Infection STD Tests

STD Testing and health information

Check for sexually transmitted diseases with STD testing from Ulta Lab Tests, which uses blood and urine lab tests to detect STD infections. Order today from Ulta Lab Tests for accurate lab work and confidential testing!

If you're sexually active, it's important to get tested regularly.

STD tests are a way to protect yourself from HIV and other STDs by knowing your status. The sooner you know what's going on, the better chance you have at getting treatment before it's too late. That's why we offer same-day testing so that our patients never have to wait to get tested.

Do you know what STD tests are available?

There are many different STD tests, and we're here to help you understand them. We offer a variety of lab testing options so that you can get the answers you need when you need them. 
If you want to learn more about STDs and lab testing that can help you, click on the title of the articles below.

Do you know how to get tested for STDs?

STD testing is the only way to find out if you have an STD. Many people don't realize that they are infected with a sexually transmitted disease because many STDs do not cause symptoms. That means it's important to get tested regularly even if you feel healthy and think there is no chance of infection. You can be infected with an STD without knowing it, which could lead to serious health problems down the road. The best time to get tested is before having sex with someone new or when changing sexual partners. If you test positive for one type of STD, then your partner should also be tested and treated as well so that both of you can avoid spreading any infections back and forth between each other.

Getting an STD test will help protect your health by allowing early detection and treatment of STDs before they become more complicated conditions like HIV/AIDS or cervical cancer in women. 

Ulta Lab Tests provides an affordable and convenient way for you to test for STD's Order your discounted STD lab tests online 24/7, and take advantage of our 2100 nationwide locations. With 30-minute in-and-out local testing, low prices guaranteed, and confidential results, Ulta Lab Tests is the perfect solution for anyone looking to get confidential accurate lab test results quickly and easily. Plus, our dynamic charting feature allows you to track changes in your results over time. So why wait? Order your lab tests today!
 


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The STD - Comprehensive Panel contains the following tests:

  • Chlamydia/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA
  • RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®)
  • Hepatitis Panel, General

Due to the consultation and reporting requirements, we are unable to offer HIV testing at this time.

Chlamydia/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA

Patient Preparation 

Urine specimen: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube label.

 

Clinical Significance

C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydialinfections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.

Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®) 

HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

Diagnose HSV infection when lesions are absent; determine HSV type

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

<0.90 Negative

0.90-1.09 Equivocal

>1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV Type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV Type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.

 

Syphilis RPR ( RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer)

Reference Range(s)

Non-Reactive

Clinical Significance

This is a non-treponemal screening test for syphilis. False positive results may occur due to systemic lupus erythematosus, leprosy, brucellosis, atypical pneumonia, typhus, yaws, pinta, or pregnancy. Monitoring of RPR is helpful in assessing effectiveness of therapy.

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen must be followed by a specific treponemal antibody test (e.g., FTA-ABS):

A positive result on the second method confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

Hepatitis Panel, General

Hepatitis A Antibody, Total; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Qualitative; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation; Hepatitis B Core Antibody, Total; Hepatitis C Antibody with Reflex to HCV, RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation: Positive samples will be confirmed based on the manufacturer's FDA approved recommendations at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87341).


If Hepatitis C Antibody is reactive, Hepatitis C Viral RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87522).


The STD - Basic panel contains the following tests:

  • Chlamydia/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA
  • RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®)

Due to the consultation and reporting requirements, we are unable to offer HIV testing at this time.

Chlamydia/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA

Patient Preparation 

Urine specimen: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube label.

 

Clinical Significance

C. trachomatis infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. C. trachomatis is known to cause cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), epididymitis and proctitis. It is also the most frequent cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Among women, the consequences of Chlamydialinfections are severe if left untreated. Approximately half of Chlamydial infections are asymptomatic.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) is the causative agent of gonorrhea. In men, this disease generally results in anterior urethritis accompanied by purulent exudate. In women, the disease is most often found in the cervix, but the vagina and uterus may also be infected.

Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibodies (HerpeSelect®) 

HSV 1 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB

Diagnose HSV infection when lesions are absent; determine HSV type

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

<0.90 Negative

0.90-1.09 Equivocal

>1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

Clinical Significance

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is responsible for several clinically significant human viral diseases, with severity ranging from inapparent to fatal. Clinical manifestations include genital tract infections, neonatal herpes, meningoencephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and gingivostomatitis. There are two HSV serotypes that are closely related antigenically. HSV Type 2 is more commonly associated with genital tract and neonatal infections, while HSV Type 1 is more commonly associated with infections of non-genital sites. Specific typing is not usually required for diagnosis or treatment. The mean time to seroconversion using the type specific assay is 25 days. The performance of this assay has not been established for use in a pediatric population, for neonatal screening, or for testing of immunocompromised patients.

 

Syphilis RPR ( RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer)

Reference Range(s)

Non-Reactive

Clinical Significance

This is a non-treponemal screening test for syphilis. False positive results may occur due to systemic lupus erythematosus, leprosy, brucellosis, atypical pneumonia, typhus, yaws, pinta, or pregnancy. Monitoring of RPR is helpful in assessing effectiveness of therapy.

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen must be followed by a specific treponemal antibody test (e.g., FTA-ABS):

A positive result on the second method confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.


Most Popular

Description: The chlamydia test is used to determine if a person has been infected with the sexually transmitted infection. It can be used to diagnose a person with chlamydia for treatment.

Also Known As: Chlamydia Trachomatis Test, Chlamydia STD Test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

When is a Chlamydia test ordered?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, all sexually active women younger than 25 and sexually active women 25 and older who are at elevated risk should have a yearly chlamydia screening. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Preventive Services Task Force both urge routine screening for these women.

The CDC recommends that males who have intercourse with other men get tested for chlamydia at least once a year. For sexually active, heterosexual men with no symptoms, health organizations do not advocate routine screening. When there is a large number of cases of STDs in the community, for example, healthcare providers may prescribe screening to their patients.

When a person’s sexual partner has been diagnosed with chlamydia or when a person has signs and symptoms of the infection, chlamydia testing may be performed.

Women and men who have been treated for chlamydia should be tested again three months afterwards.

What does a Chlamydia Urine test check for?

Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the United States, and if left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences. Chlamydia testing determines whether the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis is to blame for an infection. In order to avoid long-term consequences and the spread of the infection to others, it’s critical to screen for, diagnose, and treat chlamydia.

Chlamydia infections are most common among people aged 15 to 24. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2.86 million Americans contract chlamydia each year, and women are commonly re-infected if their partners do not seek treatment. Because many people don’t have any symptoms and don’t get tested and identified, the true number of cases may be larger. Despite this, each year over one million new cases are reported.

Sexual contact with an infected partner is the most common way for chlamydia to spread. Multiple sex partners, coinfection or previous infection with another STD, and not wearing a condom appropriately and consistently are also risk factors.

Many people with chlamydia infections have no symptoms, while others may only have minor ones. Because the signs and symptoms of chlamydia are similar to those of another STD, gonorrhea, and can be misinterpreted, testing for both diseases are frequently performed at the same time.

Antibiotics are commonly used to treat chlamydia. It can cause serious reproductive and other health problems if not recognized and addressed.

In women, untreated chlamydia infections that originate on the cervix but progress to the fallopian tubes and ovaries can cause pelvic inflammatory disease.

Men who are not treated may become infertile in rare cases.

Lab tests often ordered with a Chlamydia test:

  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Syphilis
  • Herpes 1 and 2

Conditions where a Chlamydia test is recommended:

  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Syphilis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Infertility
  • Vaginitis
  • Vaginosis

How does my health care provider use a Chlamydia test?

Chlamydia testing is used to detect, diagnose, and confirm that infections caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis have been successfully treated. Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States, and if left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences. To avoid long-term consequences and the spread of the infection to others, it's critical to screen for, diagnose, and treat chlamydia.

Because the illnesses produced by these two bacteria might have similar signs and symptoms, testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is frequently done at the same time. Both of these bacteria can be acquired at the same time, and a person can get infected with both. Because the two infections require distinct antibiotic treatments, a clear diagnosis is critical. Testing should be done again to determine that the treatment was effective. After a person has completed therapy, this is done roughly three months later.

What do my Chlamydia test results mean?

A positive result indicates that you have an active chlamydia infection that requires antibiotic therapy.

A negative result simply means that no infection was present at the time of the test. It is critical for those who are at a higher risk of infection to have annual screening tests to check for infection, especially since re-infection is common, especially among teenagers.

If you're infected, your sexual partner(s) should get tested and treated as well.


Most Popular

Description: The chlamydia and gonorrhea test is used to determine if a person has been infected with either of the sexually transmitted infections. It can be used to diagnose a person with chlamydia or gonorrhea for treatment.

Also Known As: Chlamydia Trachomatis Test, Chlamydia STD Test, GC Test, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae test, Gonorrhoeae test, gonorrhea and chlamydia test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: Urine specimens: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

When is a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test ordered?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, all sexually active women younger than 25 and sexually active women 25 and older who are at elevated risk should have a yearly chlamydia and gonorrhea screening. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Preventive Services Task Force both urge routine screening for these women.

The CDC recommends that males who have intercourse with other men get tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia at least once a year. For sexually active, heterosexual men with no symptoms, health organizations do not advocate routine screening. When there is a large number of cases of STDs in the community, for example, healthcare providers may prescribe screening to their patients.

When a person’s sexual partner has been diagnosed with gonorrhea or chlamydia or when a person has signs and symptoms of the infection, chlamydia testing may be performed.

Women and men who have been treated for chlamydia should be tested again three months afterwards.

What does a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea urine test check for?

Chlamydia is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the United States, and if left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences. Chlamydia testing determines whether the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis is to blame for an infection. In order to avoid long-term consequences and the spread of the infection to others, it’s critical to screen for, diagnose, and treat chlamydia.

