insulin secretion or gastrointestinal function should be discontinued, if possible, for at least 48 hours prior to collection.




Did you know that more than 600 neurological disorders affect millions of people across the world? If such a condition is left untreated, it can result in serious consequences over time. In fact, neurological disorders are becoming more common as time passes with all the stress and anxiety that affect people. Hence, it is more important than ever to keep an eye on the signs and symptoms of neurological disorders to know if you suffer from such a condition. This article provides information on some of the most common neurological disorders affecting people today and how they are screened and diagnosed. 

What Are Neurological Disorders? 

Neurological disorders affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, including 

  • The brain 
  • Muscles
  • The spinal cord
  • Nerve roots
  • The autonomic nervous system
  • Cranial & peripheral nerves
  • The neuromuscular junction

Here are some of the common neurological disorders that affect men and women across the globe: 

  • Alzheimer's disease and other dementias 
  • Sclerosis 
  • Epilepsy and seizures 
  • Bell's palsy and cerebral palsy 
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome 
  • Neuralgia and neuropathy 
  • Muscular dystrophy 
  • Primary progressive aphasia 
  • Parkinson's disease 
  • Vertigo and stroke 
  • Spinal deformities and disorders such as scoliosis and spinal tumors 
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome 
  • Migraines and other headache disorders 
  • Mild cognitive impairment 

Risk Factors of Neurological Disorders 

Emotional or physical trauma and severe stress are considered the most common risk factors of neurological disorders. Additionally, age becomes a risk factor for some of these neurological conditions. Gender is a factor as women are more likely to develop neurological conditions compared to men. If a person's family has a history of neurological disorders, the individual is more likely to develop the disease over time. On the other hand, suffering from a current mental health condition can increase your risk of neurological disorders.  

Common Causes of Neurological Disorders 

  • The cause may vary depending on the type of neurological disorder. Some of the most common causes include: 
  • Genetic or congenital disorders 
  • Infections 
  • Health and lifestyle issues, including malnutrition 
  • Injuries to the brain, nerves, or spinal cord 
  • Tumors 

Symptoms Of Neurological Disorders 

The symptoms of neurological disorders tend to overlap most of the time. Here are some of the most common symptoms of neurological disorders: 

Seizures 

  • Paralysis 
  • Muscle weakness 
  • Loss of sensations 
  • Poor coordination 
  • Pain 
  • Confusion 
  • Altered states of consciousness 

How to Diagnose Neurological Disorders? 

The diagnosis of a neurological disorder is a complex and challenging process. Most disorders share similar signs and symptoms, and the doctor may identify different combinations of symptoms to create another diagnosis. The healthcare provider will look at the patient's complete medical history and perform a physical examination to start the diagnosis process. They may conduct a neurological exam afterward. 

A neurological exam will test the motor and sensory skills of the patient. It includes coordination, hearing, speech, vision, and balance. The doctor will also examine the mental state, behavior, and mood of the patient.  

Lab Tests to Screen, Diagnose, and Monitor Neurological Disorders 

Once the initial diagnosis is performed to identify the neurological condition, the doctor will conduct further diagnostic tests and procedures to confirm the diagnosis. Some of the most common neurological disorders that can be identified by conducting lab tests include: 

  • Meningitis 
  • Hereditary disorders 
  • Encephalitis 
  • Viral infections 
  • Acute & chronic inflammation 
  • Multiple sclerosis 
  • Certain neurodegenerative disorders 

Laboratory Screening Tests 

The patient's bodily fluids will be tested in a lab test. The most common lab tests for neurological disorders use the blood and urine of the patient. Urine tests help identify signs of infections, diseases, toxins, and abnormal metabolic substances. Blood tests help detect:  

  • Infections and toxins 
  • Abnormal levels of blood cells and hormones 
  • Vitamin deficiencies 
  • Genes associated with inherited conditions 
  • Autoimmune diseases 
  • Muscle, metabolic, and clotting disorders 

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

The comprehensive metabolic panel test helps detect kidney and liver problems. They also help check issues with nutrient levels and other metabolic problems. 

