Pancreatic Diseases

Pancreatic Diseases Lab Tests and health information

Abnormal levels of amylase may indicate pancreatitis or another problem with your pancreas. Order an amylase serum test to measure the amount of amylase in your blood. Order from Ulta Lab Tests and learn about your health today.


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Description: CEA is a test that measures the levels of carcinoembryonic antigens in the blood. It is used to evaluate a person who has been diagnosed with cancer. The levels of CEA maybe elevated with certain types of cancer.

Also Known As: Carcinoembryonic antigen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a CEA test ordered?

When a person is diagnosed with colon cancer or another type of cancer, a CEA test may be ordered. It will be evaluated before treatment begins and subsequently on a frequent basis to assess treatment success and detect recurrence.

When cancer is suspected but not yet diagnosed, a CEA test may be conducted. Although CEA can be increased with a variety of illnesses, this is not a popular usage for the test, it may provide additional information to a healthcare practitioner.

When a healthcare practitioner suspects that a cancer has metastasized, a CEA test may be conducted on a fluid other than blood.

What does a CEA blood test check for?

Carcinoembryonic antigen is a protein found in the developing tissues of a fetus. It drops to a very low level by the time a baby is delivered. CEA is generally seen in extremely low amounts in the blood of people, but it can be raised in cancer patients. This test examines the quantity of CEA in the blood to aid in the evaluation of cancer patients.

CEA is a tumor indicator. CEA was once assumed to be a particular marker for colon cancer, however subsequent research has revealed that an elevation in CEA can be detected in a variety of malignancies. Non-cancer disorders such as inflammation, cirrhosis, peptic ulcer, ulcerative colitis, rectal polyps, emphysema, and benign breast disease, as well as smokers, can cause an increase in CEA. As a result, it is ineffective as a general cancer screening tool, although it does play a role in assessing cancer therapy response. An initial CEA baseline test may be performed after a person has been diagnosed with cancer. If this level is raised, serial CEA testing may be used to track the cancer's progress as the patient receives treatment.

Lab tests often ordered with a CEA test:

  • Tumor Markers
  • CSF Analysis
  • Body Fluid Analysis
  • CA 19-9
  • Calcitonin
  • Alpha Fetoprotein
  • Antiphospholipid Antibodies

Conditions where a CEA test is recommended:

  • Colon Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Lung Cancer

How does my health care provider use a CEA test?

The carcinoembryonic antigen test can be utilized in the following situations:

  • To keep track of the treatment of persons who have been diagnosed with colon cancer. It can also be used as a marker for rectum, lung, breast, liver, pancreatic, stomach, and ovary malignancies. Prior to therapy, a CEA test is usually ordered as a "baseline" measurement. If the level is high, the test can be used to track a patient's response to treatment and see if the cancer has advanced or returned.
  • Cancer staging entails determining the size of the tumor as well as the extent to which it has spread.
  • CEA testing in a bodily fluid sample can help doctors figure out if cancer has progressed to a body cavity like the chest or abdomen.
  • In the examination of cancer, a CEA test can be performed in conjunction with other tumor markers.

CEA is not produced by all malignancies, therefore a positive CEA test does not always indicate cancer.

What do my CEA test results mean?

Monitoring treatment and recurrence: CEA levels that are first raised but later return to normal following treatment indicate that the cancer has been successfully treated. The first symptom of tumor recurrence is frequently a progressively rising CEA level.

Staging: People with smaller and early-stage tumors are more likely to have a normal or slightly raised CEA score on initial testing. A high CEA value is more probable in people with larger tumors, later-stage cancer, or cancers that have disseminated throughout the body.

Testing for metastasis: If CEA is found in a bodily fluid other than blood, the cancer has most likely migrated to that part of the body. If CEA is found in CSF fluid, for example, it could suggest that cancer has spread to the central nervous system.

Because not all malignancies produce CEA, it's possible to have cancer and a normal CEA at the same time. The test will be useless as a surveillance tool if a malignancy does not produce CEA.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: CA 19-9 is a cancer antigen test that is testing for a protein that exists on the surface of certain cancer cells. The CA 19-9 test can be used to measure the level of these proteins in the blood and is useful as a tumor marker.