Chlamydia infections are most common among people aged 15 to 24. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2.86 million Americans contract chlamydia each year, and women are commonly re-infected if their partners do not seek treatment. Because many people don’t have any symptoms and don’t get tested and identified, the true number of cases may be larger. Despite this, each year over one million new cases are reported.

Sexual contact with an infected partner is the most common way for chlamydia to spread. Multiple sex partners, coinfection or previous infection with another STD, and not wearing a condom appropriately and consistently are also risk factors.

Many people with chlamydia infections have no symptoms, while others may only have minor ones. Because the signs and symptoms of chlamydia are similar to those of another STD, gonorrhea, and can be misinterpreted, testing for both diseases are frequently performed at the same time.

Antibiotics are commonly used to treat chlamydia. It can cause serious reproductive and other health problems if not recognized and addressed.

In women, untreated chlamydia infections that originate on the cervix but progress to the fallopian tubes and ovaries can cause pelvic inflammatory disease.

Men who are not treated may become infertile in rare cases.

If not diagnosed and treated, gonorrhea is a common bacterial sexually transmitted illness that can lead to serious consequences. Gonorrhea testing determines whether a person's infection is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The importance of gonorrhea screening, diagnosis, and treatment in reducing long-term consequences and the spread of the infection to others cannot be overstated.

More than 820,000 people in the United States contract new gonorrheal infections each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but only about half of these infections are reported to the CDC. In the United States, sexually active teenagers, young adults, and African Americans have the highest reported rates of infection.

Sexual contact with an infected partner is the most common way for gonorrhea to spread. Multiple sex partners, coinfection or previous infection with another STD, and not wearing a condom appropriately and consistently are also risk factors.

While some males with gonorrhea will experience symptoms, the majority of women will not or will confuse gonorrhea symptoms with those of a bladder or other vaginal illness. Symptoms in men usually emerge 2 to 5 days after infection, but they can take up to 30 days. Symptoms usually appear within 10 days of infection for women. Because the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea are similar to those of another STD, chlamydia, and can be misinterpreted, testing for both diseases are sometimes performed at the same time.

Antibiotics are generally prescribed to treat gonorrhea. Gonorrhea can have catastrophic consequences if it is not recognized and treated.

Untreated gonorrhea infections in women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can develop days to months after infection and cause consequences.

Untreated gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints, leading to disseminated gonococcal infection, a dangerous illness. Fever, numerous skin lesions, severe joint swelling, inflammation of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and infection of the inner lining of the heart are all signs of DGI. In infants born to infected moms, DGI symptoms include arthritis, meningitis, and sepsis, a serious, life-threatening illness.

Antibiotics identical to those used to treat simple gonorrhea might be used to successfully treat DGI. Treatment-resistant gonorrhea, on the other hand, is becoming more common. To treat all uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults and adolescents in the United States, CDC guidelines presently recommend dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. If a patient's symptoms do not improve following therapy, a healthcare provider may need to do additional tests, including susceptibility testing.

Lab tests often ordered with a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test:

  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Syphilis
  • Herpes 1 and 2

Conditions where a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test is recommended:

  • Gonorrhea
  • HIV
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Syphilis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Infertility
  • Vaginitis
  • Vaginosis

How does my health care provider use a Chlamydia and Gonorrhea test?

Chlamydia and gonorrhea testing is used to detect, diagnose, and confirm that infections caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis have been successfully treated. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are two of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States, and if left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences. To avoid long-term consequences and the spread of the infections to others, it's critical to screen for, diagnose, and treat chlamydia.

Because the illnesses produced by these two bacteria might have similar signs and symptoms, testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is frequently done at the same time. Both of these bacteria can be acquired at the same time, and a person can get infected with both. Because the two infections require distinct antibiotic treatments, a clear diagnosis is critical. Testing should be done again to determine that the treatment was effective. After a person has completed therapy, this is done roughly three months later.

What do my chlamydia and gonorrhea test results mean?

A positive result indicates that you have an active infection that requires antibiotic therapy.

A negative result simply means that no infection was present at the time of the test. It is critical for those who are at a higher risk of infection to have annual screening tests to check for infection, especially since re-infection is common, especially among teenagers.

If you're infected, your sexual partner(s) should get tested and treated as well.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with infections of the mucous membranes of the urogenital system, the upper respiratory tract, and the eye. In industrialized countries, C. trachomatis usually causes sexually transmitted disease. In developing countries, it is the major cause of preventable blindness (trachomatis). Sexually transmitted diseases caused by C. trachomatis include nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis, epididymitis, proctitis and Lymphogranuloma venereum. Infections are often asymptomatic. Thus, infected individuals may unknowingly transmit chlamydial disease to others. Coinfection with C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is common, with multiple chlamydial infections of the upper respiratory tract occurring primarily in newborns exposed at parturition through an infected birth canal. Approximately 10-20% of such infants develop pneumonia and 50% develop inclusion conjunctivitis. In adults, eye disease is often transmitted by the hands from genital secretions or from eye secretion of infected babies. Isolation in tissue culture remains the reference method for diagnosis of chlamydial infection, especially when testing individuals under the age of 13 years. The usefulness of serological tests depends on the site of infection, duration of disease, infecting serovars and pre-vious exposure to chlamydial antigens. Because C. trachomatis is ubiquitous, there is a high prevalence of antibodies in sexually active populations. Antibodies may persist even after treatment, making assessment of a single IgG titer difficult. Consequently, serological diag-nosis is seldom used to diagnose active, superficial genital tract infections.


CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns. Antibody IgG may represent prior exposure or recent infection if there is a significant change in titer between acute and convalescent specimens.

CMV infections are common and usually asymptomatic. In patients who are immunocompromised, CMV may cause disseminated, severe disease. CMV may cause birth defects in a minority of infected newborns.

Most Popular

Description: The gonorrhea urine test is used to determine if a person has been infected with the sexually transmitted infection. It can be used to diagnose a gonorrhea infection for treatment.

Also Known As: GC Test, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae test, Gonorrhoeae test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen.

2 mL urine using APTIMA® Urine Specimen Collection Kit.

Alternative Specimen(s) 

Urine (no preservatives): 2 mL of urine, specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® Urine Transport Medium within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed • ThinPrep® vial • SurePath™ vial

Urine: Patient should not have urinated within one hour prior to collection. Female patients should not cleanse the labial area prior to providing the specimen. Direct patient to provide a first-catch urine (a maximum of 20-30 mL of the initial urine stream) into a urine collection cup free of any preservatives. 2 mL of urine specimen must be transferred into the APTIMA® specimen transport within 24 hours of collection and before being assayed. Use tube provided in the urine specimen collection kit for urine specimens. The fluid (urine plus transport media) level in the urine tube must fall within the clear pane on the tube label.

Transport Container: APTIMA® Transport tube

When is a Gonorrhea test ordered?

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, all sexually active women under the age of 25 and sexually active women beyond the age of 25 who are at elevated risk should have a yearly gonorrhea screening. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Preventive Services Task Force both urge routine screening for these women.

Men who have intercourse with other men should get gonorrhea screening at least once a year, according to the CDC. Routine screening for sexually active, heterosexual guys is not recommended by health organizations. When there is a large number of cases of STDs in the community, for example, healthcare providers may prescribe screening to their patients.

When a person's sexual partner has been diagnosed with gonorrhea, or if the individual shows signs and symptoms of the infection, gonorrhea testing may be recommended.

Three months following gonorrhea therapy, women and men should be tested again.

What does a Gonorrhea Urine test check for?

If not diagnosed and treated, gonorrhea is a common bacterial sexually transmitted illness that can lead to serious consequences. Gonorrhea testing determines whether a person's infection is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The importance of gonorrhea screening, diagnosis, and treatment in reducing long-term consequences and the spread of the infection to others cannot be overstated.

More than 820,000 people in the United States contract new gonorrheal infections each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but only about half of these infections are reported to the CDC. In the United States, sexually active teenagers, young adults, and African Americans have the highest reported rates of infection.

Sexual contact (oral, vaginal, or anal) with an infected partner is the most common way for gonorrhea to spread. Multiple sex partners, coinfection or previous infection with another STD, and not wearing a condom appropriately and consistently are also risk factors.

While some males with gonorrhea will experience symptoms, the majority of women will not or will confuse gonorrhea symptoms with those of a bladder or other vaginal illness. Symptoms in men usually emerge 2 to 5 days after infection, but they can take up to 30 days. Symptoms usually appear within 10 days of infection for women. Because the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea are similar to those of another STD, chlamydia, and can be misinterpreted, testing for both diseases are sometimes performed at the same time.

Antibiotics are generally prescribed to treat gonorrhea. Gonorrhea can have catastrophic consequences if it is not recognized and treated.

Untreated gonorrhea infections in women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can develop days to months after infection and cause consequences.

Untreated gonorrhea can spread to the blood (septicemia) or joints, leading to disseminated gonococcal infection, a dangerous illness. Fever, numerous skin lesions, severe joint swelling, infection of the inner lining of the heart, and inflammation of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord are all signs of DGI. In infants born to infected moms, DGI symptoms include arthritis, meningitis, and sepsis, a serious, life-threatening illness.

Antibiotics identical to those used to treat simple gonorrhea might be used to successfully treat DGI. Treatment-resistant gonorrhea, on the other hand, is becoming more common. To treat all uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults and adolescents in the United States, CDC guidelines presently recommend dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin. If a patient's symptoms do not improve following therapy, a healthcare provider may need to do additional tests, including susceptibility testing.