  • Metabolic panel tests help doctors detect: 
  • Kidney and liver issues through albumin, ALT, BUN, creatinine levels, and alkaline phosphatase 
  • Heart and liver problems through AST levels 
  • Kidney problems including cancers, overactive thyroid or parathyroid glands, vitamin D deficiency through calcium levels, and pancreatic problems 
  • Problems in the liver, kidney, or the bile ducts through bilirubin levels 
  • Levels of acidity in the body, multiple myeloma, dehydration, adrenal gland dysfunction, and kidney disorders through chloride levels  
  • Problems affecting the kidney and parathyroid gland through phosphorus levels 
  • Dehydration, adrenal gland disorders, kidney problems, and liver problems through sodium levels 
  • Stroke and increased risk of high blood pressure through potassium levels 
  • Neuropathy through blood sugar levels 

Lipid Panel & Complete Blood Count Tests 

The lipid panel test helps measure the amount of fat in your blood. It checks the patient's total cholesterol and triglyceride levels for signs and symptoms of heart and other health conditions. A complete blood count test will help your doctor evaluate your overall health and detect certain infections, diseases, and blood abnormalities. Such tests will help your doctor identify: 

  • Infections, anemia, autoimmune disorders, and other health conditions through a WBC differential count 
  • Signs of infection, leukemia, and other conditions through a WBC leukocyte count 
  • Signs of anemia through Hct and Hgb levels 
  • Disorders affecting the red blood cells through an RBC erythrocyte count 
  • Anemia and chronic fatigue through an MCV 
  • Signs of nutritional deficiency through MCH and MCHC levels in the blood 
  • Risk of heart attacks, strokes, and bleeding disorders through a platelet count and MPV 
  • Liver conditions, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies through an RCDW 

Genetic Tests & Brain Scans 

If the patient's family has a history of neurological disorders, the healthcare provider uses genetic tests and brain scans. These tests help identify if the patient has a gene that could cause a neurological disorder. On the other hand, brain scans and imaging techniques are used to screen for injuries and other issues in the patient's brain. Some of these conditions include tumors, stroke, malformed blood vessels, bleeding, and abnormal development. Examples of brain scans include PET, MRI, and CT scans. 

Other Types of Tests for Neurological Disorder Diagnosis Include: 

  • EEG to monitor the electrical activity of the brain of the patient 
  • Angiogram - Using an x-ray to detect blockages or narrowing in the veins and arteries 
  • Electrodiagnostic tests to screen for disorders in the muscles and motor neurons 
  • Ultrasound scans to create images of tissues, blood vessels, and the internal organs 
  • Neurosonography to analyze the blood flow and help diagnose stroke 

FAQs About Neurological Disorders and Lab Testing 

  • How long does it take to get the results of neurological disorder tests? 
  • What is the likelihood of success of the treatment? 
  • What are the treatment options available today? 
  • How frequent are the treatments, and how long will they last? 
  • Are there any side effects of these treatments? 
  • Do I need to spend time in a hospital? 
  • Will the treatment limit my lifestyle? 

The answers to these questions will depend on the type of disorder the patient has. 

For example, some neurological disorders have mild symptoms and require little or no time in a hospital, while some other conditions will have severe symptoms and impact the patient's lifestyle. These disorders may need the patient to spend time in a hospital.  

Neurological Disorders Lab Testing with Ulta Lab Tests 

Here is what you can expect when you order your tests from Ulta Lab Tests: 

  • Highly accurate and reliable tests 
  • Secure and confidential results 
  • No doctor's referral needed 
  • No health insurance required 
  • Affordable pricing 
  • 100% satisfaction guarantee 

Order your neurological disorder lab tests from Ulta Lab Tests and take control of your health today.