Also Known As: Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 Test, Cancer Antigen 19-9 Test, Cancer Antigen (CA) 19-9, Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a CA 19-9 test ordered?

When a person has been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer or has signs and symptoms that could indicate pancreatic cancer, CA 19-9 may be ordered. Early warning signs and symptoms can be vague and ambiguous.

If CA 19-9 levels are initially increased in pancreatic cancer, a series of CA 19-9 tests may be conducted to assess response during therapy and on a frequent basis after treatment to assist detect recurrence.

When a healthcare practitioner suspects bile duct cancer in a person with a bile duct obstruction, CA 19-9 may be prescribed. CA 19-9 levels can spike due to non-cancerous reasons of bile duct obstruction, but they drop once the blockage is addressed. In these circumstances, re-checking CA 19-9 levels should be done at least a week or two after the blockage has been cleared.

What does a CA 19-9 blood test check for?

The protein cancer antigen 19-9 is found on the surface of some cancer cells. CA 19-9 does not cause cancer; rather, it is emitted by tumor cells and can be discovered in blood and other bodily fluids by laboratory tests. The level of CA19-9 is measured in this test.

Because CA 19-9 can be tested in the blood, it can be used as a tumor marker to track the progression of cancer. CA 19-9 levels are high in 70% to 95% of persons with advanced pancreatic cancer.

CA 19-9 levels may also be elevated in cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts, colorectal cancer, gastric cancers, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, pancreatitis, thyroid disease, and liver disease, among other cancers, conditions, and diseases. CA 19-9 is found in trace levels in the blood of healthy humans. CA 19-9 cannot be utilized for screening or diagnosis by itself because it is not specific for pancreatic cancer.

Lab tests often ordered with a CA 19-9 test:

  • Bilirubin
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Tumor Markers

Conditions where a CA 19-9 test is recommended:

  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Pancreatitis
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gastric Cancers
  • Lung Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Liver Cancer
  • Thyroid Disease
  • Liver Disease

How does my health care provider use a CA 19-9 test?

The CA 19-9 test, along with other tests like carcinoembryonic antigen, bilirubin, and/or a liver panel, can be used to evaluate and monitor someone who has been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and is having treatment.

CA 19-9 can only be utilized as a tumor marker if it is produced in large amounts by the malignancy. CA 19-9 may be ordered to help evaluate and monitor persons with bile duct cancer because it is high in roughly 65 percent of those with this type of cancer.

The CA 19-9 test is insufficiently sensitive and specific to be used as a cancer screening test. Because non-cancerous diseases can induce elevated CA 19-9 levels, it is not yet effective for detection or diagnosis. Researchers are still looking at markers that can be used alone or in combination with CA 19-9 to help diagnose and screen for pancreatic cancer in its early stages, when it is most curable.

What do my CA 19-9 test results mean?

Healthy persons have low levels of CA 19-9, although numerous illnesses that affect the liver or pancreas can induce transitory spikes.

People with pancreatic cancer, other malignancies, and a variety of other diseases and ailments may have moderate to high levels. CA 19-9 levels are higher in cancers of the exocrine pancreas. This cancer develops in the tissues that manufacture food-digesting enzymes, as well as in the ducts that transport those enzymes to the small intestine. This kind of pancreatic cancer accounts for approximately 95% of all pancreatic cancers.

CA 19-9 levels that rise and then diminish over time may indicate that the treatment is functioning and/or that the malignancy was successfully removed during surgery. Levels that stay high or rise over time could suggest that treatment isn't working and/or that the cancer is reoccurring.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Sodium: this is a measure of sodium in your blood's serum. Sodium is a vital mineral for nerve and muscle cell function.

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


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Description: A Lipase test is used to measure the amount of lipase in the blood’s serum. Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas. This test can be used to help diagnose acute pancreatic diseases and monitor chronic ones. It can also be used to measure the progress of pancreatic disease treatment.

Also Known As: LPS Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Lipase test ordered?