Lab tests often ordered with a Gonorrhea test:

  • Chlamydia
  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Syphilis
  • Herpes 1 and 2

Conditions where a Gonorrhea test is recommended:

  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • HIV
  • Syphilis
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Vaginitis
  • Vaginosis

How does my health care provider use a Gonorrhea test?

Gonorrhea testing is used to detect, diagnose, and confirm that infections caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been successfully treated. In the United States, gonorrhea is a prevalent sexually transmitted disease that, if left untreated, can lead to serious problems. To avoid long-term problems and the spread of the disease to others, it's critical to screen for, diagnose, and treat gonorrhea.

Because the signs and symptoms of gonorrhea might be similar to those of chlamydia, a clear diagnosis is necessary because the two illnesses require separate antibiotic treatments. Because the two conditions have similar symptoms, healthcare providers frequently test for both Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, the bacteria that causes chlamydia. Testing should be done again to determine that the treatment was effective. After a person has completed therapy, this is done roughly three months later.

What do my Gonorrhea test results mean?

A positive result indicates that you have an active gonorrhea infection that requires antibiotic therapy.

A negative result simply means that no infection was present at the time of the test. It is critical for persons who are at a higher risk of infection to have annual screening tests performed to check for infection.

If you are infected, your sexual partner(s) should get tested and treated as well.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: The Herpes simplex virus 1/2 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 IgG Type-Specific Antibodies, Herpes, Herpes 1 and 2 Test, Herpes 1 Test, Herpes 2 Test, Herpes IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw            

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 1 and 2 antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture. The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 1 and 2 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgG antibody test for HSV-1 or HSV-2 implies a past infection.

When comparing data from acute and convalescent samples, a large increase in HSV IgG antibodies indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: The Herpes simplex virus 1 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 1 IgG Type-Specific Antibodies Test, Herpes Test, Herpes 1 Test, Herpes IgG Test, Herpes 1 IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw            

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation:

No preparation required

When is a Herpes 1 Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 1 Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 1 Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®)
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Herpes 1 Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Herpes
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 1 Antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture (acute and convalescent samples). The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 1 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgG antibody test for HSV-1 implies a past infection.

When comparing data from acute and convalescent samples, a large increase in HSV IgG antibodies indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: The Herpes simplex virus 2 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 2 IgG Type-Specific Antibodies Test, Herpes, Herpes 2 Test, Herpes IgG Test, Herpes 2 IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw            

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Herpes 2 Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 2 Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 2 Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®)
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Herpes 2 Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Herpes
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 2 Antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture (acute and convalescent samples). The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 2 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgG antibody test for HSV-2 implies a past infection.

When comparing data from acute and convalescent samples, a large increase in HSV IgG antibodies indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB - Diagnose HSV-2 infection when lesions are absent.

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal
  • >1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Herpes simplex virus 1 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 1 IgG Type-Specific Antibodies Test, Herpes Test, Herpes 1 Test, Herpes IgG Test, Herpes 1 IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw            

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation:

No preparation required

When is a Herpes 1 Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 1 Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 1 Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®)
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Herpes 1 Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Herpes
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 1 Antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture (acute and convalescent samples). The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 1 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgG antibody test for HSV-1 implies a past infection.

When comparing data from acute and convalescent samples, a large increase in HSV IgG antibodies indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Herpes simplex virus 1/2 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 IgG Type-Specific Antibodies, Herpes, Herpes 1 and 2 Test, Herpes 1 Test, Herpes 2 Test, Herpes IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw            

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Conditions where a Herpes 1 and 2 Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 1 and 2 antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture. The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 1 and 2 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgG antibody test for HSV-1 or HSV-2 implies a past infection.

When comparing data from acute and convalescent samples, a large increase in HSV IgG antibodies indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Herpes simplex virus 1/2 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2 IgM Type-Specific Antibodies, Herpes, Herpes 1 and 2 Test, Herpes 1 Test, Herpes 2 Test, Herpes IgM Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw     

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

Important Reflex Information:

  • If HSV 1 IgM screen is positive, HSV 1 IgM Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86695).
  • If HSV 2 IgM Screen is positive, HSV 2 IgM Titer will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86696).

When is a Herpes 1 and 2 IgM Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 1 and 2 IgM Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 1 and 2 IgM Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Herpes 1 and 2 IgM Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 1 and 2 IgM Antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture (acute and convalescent samples). The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 1 and 2 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgM antibody test for HSV-1 or HSV-2 indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Herpes simplex virus 2 test is a test that is used to measure the herpes antibodies to detect a previous infection of herpes.

Also Known As: Herpes Simplex Virus 2 IgG Type-Specific Antibodies Test, Herpes, Herpes 2 Test, Herpes IgG Test, Herpes 2 IgG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw            

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Herpes 2 Antibody test ordered?

When someone has a blister on their genitals, a herpes test may be recommended.

Antibody testing for HSV is usually requested when someone is being screened for a previous HSV infection. When a current infection is suspected, acute and convalescent HSV antibody tests may be conducted.

When someone has another STD and is at risk for infection, a healthcare provider may request an HSV antibody test. Multiple sexual partners, a sexual partner with herpes, HIV infection, or being at risk for HIV because the person is a guy who has sex with men are all risk factors.

What does a Herpes 2 Antibody blood test check for?

The herpes simplex virus causes herpes, which is a common viral ailment. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are the two primary forms of the virus. Herpes simplex virus testing looks for herpes antibodies in the blood to see if you've had herpes before.

Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are contagious and create little fever blisters that burst open to form open lesions on a regular basis. HSV-1 is more likely to create blisters or "cold sores" around the mouth, whilst HSV-2 is more likely to develop lesions in the genital area; nevertheless, both can affect the oral and genital areas.

The herpes simplex virus can be transmitted from person to person by physical contact while sores are open and healing, as well as when no sores are evident. HSV-2 is more commonly spread through sexual contact, while HSV-1 can also be acquired through oral sex and discovered in the vaginal area. According to the American Sexual Health Association, around 50% of adults in the United States have HSV-1, whereas approximately 17% have HSV-2. Because symptoms are often modest, 90 percent of persons infected with HSV-2 may be unaware of their infection.

When a person is first infected, they may experience visible and painful blisters at the infection site, which normally occur two weeks after the virus is transferred. In most cases, the lesions heal in two to four weeks. Blisters can form in the vaginal area, on the penis, around the anus, or on the buttocks or thighs, among other places. This initial episode may include a second blister breakout as well as flu-like symptoms like fever and swollen glands. Blisters do not affect everyone, and the symptoms can be so subtle that they go unnoticed or be mistaken for something else, such as bug bites or a rash.

When a person is infected with HSV and the infection clears, the virus remains latent in the person's body. The virus might reactivate at times of stress or illness.

People with illnesses that impair the immune system, such as HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone an organ transplant, may experience more frequent and severe HSV outbreaks. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can help to control outbreaks and shorten the time between symptoms and active virus shedding.

When a woman transfers the virus to her infant during a vaginal delivery, it can cause neonatal herpes. Neonatal herpes symptoms emerge within the first month of life and, if addressed, can harm a baby's health in the long run. A pregnant woman with herpes who has been diagnosed may be followed routinely prior to delivery to detect reactivation of the infection, which would necessitate a caesarean section to avoid infecting the baby.

The herpes simplex virus can cause encephalitis if it enters the brain. Those who survive this illness may succumb to it or suffer from major, long-term neurological disorders.

Lab tests often ordered with a Herpes 2 Antibody test:

  • HIV
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (IgG), Type-Specific Antibody (HerpeSelect®)
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Herpes 2 Antibody test is recommended:

  • HIV
  • Herpes
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

How does my health care provider use a Herpes 2 Antibody test?

In people who have genital sores or encephalitis, herpes simplex virus testing is performed to diagnose a current herpes infection. It's also used to test neonates for neonatal herpes, an uncommon but deadly illness in which herpes is contracted during vaginal delivery.

HSV testing can also be performed to determine whether or not you have had a previous infection. Testing may be performed to identify between a primary, active infection and a recurrent illness in persons who have symptoms.

Antibody testing for herpes simplex virus detects immunological proteins produced by the body in response to a herpes infection. Antibodies are divided into two types by the body. Several days after an initial HSV infection, it begins to create IgM class antibodies, which can be detected in the blood for several weeks. Following HSV IgM, it begins to create HSV IgG antibodies. IgG levels in the blood rise for several weeks, then gradually fall and ultimately stable. Once infected with HSV, the infected person will continue to produce modest amounts of HSV IgG.

HSV antibody testing can detect both viral forms, and there are tests that can detect both early IgM antibodies and long-lasting IgG antibodies in persons who have been exposed.

HSV antibody testing can be used to assist diagnose an acute HSV infection if blood samples are collected many weeks apart, albeit it is not as sensitive as PCR or culture (acute and convalescent samples). The HSV IgG antibody levels are compared to check if they have increased significantly, indicating that an infection is present.

Antibody testing may also be used to screen for a previously contracted HSV infection in select populations, such as sexually active adults, possible organ transplant recipients, and those with HIV infection.

What do my Herpes 2 antibody test results mean?

A positive IgG antibody test for HSV-2 implies a past infection.

When comparing data from acute and convalescent samples, a large increase in HSV IgG antibodies indicates an active or recent infection.

Negative HSV antibody results indicate that the person was either not exposed to HSV or that the body did not have enough time to produce HSV antibodies.

HSV 2 IGG, TYPE SPECIFIC AB - Diagnose HSV-2 infection when lesions are absent.

Reference Range(s)

Index Interpretation

  • <0.90 Negative
  • 0.90-1.09 Equivocal
  • >1.09 Positive

This assay utilizes recombinant type-specific antigens to differentiate HSV-1 from HSV-2 infections. A index positive result cannot distinguish between recent and past infection. If recent HSV infection is suspected but the results are negative or equivocal, the assay should be repeated in 4-6 weeks. The performance index characteristics of the assay have not been established for pediatric populations, immunocompromised patients, or neonatal screening.

Limitations

Individuals infected with HSV may not exhibit detectable IgG antibody in the early stages of infection.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Herpes Virus 6 DNA, Qualitative, Real-Time PCR 

HERPES VIRUS 6 DNA,QL REAL TIME PCR


HHV-6 is a distinct herpes virus that typically causes a self-limiting illness in patients who are not immunocompromised. In some patients, especially if immumocompromised, HHV-6 can cause febrile convulsions in infants, encephalitis mononucleosis-like symptoms, and hepatitis.


Histoplasma galactomannan is frequently detected in urine from patients with disseminated histoplasmosis.

Clinical Significance

Assists in evaluating helper and suppressor cell immune status in immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS.


Description: The RPR test is used to determine if a person has been infected with syphilis. An RPR can be used to monitor treatment for syphilis and the effectiveness of syphilis treatment. Syphilis testing is a two-part test. The first round of testing for syphilis is an RPR test. If these results come back positive, a second round of testing will be required. A positive RPR result will be followed by a second method that will be used to confirm the results. If the second syphilis test comes back positive, the affected person will be diagnosed with syphilis. If the second test comes back negative, it could mean that the first test is a false positive and more testing may be necessary.

Also Known As: Rapid Plasma Reagin with Reflex to Titer, Syphilis RPR, Syphilis Titer test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT:  NOTE THIS TEST CAN REFLEX TO ADDITIONAL TESTING AND CHARGES - The price charged for this test is only for the RPR portion. Additional charge of $19 will occur for Reflex testing (Syphilis FTA-ABS #4112)

When is an RPR test ordered?

When a person shows signs and symptoms of syphilis, a syphilis test may be done.

Regardless of symptoms, a person should be tested for syphilis if they:

  • Are being treated for gonorrhea or another sexually transmitted disease?
  • If a woman is pregnant, she should be seen during the first prenatal visit, then again in the third trimester and at the time of delivery if she is at high risk.
  • Are a man who has sex with other males; testing should be done at least once a year or every 3-6 months if the risk is significant.
  • Engages in high-risk sexual behavior, such as having intercourse with several partners without protection.
  • If you have HIV, you should get tested when you're initially diagnosed and then at least once a year after that; if you're at high risk, you should get tested more frequently.
  • Has one or more partners who have tested positive for syphilis
  • Officials from the Department of Public Health have told him or her that he or she has been exposed to an infected partner.

When a person has been treated for syphilis, the CDC recommends doing follow-up testing, such as assessing antibody levels, to ensure that the therapy was successful and the infection was cured.

What does an RPR blood test check for?

Syphilis is a bacterial illness caused by Treponema pallidum that is communicated mostly through sexual intercourse, such as direct touch with a syphilis sore, a firm, elevated, painless sore. Antibodies generated in response to a T. pallidum infection are detected in the blood by the most standard syphilis tests. Some less popular techniques directly identify the bacterium or its genetic components.

Syphilis is easily treated with medications, but if left untreated, it can cause serious health concerns. A mother who is afflicted can convey the disease to her unborn child, which can have serious and even fatal effects for the newborn.

With syphilis, there are numerous stages that can occur:

  • The primary stage of syphilis begins about 2-3 weeks following infection. One or more chancres emerge, usually on the body portion exposed to the chancre of the sexual partner, such as the penis or vaginal area. The chancre, on the other hand, is usually painless and may go unnoticed, especially if it is in the rectum or on the cervix, and it goes away within 4-6 weeks, mending whether or not the infected person is treated.
  • If primary syphilis is left untreated, secondary syphilis can develop anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months after the chancre initially emerges. It is characterized by a rough, red, and speckled skin rash that appears regularly on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet and does not itch. Fever, weariness, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, and body aches are some of the other symptoms that can occur.
  • Secondary syphilis can progress to a latent stage, during which an infected individual has no symptoms but still retains the infection, and this stage can remain for years if left untreated. If left untreated, roughly 15% of persons will develop late, or tertiary, syphilis issues. Bacteria can harm the heart, eyes, brain, neurological system, bones, joints, and practically any other component of the body in these situations. Neurosyphilis is a disease that affects the central nervous system. Tertiary syphilis can linger for years, leading to mental illness, blindness, other neurological issues, heart disease, and death in the ultimate stage.
  • If left untreated, syphilis progresses.

The basic and secondary stages of syphilis are the most contagious. About a third of the approximately 63,000 new cases of syphilis reported to the CDC in 2014 were main or secondary stage syphilis. Eighty-three percent of these cases included guys having intercourse with other men.

Antibiotics, usually penicillin, can be used to cure syphilis. Infections that have been acquired recently can be rapidly healed; however, someone who has been infected for more than a year may require prolonged therapy.

Lab tests often ordered with an RPR test:

  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Trichomonas
  • STD Panel

Conditions where an RPR test is recommended:

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an RPR test?

Syphilis tests are used to detect and/or diagnose infection with the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis.

There are a variety of tests to choose from. The most common type of test is an antibody test.

Antibody tests identify antibodies in the blood and, occasionally, in the cerebrospinal fluid. Nontreponemal antibody test and treponemal antibody test are the two types of syphilis tests available. Syphilis screening can be done with any type, but it must be followed by a second test that employs a different approach to confirm a positive result and identify active syphilis:

Antibodies that aren't specifically directed towards the Treponema pallidum bacterium are detected by nontreponemal antibody testing. The body produces these antibodies when a person has syphilis, but they can also be produced in a variety of other situations. Because the tests are non-specific, false-positive findings can be produced by things like IV drug usage, pregnancy, Lyme disease, certain types of pneumonia, malaria, tuberculosis, or certain autoimmune disorders like lupus. A positive screening result must be double-checked with a more detailed test. Nontreponemal testing include the following:

RPR—in addition to screening, this test can be used to track syphilis therapy. Antibody levels are tested for this reason. When an initial test for treponemal antibodies is positive, it can also be used to confirm the existence of an active infection.

VDRL—in addition to blood, this test is largely used to identify neurosyphilis in the CSF.

Antibodies to T. pallidum are detected by treponemal antibody tests, which are blood tests. Because they are extremely specific for syphilis, they are unlikely to produce a positive result in other diseases. Once a person is infected and these antibodies form, they remain in the bloodstream for the rest of their lives. Nontreponemal antibodies, on the other hand, usually vanish within 3 years in a properly treated person. As a result, a positive treponemal screening result must be followed by a nontreponemal test in order to distinguish between an active infection and one that has been successfully treated in the past. FTA-ABS is a treponemal antibody test that is beneficial after the first 3-4 weeks after exposure. It can be used to assess antibodies to T. pallidum in the CSF to assist diagnose neurosyphilis in addition to blood testing.

TP-PA—instead of FTA-ABS, this test is sometimes used because it is more specific and has less false positives.

Another confirmatory approach is MHA-TP, which is presently used considerably less frequently.

Immunoassays—Several automated tests have been developed in recent years, making them useful for screening applications.

What do my Syphilis test results mean?

A negative blood test indicates that there is most likely no infection. A negative screening test, on the other hand, simply states that there was no evidence of disease at the time of the test. Antibodies may not be detected for several weeks following bacterial contact. If a person is aware that he or she has been exposed, or if the risk of infection remains high, additional testing may be required. It is also critical for persons who are at a higher risk of contracting syphilis to get regular screening tests to check for infection.

A particular treponemal antibody test must be performed after a positive RPR or VDRL screen:

The infected person is diagnosed with syphilis once a positive result on the second method confirms the screening result.

A negative treponemal test result could indicate that the initial RPR or VDRL test was incorrectly positive. To discover the reason of the false positive, more testing and investigation may be conducted.

A treponemal antibody test, on the other hand, will be used as an initial test by a healthcare practitioner or laboratory. A positive result indicates the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood, but because treponemal antibodies stay positive even after an infection is treated, it does not indicate whether the person is now afflicted or has previously been infected. Nontreponemal antibodies found with an RPR, on the other hand, usually vanish after 3 years in a properly treated person. If the initial treponemal test is positive, an RPR can be used to determine whether the infection is active or past. A positive RPR in this scenario would establish that the person has been exposed to syphilis and, if not previously treated, has an ongoing infection or, if treatment occurred more than 3 years ago, possible re-infection.

The results of one or more RPR titers may be used to monitor treatment and/or determine if treatment was successful. Antibodies to syphilis should be decreased after therapy. If the RPR was 1:256 before therapy, a number of 1:16 after treatment would indicate a reduced amount of antibody. The affected person may have a persistent infection or was reinfected if the titer stays the same or rises. The results can also be transformed to a whole number or reported as dilutions.

Nontreponemal antibodies fade away over time after effective treatment, whereas treponemal antibodies remain in the blood for the rest of one's life.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The RPR test is used to determine if a person has been infected with syphilis. An RPR can be used to monitor treatment for syphilis and the effectiveness of syphilis treatment. Syphilis testing is a two-part test. The first round of testing for syphilis is an RPR test. If these results come back positive, a second round of testing will be required. A positive RPR result will be followed by a second method that will be used to confirm the results. If the second syphilis test comes back positive, the affected person will be diagnosed with syphilis. If the second test comes back negative, it could mean that the first test is a false positive and more testing may be necessary.

Also Known As: Rapid Plasma Reagin with Reflex to Titer, Syphilis RPR, Syphilis Titer test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen must be followed by a specific treponemal antibody test (e.g., FTA-ABS):

A positive result on the second method confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

When is a Syphilis RPR test ordered?

When a person shows signs and symptoms of syphilis, a syphilis test may be done.