When a person shows signs of acute pancreatitis or another pancreatic condition, a lipase test may be recommended.

It may also be ordered at regular intervals when a doctor wishes to monitor someone with a pancreatic issue to see how well medication is working and whether lipase levels are rising or falling over time.

What does a Lipase blood test check for?

Lipase is one of numerous pancreatic enzymes that aid in the digestion of dietary lipids. This test determines how much lipase is present in the blood.

Lipase travels from the pancreas to the first portion of the small intestine, where it aids in the breakdown of dietary lipids into fatty acids. Lipase is produced mostly by the pancreas, but it is also produced by cells in the tongue, stomach, and liver, which are all involved in digestion and nutritional absorption.

Lipase is normally found in modest amounts in the blood. When pancreatic cells are harmed, as in pancreatitis, or the pancreatic duct is obstructed by a gallstone or, in rare situations, a pancreatic tumor, more lipase enters the bloodstream, resulting in greater blood concentrations.

Lab tests often ordered with a Lipase test:

  • Amylase
  • Trypsin
  • Trypsinogen

Conditions where a Lipase test is recommended:

  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Diabetes
  • Pancreatic Diseases
  • Pancreatitis
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Celiac Disease
  • Crohn Disease

How does my health care provider use a Lipase test?

To diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis, a blood test for lipase is frequently performed in conjunction with an amylase test. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic illnesses, but it isn't as good a test for these conditions because lipase levels stay raised for extended periods of time and don't always reflect clinical progress.

Lipase testing is sometimes used to diagnose and monitor cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease.

What do my Lipase test results mean?

A high lipase level in the blood could suggest the presence of a pancreas problem.

Lipase levels are usually quite high in acute pancreatitis, generally 5 to 10 times higher than the maximum reference point. Lipase levels normally rise within 4 to 8 hours of an acute pancreatitis incident and stay high for 7 to 14 days. The severity of an acute pancreatic attack cannot be determined by lipase levels.

Pancreatic duct obstruction, pancreatic cancer, and other pancreatic illnesses, as well as gallbladder inflammation and renal dysfunction, can raise concentrations.

Lipase levels in the blood may suggest persistent damage to the pancreas' lipase-producing cells. This can happen in pancreas-related chronic disorders like cystic fibrosis.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: Amylase is a blood test that is used to measure the amount of amylase in the blood’s serum. It is used to assess for and detect a pancreatic disorder.

Also Known As: Amy Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Amylase test ordered?

When a person displays symptoms of a pancreatic disease, a blood amylase test may be conducted.

  • Abdominal or back pain that is severe
  • Fever
  • Appetite loss.
  • Nausea

A urine amylase test may be requested in conjunction with or after a blood amylase test. A health practitioner may conduct one or both of these tests on a regular basis to evaluate the success of treatment and see whether amylase levels are increasing or decreasing over time.

What does an Amylase blood test check for?

Amylase is one of numerous pancreatic enzymes that aid in carbohydrate digestion. This test detects the presence of amylase in the blood.

Amylase is produced from the pancreas into the duodenum, the first region of the small intestine, where it aids in the digestion of carbohydrates. Other organs, including the salivary glands, generate it as well.

Amylase is normally found in modest amounts in the blood and urine. Increased levels of amylase are released into the blood when pancreatic cells are harmed, as in pancreatitis, or when the pancreatic duct is obstructed by a gallstone or, in rare situations, a pancreatic tumor. This raises amylase levels in the blood.

Lab tests often ordered with an Amylase test:

  • Lipase
  • Trypsin
  • Trypsinogen

Conditions where an Amylase test is recommended:

  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Pancreatic Diseases
  • Pancreatitis

How does my health care provider use an Amylase test?

An amylase test is used to identify and track acute pancreatitis. It's frequently ordered in conjunction with a lipase test. It can also be used to detect and track chronic pancreatitis and other pancreas-related conditions.

A urine amylase test may be requested as well. Its level will usually correspond to blood amylase concentrations, but the rise and decrease will occur later. A urine creatinine clearance test may be ordered in conjunction with a urine amylase test to determine the ratio of amylase to creatinine filtered by the kidneys. Because poor kidney function might result in a decreased rate of amylase clearance, this ratio is used to assess renal function.