Regardless of symptoms, a person should be tested for syphilis if they:

  • Are being treated for gonorrhea or another sexually transmitted disease?
  • If a woman is pregnant, she should be seen during the first prenatal visit, then again in the third trimester and at the time of delivery if she is at high risk.
  • Are a man who has sex with other males; testing should be done at least once a year or every 3-6 months if the risk is significant.
  • Engages in high-risk sexual behavior, such as having intercourse with several partners without protection.
  • If you have HIV, you should get tested when you're initially diagnosed and then at least once a year after that; if you're at high risk, you should get tested more frequently.
  • Has one or more partners who have tested positive for syphilis
  • Officials from the Department of Public Health have told him or her that he or she has been exposed to an infected partner.

When a person has been treated for syphilis, the CDC recommends doing follow-up testing, such as assessing antibody levels, to ensure that the therapy was successful and the infection was cured.

What does a Syphilis RPR blood test check for?

Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is primarily spread during sexual activity, such as by direct contact with a syphilis sore. The majority of common syphilis tests can detect antibodies in the blood that were produced in response to a T. pallidum infection. Some less common methods can be used to locate the bacterium or its genetic components.

Syphilis is easily treated with medications, but if left untreated, it can cause serious health concerns. A mother who is afflicted can convey the disease to her unborn child, which can have serious and even fatal effects for the newborn.

With syphilis, there are numerous stages that can occur:

  • The primary stage of syphilis begins about 2-3 weeks following infection. One or more chancres emerge, usually on the body portion exposed to the chancre of the sexual partner, such as the penis or vaginal area. The chancre, on the other hand, is usually painless and may go unnoticed, especially if it is in the rectum or on the cervix, and it goes away within 4-6 weeks, mending whether or not the infected person is treated.
  • If primary syphilis is left untreated, secondary syphilis can develop anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months after the chancre initially emerges. It is characterized by a rough, red, and speckled skin rash that appears regularly on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet and does not itch. Fever, weariness, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, and body aches are some of the other symptoms that can occur.
  • Secondary syphilis can progress to a latent stage, during which an infected individual has no symptoms but still retains the infection, and this stage can remain for years if left untreated. If left untreated, roughly 15% of persons will develop late, or tertiary, syphilis issues. Bacteria can harm the heart, eyes, brain, neurological system, bones, joints, and practically any other component of the body in these situations. Neurosyphilis is a disease that affects the central nervous system. Tertiary syphilis can linger for years, leading to mental illness, blindness, other neurological issues, heart disease, and death in the ultimate stage.
  • If left untreated, syphilis progresses.

The basic and secondary stages of syphilis are the most contagious. About a third of the approximately 63,000 new cases of syphilis reported to the CDC in 2014 were main or secondary stage syphilis. Eighty-three percent of these cases included guys having intercourse with other men.

Antibiotics, usually penicillin, can be used to cure syphilis. Infections that have been acquired recently can be rapidly healed; however, someone who has been infected for more than a year may require prolonged therapy.

Lab tests often ordered with a Syphilis RPR test:

  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Trichomonas
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Syphilis RPR test is recommended:

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes 1
  • Herpes 2
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Syphilis RPR test?

Syphilis tests are used to detect and/or diagnose infection with the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis.

There are a variety of tests to choose from. The most common type of test is an antibody test.

Antibody tests identify antibodies in the blood and, occasionally, in the cerebrospinal fluid. Nontreponemal antibody test and treponemal antibody test are the two types of syphilis tests available. Syphilis screening can be done with any type, but it must be followed by a second test that employs a different approach to confirm a positive result and identify active syphilis:

Antibodies that aren't specifically directed towards the Treponema pallidum bacterium are detected by nontreponemal antibody testing. The body produces these antibodies when a person has syphilis, but they can also be produced in a variety of other situations. Because the tests are non-specific, false-positive findings can be produced by things like IV drug usage, pregnancy, Lyme disease, certain types of pneumonia, malaria, tuberculosis, or certain autoimmune disorders like lupus. A positive screening result must be double-checked with a more detailed test. Nontreponemal testing include the following:

RPR—in addition to screening, this test can be used to track syphilis therapy. Antibody levels are tested for this reason. When an initial test for treponemal antibodies is positive, it can also be used to confirm the existence of an active infection.

VDRL—in addition to blood, this test is largely used to identify neurosyphilis in the CSF.

Antibodies to T. pallidum are detected by treponemal antibody tests, which are blood tests. Because they are extremely specific for syphilis, they are unlikely to produce a positive result in other diseases. Once a person is infected and these antibodies form, they remain in the bloodstream for the rest of their lives. Nontreponemal antibodies, on the other hand, usually vanish within 3 years in a properly treated person. As a result, a positive treponemal screening result must be followed by a nontreponemal test in order to distinguish between an active infection and one that has been successfully treated in the past. FTA-ABS is a treponemal antibody test that is beneficial after the first 3-4 weeks after exposure. It can be used to assess antibodies to T. pallidum in the CSF to assist diagnose neurosyphilis in addition to blood testing.

  • TP-PA—instead of FTA-ABS, this test is sometimes used because it is more specific and has less false positives.
  • Another confirmatory approach is MHA-TP, which is presently used considerably less frequently.
  • Immunoassays—Several automated tests have been developed in recent years, making them useful for screening applications.

What do my Syphilis test results mean?

A negative blood test indicates that there is most likely no infection. A negative screening test, on the other hand, simply states that there was no evidence of disease at the time of the test. Antibodies may not be detected for several weeks following bacterial contact. If a person is aware that he or she has been exposed, or if the risk of infection remains high, additional testing may be required. It is also critical for persons who are at a higher risk of contracting syphilis to get regular screening tests to check for infection.

A particular treponemal antibody test must be performed after a positive RPR or VDRL screen:

The infected person is diagnosed with syphilis once a positive result on the second method confirms the screening result.

A negative treponemal test result could indicate that the initial RPR or VDRL test was incorrectly positive. To discover the reason of the false positive, more testing and investigation may be conducted.

A treponemal antibody test, on the other hand, will be used as an initial test by a healthcare practitioner or laboratory. A positive result indicates the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood, but because treponemal antibodies stay positive even after an infection is treated, it does not indicate whether the person is now afflicted or has previously been infected. Nontreponemal antibodies found with an RPR, on the other hand, usually vanish after 3 years in a properly treated person. If the initial treponemal test is positive, an RPR can be used to determine whether the infection is active or past. A positive RPR in this scenario would establish that the person has been exposed to syphilis and, if not previously treated, has an ongoing infection or, if treatment occurred more than 3 years ago, possible re-infection.

The results of one or more RPR titers may be used to monitor treatment and/or determine if treatment was successful. Antibodies to syphilis should be decreased after therapy. If the RPR was 1:256 before therapy, a number of 1:16 after treatment would indicate a reduced amount of antibody. The affected person may have a persistent infection or was reinfected if the titer stays the same or rises. The results can also be transformed to a whole number or reported as dilutions.

Nontreponemal antibodies fade away over time after effective treatment, whereas treponemal antibodies remain in the blood for the rest of one's life.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: The Rubella test is used to measure the blood’s serum for rubella IgG antibodies, which may be present because of a previous infection or a vaccination.

Also Known As: German Measles test, 3 Day Measles Test, Three Day Measles Test, Rubella Titer Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Rubella Antibody IgG test ordered?

When a woman is pregnant or planning to become pregnant, an IgG rubella test is ordered. It is required anytime a check for rubella immunity is required. When a pregnant woman exhibits signs and symptoms that could indicate a rubella infection, IgM and IgG rubella tests may be conducted.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • A pink rash that starts on the face and extends downhill to the body, legs, and arms; once the rash goes to the body, it may disappear from the face.
  • A stuffy or runny nose
  • Eyes that be red or inflamed
  • Joints that hurt
  • Lymph nodes swollen

A health practitioner will need to request the tests to confirm the diagnosis because numerous illnesses can cause identical symptoms.

IgM and IgG tests may be ordered for a newborn if the mother was diagnosed with rubella during pregnancy and/or if the newborn is born with congenital rubella syndrome-related birth abnormalities such as hearing loss, heart defects, or clouded lens of the eyes.

Because antibodies to rubella take time to form after infection, the tests may be repeated after day 5 of sickness onset and 7-21 days following the initial samples to examine if antibody levels have become detectable and to see if they are rising or dropping over time.

This test is still necessary for women in some states as part of the blood testing required to acquire a marriage license.

What does a Rubella Antibody IgG blood test check for?

The rubella test detects antibodies in the blood that form as a result of a rubella infection or immunization. Rubella testing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ascertain that you are protected against the rubella virus.
  • Find out if you've had an infection recently or in the past.
  • Determine who has not been exposed to the virus and who has not received a vaccine.
  • Check to see if all pregnant women and those planning to get pregnant have enough rubella antibodies to prevent infection.

Rubella is a viral infection that normally causes a slight fever and rash that lasts two to three days. The infection normally goes away on its own. Rubella, on the other hand, can cause major difficulties in the developing infant if a pregnant woman acquires it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy.

A rubella test may be ordered for anyone, pregnant or not, who is experiencing symptoms that a doctor believes are caused by a rubella infection. It may also be ordered for a newborn who is suspected of contracting rubella during pregnancy or who has congenital birth abnormalities that a doctor suspects are caused by the illness.

IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of rubella antibodies that lab tests can detect:

The IgM rubella antibody is the first to develop in the blood following exposure. Except in an infected infant, where it may be observed for several months to a year, the level of this protein rises and peaks in the blood within about 7 to 10 days after infection and then tapers off over the next few weeks.

The IgG rubella antibody takes a little longer to surface than the IgM, but once it does, it stays in the bloodstream for the rest of the patient's life, protecting them from re-infection. IgM rubella antibodies in the blood indicate a recent infection, whereas IgG antibodies can indicate a current or past rubella infection, or that a rubella vaccine was given and is giving appropriate protection.

The IgM rubella test is the gold standard for a fast rubella laboratory diagnosis. The presence of an increase in IgG rubella in blood samples taken when a person is sick and later as they recover can be used to confirm infection. Antibody testing differ between laboratories, and the state health agency can advise on available laboratory services and recommended tests.

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella Antibody IgG test:

  • Measles IgG Antibody
  • Mumps IgG Antibody
  • Varicella Zoster Virus IgG Antibody
  • Tuberculosis
  • Hepatitis B Antibody
  • Hepatitis C Antibody

Lab tests often ordered with a Rubella IgG Antibody test:

  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Travelers’ Diseases
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Rubella Antibody IgG test?

Antibody tests for Rubella can be used to:

  • Confirm if a person is virus-free due to previous infections or vaccinations.
  • Diagnosis of a rubella outbreak
  • In order to protect the public's health, epidemics must be detected, monitored, and tracked.

Antibody analysis

Antibody testing can be used to confirm immunity, identify a current infection, or follow outbreaks. Antibodies to the rubella viruses are viral-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection with the virus or immunization. IgM and IgG antibodies are the two types of antibodies generated. IgM antibodies are the first to emerge in the blood after exposure or immunization. IgM antibody levels rise over several days to a peak, then gradually decline over the next few weeks. IgG antibodies take a little longer to develop, but once they do, they remain positive for the rest of your life, protecting you from re-infection. By comparing the levels of antibody in two blood samples taken weeks apart, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between an active and past infection.

What do my Rubella Antibody IgG test results mean?

When IgM antibodies to rubella are present in someone who hasn't been vaccinated recently, it's likely that they have a current rubella infection. When both IgM and IgG antibodies are present, or there is a fourfold increase in concentrations between acute and convalescent IgG antibody testing, it is likely that the person is now infected or has recently been infected with rubella.

When a person who has been vaccinated and/or is not currently ill possesses rubella IgG antibodies, that individual is protected from infection. A person is not deemed immune to the virus if they do not have rubella IgG antibodies. This could be due to the fact that the person hasn't been exposed to the virus, the IgG hasn't had enough time to mature, or the person doesn't have a typical antibody response.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Syphilis (RPR + FTA-ABS)

  • FTA-ABS - Treponema pallidum Ab (Confirmation for Syphilis RPR test).
  • Syphilis RPR ( RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer)

FTA-ABS - Treponema pallidum Ab

Clinical Significance

The FTA-ABS is a specific treponemal assay to detect antibody to t. Pallidum. The FTA-ABS becomes reactive 4-6 weeks after infection. Unlike the nontreponemal tests, once the FTA-ABS test becomes reactive, it will remain reactive for many years. Since the reactivity found with the FTA-ABS does not indicate response to therapy, it is not suitable for monitoring treatment. The FTA-ABS test does not distinguish between syphillis and other treponematoses such as yaws, pinta and bejil.

The treponemal antibody test (FTA-ABS) is often used as an initial test. A positive result indicates the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood, but since treponemal antibodies remain positive even after an infection has been treated, it does not indicate whether the person has a current infection or was infected in the past. Conversely, nontreponemal antibodies as detected with an RPR typically disappear in an adequately treated person after about 3 years. Thus, if an initial treponemal test is positive, an RPR can be performed to differentiate between an active or past infection. In this case, a positive RPR would confirm that the person has been exposed to syphilis and, if not treated previously, has an active infection or, if treatment had occurred more than 3 years ago, possible re-infection.

Alternative Name(s) 

Treponemal pallidum, Fluorescent Treponemal Antigen, Syphilis

 

Syphilis RPR ( RPR (Monitor) with Reflex to Titer)

Reference Range(s)

Non-Reactive

Clinical Significance

This is a non-treponemal screening test for syphilis. False positive results may occur due to systemic lupus erythematosus, leprosy, brucellosis, atypical pneumonia, typhus, yaws, pinta, or pregnancy. Monitoring of RPR is helpful in assessing effectiveness of therapy.

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen and a positive result on the FTA-ABS confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

Alternative Name(s) 

Syphilis


Syphilis FTA-ABS (Confirmation for Syphilis RPR test)

FTA-ABS - Treponema pallidum Ab

Clinical Significance

The FTA-ABS is a specific treponemal assay to detect antibody to t. Pallidum. The FTA-ABS becomes reactive 4-6 weeks after infection. Unlike the nontreponemal tests, once the FTA-ABS test becomes reactive, it will remain reactive for many years. Since the reactivity found with the FTA-ABS does not indicate response to therapy, it is not suitable for monitoring treatment. The FTA-ABS test does not distinguish between syphillis and other treponematoses such as yaws, pinta and bejil.

The treponemal antibody test (FTA-ABS) is often used as an initial test. A positive result indicates the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood, but since treponemal antibodies remain positive even after an infection has been treated, it does not indicate whether the person has a current infection or was infected in the past. Conversely, nontreponemal antibodies as detected with an RPR typically disappear in an adequately treated person after about 3 years. Thus, if an initial treponemal test is positive, an RPR can be performed to differentiate between an active or past infection. In this case, a positive RPR would confirm that the person has been exposed to syphilis and, if not treated previously, has an active infection or, if treatment had occurred more than 3 years ago, possible re-infection.

Alternative Name(s) 

Treponemal pallidum, Fluorescent Treponemal Antigen, Syphilis


Description: The RPR test is used to determine if a person has been infected with syphilis. An RPR can be used to monitor treatment for syphilis and the effectiveness of syphilis treatment. Syphilis testing is a two-part test. The first round of testing for syphilis is an RPR test. If these results come back positive, a second round of testing will be required. A positive RPR result will be followed by a second method that will be used to confirm the results. If the second syphilis test comes back positive, the affected person will be diagnosed with syphilis. If the second test comes back negative, it could mean that the first test is a false positive and more testing may be necessary.

Also Known As: Rapid Plasma Reagin with Reflex to Titer, Syphilis RPR, Syphilis Titer test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

IMPORTANT

A positive RPR screen must be followed by a specific treponemal antibody test (e.g., FTA-ABS):

A positive result on the second method confirms the screening result and the affected person is diagnosed with syphilis.

A negative result on the treponemal test may mean that the initial RPR test was falsely positive. Further testing and investigation may be done to determine the cause of the false positive.

Limitations

False-positive results have been associated in patients with infections, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, old age, Gaucher disease, and malignancy.

When is a Syphilis RPR test ordered?

When a person shows signs and symptoms of syphilis, a syphilis test may be done.

Regardless of symptoms, a person should be tested for syphilis if they:

  • Are being treated for gonorrhea or another sexually transmitted disease?
  • If a woman is pregnant, she should be seen during the first prenatal visit, then again in the third trimester and at the time of delivery if she is at high risk.
  • Are a man who has sex with other males; testing should be done at least once a year or every 3-6 months if the risk is significant.
  • Engages in high-risk sexual behavior, such as having intercourse with several partners without protection.
  • If you have HIV, you should get tested when you're initially diagnosed and then at least once a year after that; if you're at high risk, you should get tested more frequently.
  • Has one or more partners who have tested positive for syphilis
  • Officials from the Department of Public Health have told him or her that he or she has been exposed to an infected partner.

When a person has been treated for syphilis, the CDC recommends doing follow-up testing, such as assessing antibody levels, to ensure that the therapy was successful and the infection was cured.

What does a Syphilis RPR blood test check for?

Syphilis is a bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is primarily spread during sexual activity, such as by direct contact with a syphilis sore. The majority of common syphilis tests can detect antibodies in the blood that were produced in response to a T. pallidum infection. Some less common methods can be used to locate the bacterium or its genetic components.

Syphilis is easily treated with medications, but if left untreated, it can cause serious health concerns. A mother who is afflicted can convey the disease to her unborn child, which can have serious and even fatal effects for the newborn.

With syphilis, there are numerous stages that can occur:

  • The primary stage of syphilis begins about 2-3 weeks following infection. One or more chancres emerge, usually on the body portion exposed to the chancre of the sexual partner, such as the penis or vaginal area. The chancre, on the other hand, is usually painless and may go unnoticed, especially if it is in the rectum or on the cervix, and it goes away within 4-6 weeks, mending whether or not the infected person is treated.
  • If primary syphilis is left untreated, secondary syphilis can develop anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months after the chancre initially emerges. It is characterized by a rough, red, and speckled skin rash that appears regularly on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet and does not itch. Fever, weariness, enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, and body aches are some of the other symptoms that can occur.
  • Secondary syphilis can progress to a latent stage, during which an infected individual has no symptoms but still retains the infection, and this stage can remain for years if left untreated. If left untreated, roughly 15% of persons will develop late, or tertiary, syphilis issues. Bacteria can harm the heart, eyes, brain, neurological system, bones, joints, and practically any other component of the body in these situations. Neurosyphilis is a disease that affects the central nervous system. Tertiary syphilis can linger for years, leading to mental illness, blindness, other neurological issues, heart disease, and death in the ultimate stage.
  • If left untreated, syphilis progresses.

The basic and secondary stages of syphilis are the most contagious. About a third of the approximately 63,000 new cases of syphilis reported to the CDC in 2014 were main or secondary stage syphilis. Eighty-three percent of these cases included guys having intercourse with other men.

Antibiotics, usually penicillin, can be used to cure syphilis. Infections that have been acquired recently can be rapidly healed; however, someone who has been infected for more than a year may require prolonged therapy.

Lab tests often ordered with a Syphilis RPR test:

  • HIV Antibody
  • HIV Antigen
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes 1 and 2
  • Trichomonas
  • STD Panel

Conditions where a Syphilis RPR test is recommended:

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes 1
  • Herpes 2
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use a Syphilis RPR test?