An amylase test on peritoneal fluid may be used to assist diagnose pancreatitis in some instances, such as when there is a buildup of fluid in the abdomen.

Amylase tests are often used to track the progress of pancreatic cancer treatment and after gallstone resection that has resulted in gallbladder attacks.

What do my Amylase test results mean?

A high level of amylase in the blood may suggest the presence of a pancreas problem.

Amylase levels in the blood often rise to 4 to 6 times higher than the highest reference value, also known as the upper limit of normal, in acute pancreatitis. The increase happens within 4 to 8 hours following a pancreas damage and usually lasts until the cause is effectively treated. In a few days, the amylase levels will return to normal.

Amylase levels in chronic pancreatitis are initially fairly increased, although they frequently decline over time as the pancreas deteriorates. Returning to normal levels may not signal that the source of damage has been rectified in this scenario. The size of the amylase rise does not indicate the severity of pancreatic illness.

Amylase levels may also be elevated in persons who have pancreatic duct obstruction or pancreatic cancer.

Urine amylase levels rise in lockstep with blood amylase levels and remain elevated for several days after blood levels have returned to normal.

A high amount of amylase in the peritoneal fluid can indicate acute pancreatitis, but it can also indicate other abdominal problems including a clogged intestine or poor blood supply to the intestines.

A low amylase level in the blood and urine of a person with pancreatitis symptoms could indicate that the amylase-producing cells in the pancreas have been permanently damaged. Reduced levels can also be caused by renal illness or pregnancy toxemia.

Increased blood amylase levels along with normal to low urine amylase levels could indicate the presence of a macroamylase, a harmless compound of amylase and other proteins that builds up in the bloodstream.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


In pancreatitis, urine levels of amylase reflect serum changes by a time lag of 6 - 10 hours.

Not available in California, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. 



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Description: A C-peptide test is a test that will measure the amount of C-peptide, a short amino acid chain, in the blood. This test can be used to determine if the beta cells in the pancreas are producing enough insulin. It can also be used to evaluate the reason for low blood glucose.

Also Known As: Insulin C-Peptide Test, Connecting Peptide Insulin Test, Proinsulin C-peptide test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting is required.

When is a C-Peptide test ordered?

When a person is initially diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, C-peptide levels may be ordered as part of a "residual beta cell function" study.

When a person has type 2 diabetes, a health practitioner may request the test on a regular basis to track the state of their beta cells and insulin production over time and assess whether or not insulin injections are needed.

When there is reported acute or recurring low blood glucose and/or excess insulin is suspected, C-peptide levels can be measured.

A C-peptide test may be conducted on a regular basis after a person has been diagnosed with an insulinoma to assess treatment effectiveness and detect tumor recurrence.

When a person's pancreas has been removed or has had pancreas islet cell transplants, C-peptide levels may be tracked over time.

What does a C-Peptide blood test check for?

C-peptide is a chemical made up of a short chain of amino acids that is released into the bloodstream as a byproduct of the pancreas producing insulin. This test determines how much C-peptide is present in a blood or urine sample.

Proinsulin, a physiologically inactive molecule, splits apart in the pancreas, within specialized cells called beta cells, to generate one molecule of C-peptide and one molecule of insulin. Insulin is necessary on a regular basis for the transport of glucose into the body's cells. When insulin is needed and released into the bloodstream in reaction to elevated glucose levels, equal amounts of C-peptide are also released. C-peptide can be used as a measure of insulin production because it is produced at the same rate as insulin.

C-peptide testing, in instance, can be used to assess the body's insulin production and distinguish it from insulin that is not produced by the body but is given as diabetes medication and hence does not generate C-peptide. This test can be done in conjunction with a blood test for insulin.

Lab tests often ordered with a C-Peptide test:

  • Insulin
  • Glucose

Conditions where a C-Peptide test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Metabolic Syndrome

How does my health care provider use a C-Peptide test?