Syphilis tests are used to detect and/or diagnose infection with the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis.

There are a variety of tests to choose from. The most common type of test is an antibody test.

Antibody tests identify antibodies in the blood and, occasionally, in the cerebrospinal fluid. Nontreponemal antibody test and treponemal antibody test are the two types of syphilis tests available. Syphilis screening can be done with any type, but it must be followed by a second test that employs a different approach to confirm a positive result and identify active syphilis:

Antibodies that aren't specifically directed towards the Treponema pallidum bacterium are detected by nontreponemal antibody testing. The body produces these antibodies when a person has syphilis, but they can also be produced in a variety of other situations. Because the tests are non-specific, false-positive findings can be produced by things like IV drug usage, pregnancy, Lyme disease, certain types of pneumonia, malaria, tuberculosis, or certain autoimmune disorders like lupus. A positive screening result must be double-checked with a more detailed test. Nontreponemal testing include the following:

RPR—in addition to screening, this test can be used to track syphilis therapy. Antibody levels are tested for this reason. When an initial test for treponemal antibodies is positive, it can also be used to confirm the existence of an active infection.

VDRL—in addition to blood, this test is largely used to identify neurosyphilis in the CSF.

Antibodies to T. pallidum are detected by treponemal antibody tests, which are blood tests. Because they are extremely specific for syphilis, they are unlikely to produce a positive result in other diseases. Once a person is infected and these antibodies form, they remain in the bloodstream for the rest of their lives. Nontreponemal antibodies, on the other hand, usually vanish within 3 years in a properly treated person. As a result, a positive treponemal screening result must be followed by a nontreponemal test in order to distinguish between an active infection and one that has been successfully treated in the past. FTA-ABS is a treponemal antibody test that is beneficial after the first 3-4 weeks after exposure. It can be used to assess antibodies to T. pallidum in the CSF to assist diagnose neurosyphilis in addition to blood testing.

  • TP-PA—instead of FTA-ABS, this test is sometimes used because it is more specific and has less false positives.
  • Another confirmatory approach is MHA-TP, which is presently used considerably less frequently.
  • Immunoassays—Several automated tests have been developed in recent years, making them useful for screening applications.

What do my Syphilis test results mean?

A negative blood test indicates that there is most likely no infection. A negative screening test, on the other hand, simply states that there was no evidence of disease at the time of the test. Antibodies may not be detected for several weeks following bacterial contact. If a person is aware that he or she has been exposed, or if the risk of infection remains high, additional testing may be required. It is also critical for persons who are at a higher risk of contracting syphilis to get regular screening tests to check for infection.

A particular treponemal antibody test must be performed after a positive RPR or VDRL screen:

The infected person is diagnosed with syphilis once a positive result on the second method confirms the screening result.

A negative treponemal test result could indicate that the initial RPR or VDRL test was incorrectly positive. To discover the reason of the false positive, more testing and investigation may be conducted.

A treponemal antibody test, on the other hand, will be used as an initial test by a healthcare practitioner or laboratory. A positive result indicates the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood, but because treponemal antibodies stay positive even after an infection is treated, it does not indicate whether the person is now afflicted or has previously been infected. Nontreponemal antibodies found with an RPR, on the other hand, usually vanish after 3 years in a properly treated person. If the initial treponemal test is positive, an RPR can be used to determine whether the infection is active or past. A positive RPR in this scenario would establish that the person has been exposed to syphilis and, if not previously treated, has an ongoing infection or, if treatment occurred more than 3 years ago, possible re-infection.

The results of one or more RPR titers may be used to monitor treatment and/or determine if treatment was successful. Antibodies to syphilis should be decreased after therapy. If the RPR was 1:256 before therapy, a number of 1:16 after treatment would indicate a reduced amount of antibody. The affected person may have a persistent infection or was reinfected if the titer stays the same or rises. The results can also be transformed to a whole number or reported as dilutions.

Nontreponemal antibodies fade away over time after effective treatment, whereas treponemal antibodies remain in the blood for the rest of one's life.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.



Sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. have reached an all-time high since 2015! There were approximately 2.6 million cases of STDs in 2019 in the U.S. More than 1.8 million cases of Chlamydia, 129,813 cases of Syphilis, and 616,329 cases of gonorrhea were reported.

Are you taking steps to protect yourself? Are you safe?

In this piece, you'll learn everything you need to know about screening methods and the top tests a patient can ask for STDs. In addition, you'll learn what each STD is and the possible symptoms and signs for each.

Don't hesitate! Continue reading to discover what STD tests you can ask for today for a safer tomorrow.

What Are STDs?

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections spread from one individual to another, generally by sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, and oral). Some common examples of STDs are Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Herpes 1, and Syphilis.

While anyone can become infected with an STD, you're at a higher risk if:

  • You don't use a condom
  • You have sex with a person who has had several partners
  • You share needles
  • You have multiple sex partners
  • You trade sex for money or drugs

STDs are widespread, and many people who have them rarely have any symptoms. Besides, some STDs, such as HIV, don't have a cure. Regardless, getting tested is essential.

Why Get Tested?

If you have an infection or disease, you'll have symptoms, right? Not always.

Many STDs out there don't have symptoms, and without treatment, they can lead to serious health issues. But the good news is that getting tested for STDs is not a big deal, and most sexually transmitted diseases are easy to treat, so it's best to be informed and ask for these tests.

1. Chlamydia

This is a prevalent (but curable) sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial infection. Chlamydia affects the cervix in women and the penile urethra in men. Often it doesn't have symptoms, but it's easy to treat once diagnosed.  

Possible symptoms for men:

  • Discharge from the penis
  • Burning sensation during urination
  • Testicular pain and swelling

Possible symptoms for women:

  • Burning during urination
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge

The most effective way to prevent Chlamydia is to abstain from sexual intercourse (oral, virginal, and anal). For sexually active people, the best way to stay Chlamydia free is to maintain a monogamous relationship with a person who has no STDs. Of course, regularly practice safe sex, i.e., use condoms.

Again, since Chlamydia rarely shows any symptoms, it's crucial to ask your physician for tests. If you're not comfortable talking to your doctor about STDs, visit a testing center near you.

Testing for Chlamydia

A phlebotomist at an authorized patient service center will provide you with a urine collection cup to provide 20-30 ml of urine for testing.

2. Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is another extremely common STD, with over 600,000 cases in 2019 (up 56% from 2015).

If not treated, gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and an increase in HIV. Pelvic inflammatory disease can lead to infertility, among many other health problems.

Possible symptoms in men:

    • A white, green, or yellow discharge
    • Painful or burning urination
    • Swollen testicles

Possible symptoms for women:

    • Increased vaginal discharge
    • Bleeding between your period
    • Painful or burning urination

Testing for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia

It's highly recommended that you get tested yearly for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea if:

    • You're under 25
    • You have HIV
    • You've been forced to engage in sex without consent
    • You're a man who has sex with men
    • You're over 25 and sexually active with multiple sex partners

Again, it's always best to get tested regularly to be aware if you have any STDs or not. But getting tested regularly is even more critical if you fall under either of the categories above.

How it's performed: A phlebotomist at an authorized patient service center will provide you with a urine collection cup to provide 20-30 ml of urine for testing.

3. HIV

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV damages your immune system by destroying a type of white blood cell that helps your body fight infections.

Transmission: HIV spreads in different ways, including through vaginal secretions, semen, breast milk, and contact with the blood of a person with HIV. While HIV is not curable, it is treated by drugs commonly known as HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) or CART (combined antiretroviral therapy).

These drugs make HIV a manageable chronic condition and reduce the chances of HIV reaching its final stage and causing AIDS. They also reduce the risk of spreading the virus to others. Some early symptoms of HIV include:

    • Thrush (fungal infection of the mouth)
    • Sore throat
    • Diarrhea
    • Feeling tired
    • Fever
    • Muscle and joint pain
    • Rash
    • Night sweats
    • Ulcer on mouth or genitals
    • Headaches

The above symptoms can show 1-2 months after transmission but can appear as soon as 2 weeks after infection. Some people don't experience any symptoms, and you can have no symptoms for a decade without knowing you have HIV.

While women and men experience many similar symptoms, some women may experience abnormal signs such as pap smears showing cervical dysplasia. Women with HIV can have PID as well. If you experience continual or severe vaginal infections, they could also be signs and symptoms of HIV.

Men with HIV can experience an ulcer on the penis.

Testing for HIV

The only way to be 100% sure you're HIV-free is to get tested.

How it's done: A phlebotomist at an authorized patient service center will perform a blood draw on you and send the specimen into a national testing laboratory for testing.

Note: If you're concerned about privacy, anonymous and confidential testing is available at many health centers.

The Difference Between HIV and AIDS

Often confused to be one and the same, there are differences between HIV and AIDS.

First, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, also known as stage 3 HIV. Thanks to different treatment options, people with HIV do not always have AIDS and can lead long and healthy lives.

HIV is the virus that causes immune system deterioration by destroying T cells or CD4 cells that help protect the body from infections. Once contracted, your immune system can't fight off infections the way it should. HIV can be managed through medication, but there's no cure.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is the disease caused by the damage that HIV does to your immune system. The symptoms of AIDS can vary from one person to another depending on the infections a patient develops from having a damaged immune system.

AIDs is the most severe stage of HIV, and it leads to death overtime. Keep in mind that HIV doesn't always lead to AIDS, and early detection coupled with taking the proper treatment can help prevent that.

Protecting Against HIV

    • Get tested for HIV (It's the only way to be 100% sure you have HIV or not. Then if you have HIV, you can get the proper treatment to reduce the risk of spreading to others and take precautions against it turning into AIDS)
    • Always use condoms for sexual intercourse (oral, vaginal, and anal)
    • Practice less risky sexual behaviors, such as limiting the number of sexual partners you have
    • Don't use or share needles. You can find needle exchange locations near you if necessary.
    • Getting tested and treated for STDs
    • Be cautious when handling blood and assume that any blood could be infectious. Use barriers or wear gloves for protection against touching or handling blood.

4. Herpes

Herpes is a common viral STD that comes in two forms: HSV-1 and HSV-2.

When people get a cold sore, that's what's referred to as HSV-1

HSV-1 (herpes simplex type 1) usually makes sores pop up on and around your mouth and lips. On the other hand, HSV-2 (herpes simplex type 2) often causes genital sores. It is possible to transfer herpes through skin-to-skin contact with infected areas, meaning you can spread herpes from the genitals to the mouth and the other way around as well.

There's no cure for HSV, but symptoms are manageable with antiviral drugs

Many people don't know when they're infected with herpes or mistake sores caused by the virus for something else. You can transfer herpes even when you don't have any sores or symptoms.

Always wearing a condom during sex can lower the chances of giving herpes to other people, but it's not 100% effective. Outbreaks can be sparked by both internal and external triggers, including illness, stress, or trauma.  

HSV-1 usually causes oral herpes and spreads through the transfer of saliva, herpes sores, vaginal fluid, semen, and blisters. You can get herpes simplex type 1 from kissing, sharing drinks, or having oral sex with a person who has the virus.

HSV-2 usually causes genital herpes and is transferred through semen, vaginal fluid, and skin-to-skin contact with mucous membranes. If you have herpes simplex type 2, you can experience lesions and painful blisters on the genitals, anus, and upper thighs.

Before sores or blisters appear, you can experience fever, body aches, or tingling and pain in your genitals, hips, legs, as well as swollen lymph nodes.

Herpes Symptoms Men vs. Women

When herpes symptoms show, they can first occur about 2 weeks after exposure. In men, blisters or sores appear on the penis and appear on the thighs, scrotum, and buttocks.

Some men can also experience difficulty and pain urinating, swollen lymph nodes in the groin and pelvis region, and have discharge from the urinary tube.

For women, herpes sores can pop up on the labia majora (outer lips), the entrance of the vagina, and the labia minora (inner lips). You can also have blisters on the thighs, clitoris, buttocks, or anus. Some women may also experience watery discharge from the vagina.

Some women who experience herpes symptoms can have a yeast infection as well. Herpes outbreaks that recur in women can be due to menstruation, exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, and not eating healthy.

Testing for Herpes

The only way to be 100% certain if you have herpes or not is to get tested.

How it's done: A phlebotomist at an authorized patient service center will perform a blood draw on you and send the specimen into a national testing laboratory for testing.

5. Syphilis

Syphilis is an STD caused by bacterial infection. While it is easy to cure with antibiotic medication, left untreated, it can cause significant and permanent complications. Syphilis is spread by having direct contact with syphilis sores which can be on the genitals or mouth. That means it can be transferred through oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse.

Condoms go a long way in reducing the risk, but they do not entirely eliminate the risk of spreading Syphilis. Syphilis causes small and painless sores, which can heal on their own, so you might not know if you have it. But you'll still be infected. Syphilis can easily be treated and cured with antibiotic medication if you treat it early. 

Men and women with Syphilis often experience the same symptoms. For men, a small ulcer that is small, reddish-brown, and flat may pop up in the anus, on the mouth, and genitals. For women, the ulcer can pop up inside the vagina. These ulcers are usually painless and have no odor.

Syphilis Testing

How the test is done: A phlebotomist at an authorized patient service center will perform a blood draw on you and send the specimen into a national testing laboratory for testing.

6. Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is a common STD caused by a parasite and is often misdiagnosed by women as bacterial vaginosis or a yeast infection since the symptoms can be similar. Some symptoms of Trichomoniasis in women include:

    • Strong vaginal odor
    • Pain or discomfort during intercourse
    • Irritation, itching, soreness, or burning of the vagina and vulva
    • Painful urination

Most men who get Trichomoniasis do not have symptoms. If they do, they may include:

    • Discharge from penis
    • Burning after ejaculation or urination
    • Irritation or itching inside the penis

If you have this STD, you'll want your partner to get tested and treated, so they don't transfer it back to you.

Trichomoniasis Testing

How it is performed: Your healthcare provider will take a swab sample of your genital area and send it to a national testing laboratory for testing.

7. Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an infection composed of Hepatitis A, B, or C. It is spread through different modes, but all can cause liver disease. Hepatitis B can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, but so can Hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is spread through food and can cause jaundice and fever.

You can protect yourself by using condoms and getting a Hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis is curable, and the only way to be sure if you have hepatitis is to get tested.

Testing for Hepatitis

How it is performed: A phlebotomist at an authorized patient service center will perform a blood draw on you and send the specimen into a national testing laboratory for testing.

Get STD Screening with Ulta Lab Tests

Getting tested for sexually transmitted diseases is important! It's the first step to taking proper precautions to protect yourself from contracting them and feeling better if you have symptoms. And many STDs don't always have signs and symptoms, so getting an STD screen is crucial.

Protect yourself and your partner, too. Get the facts with an STD scan. STD tests are quick and easy with Ulta Lab Tests.

Ulta Lab tests provides accurate and reliable tests so that you can make informed decisions regarding your health. Here are some of the benefits patients love about Ulta Lab Tests:

  • Confidential and secure results
  • No insurance required
  • No doctor’s referral needed
  • Affordable pricing
  • 100% satisfaction guarantee

Order your tests with Ulta Lab Tests and get your results back within 24-48 hours of having your specimen collected for most tests.

Take control of your health with Ulta Lab Tests today!

Tests:

STDs And HIV Frequently Asked Questions

Are STDs associated with HIV?

You are more likely to contract HIV or transmit the disease to other sexual partners if you have an STD.

People in the U.S. who have syphilisherpes, or gonorrhea often also have HIV or are at a higher risk of getting HIV.

Why does having STDs put you at higher risk for contracting HIV?

Having an STD puts you at a higher risk of getting HIV because the same circumstances and behaviors that may put you at risk for STDs also can put you at greater risk of getting HIV. Additionally, when STDs result in breaks in the skin or sores, HIV may enter your body more easily. For these two reasons, it is more likely that you will get HIV if you have an STD.

It is highly recommended to get tested regularly for both HIV and STDs if you are sexually active. Even if you aren’t experiencing any of the symptoms of an STD/HIV or if you are having sex with only one partner, get tested.

Which activities can increase the risk of getting both STDs and HIV?

  • Not using a condom while having oral, vaginal, or anal sex.
  • Having more than one sex partner.
  • Having sex with anonymous people.
  • Being under the influence of drugs or alcohol can lead to lower inhibitions, which can lead to taking greater sexual risks.

How Can I Avoid getting an STD or HIV?

There is only one way to be 100% sure that you can’t get HIV or an STD, and that is to abstain from all sexual activity, which means no oral, vaginal or anal sex. However, there are some steps that you can take to lower your chances of contracting these diseases if you choose to be sexually active:

  • Choose sexual activities that are less risky.
  • Wear a new condom or insist that your partner wears a new condom for each oral, vaginal, or anal sexual act throughout the entire act.
  • Reduce the number of sexual partners.
  • Don’t drink or use drugs that affect your decision-making behavior regarding sex.
  • Talk openly and honestly with a healthcare provider and get tested for HIV and STDs regularly.
  • Ask your healthcare provider whether pre (PrEP) or post-exposure (PEP) prophylaxis may be a good option for you.

If I already have HIV and get an STD, does this increase the risk of transmitting HIV to my sexual partner(s)?

Getting infected with an STD can increase the risk of transmitting HIV to your sex partner(s). You can lower the risk by taking the following steps:

  • Get treated for your HIV with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and make sure that you stay on the medication. Taking HIV medication can reduce the viral load or the amount of the virus that is present in your bloodstream. In fact, ART’s can reduce a viral load to such an extent that it becomes undetectable in HIV tests. If you have an undetectable viral load, it is much less likely that you will transmit HIV to your sexual partners. However, it is important to note that an undetectable viral load does not mean that you are cured.
  • Engage in less risky sexual activities.
  • Always use a new condom for each oral, vaginal, or anal sex act and wear the condom throughout the act from the beginning to the end. 
  • Your sexual partner may want to consider taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and discuss this with a qualified healthcare provider to determine if this is a suitable option. PrEP is highly effective at reducing the risk of contracting HIV when taken daily. Inconsistently taking the prophylactic treatment lowers the efficacy. Be aware that PrEP is not intended to prevent the transmission of other STDs and, therefore, still use condoms.

Will STD treatment stop me from getting HIV?

The answer is No. Treatment for STDs is primarily to help prevent complications and the transmission of the disease to other sexual partners. Treatment for an STD is different from the treatment for HIV and therefore, will not prevent the spreading of HIV. STD treatment is not sufficient to prevent HIV. If you have been diagnosed with an STD, talk to your healthcare provider or doctor about how to prevent getting reinfected with the same STD, or getting HIV.

Where can I get more information regarding STDs and HIV?

HIV/AIDS and STDs

www.cdc.gov/std/hiv/

PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis)

www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/prep.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

www.cdc.gov/std

CDC-INFO Contact Center

1-800-CDC-INFO

(1-800-232-4636)

https://wwwn.cdc.gov/dcs/

CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)

https://npin.cdc.gov/disease/stds

American Sexual Health Association (ASHA)

https://www.ashasexualhealth.org

P. O. Box 13827

Research Triangle Park, NC

27709-3827

919-361-8488

Content source: Division of STD PreventionNational Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB PreventionCenters for Disease Control and Prevention

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