C-peptide testing can be used for a variety of reasons. When proinsulin breaks into one molecule of C-peptide and one molecule of insulin, C-peptide is created by the beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to use glucose as its primary energy source. C-peptide is a helpful measure of insulin production since it is produced at the same rate as insulin.

A C-peptide test is not used to diagnose diabetes; however, when a person is newly diagnosed with diabetes, it may be ordered alone or in conjunction with an insulin level to evaluate how much insulin the pancreas is currently making.

The body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin in type 2 diabetes, so it compensates by manufacturing and releasing more insulin, which can destroy beta cells. Oral medications are commonly used to help type 2 diabetics stimulate their bodies to produce more insulin and/or make their cells more receptive to the insulin that is already produced. Type 2 diabetics may eventually produce very little insulin as a result of beta cell loss, necessitating insulin injections. Because any insulin produced by the body is reflected in the C-peptide level, the C-peptide test can be used to track beta cell activity and capability over time and to assist a health care provider in deciding when to start insulin treatment.

Antibodies to insulin can develop in people on insulin therapy, independent of the source of the insulin. These often interfere with insulin assays, making it difficult to assess endogenous insulin production directly. C-peptide measurement is a good alternative to insulin testing in certain situations.

C-peptide levels can also be utilized in conjunction with insulin and glucose levels to help determine the source of hypoglycemia and track its therapy. Excessive insulin supplementation, alcohol intake, hereditary liver enzyme deficits, liver or kidney illness, or insulinomas can all cause hypoglycemia symptoms.

Insulinomas can be diagnosed with the C-peptide test. These are tumors of the pancreas' islet cells, which can produce excessive levels of insulin and C-peptide, resulting in abrupt hypoglycemia. C-peptide testing can be used to track how well insulinoma treatment is working and to detect recurrence.

A C-peptide test may be performed to help evaluate a person who has been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, a group of risk factors that includes abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and elevated blood glucose and/or insulin resistance.

C-peptide levels are occasionally used to verify the effectiveness of treatment and the procedure's sustained success after someone has had his pancreatic removed or has had pancreas islet cell transplants to restore the ability to manufacture insulin.

What do my C-Peptide test results mean?

A high level of C-peptide implies that endogenous insulin synthesis is high. This could be a result of a high blood glucose level brought on by carbohydrate consumption and/or insulin resistance. Insulinomas, low blood potassium, Cushing syndrome, and renal failure are all linked to a high level of C-peptide.

C-peptide levels that are decreasing in someone with an insulinoma suggest a response to treatment when used for monitoring; levels that are increasing may indicate a tumor recurrence when used for monitoring.

A low amount of C-peptide is linked to a reduction in insulin synthesis. This can happen when the beta cells generate insufficient insulin, as in diabetes, or when their production is reduced by exogenous insulin administration.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


C-Peptide is useful in distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors, i.e., insulinomas, from exogenous insulin administration. C-Peptide concentrations are severely depressed or absent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. C-Peptide is also useful in monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants. It is also measured as an additional means for evaluating glucose tolerance and glibenclamide-glucose tests.

C-Peptide is useful in distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors, i.e., insulinomas, from exogenous insulin administration. C-Peptide concentrations are severely depressed or absent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. C-Peptide is also useful in monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants. It is also measured as an additional means for evaluating glucose tolerance and glibenclamide-glucose tests.

C-Peptide is useful in distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors, i.e., insulinomas, from exogenous insulin administration. C-Peptide concentrations are severely depressed or absent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. C-Peptide is also useful in monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants. It is also measured as an additional means for evaluating glucose tolerance and glibenclamide-glucose tests.

C-Peptide is useful in distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors, i.e., insulinomas, from exogenous insulin administration. C-Peptide concentrations are severely depressed or absent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. C-Peptide is also useful in monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants. It is also measured as an additional means for evaluating glucose tolerance and glibenclamide-glucose tests.

C-Peptide is useful in distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors, i.e., insulinomas, from exogenous insulin administration. C-Peptide concentrations are severely depressed or absent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. C-Peptide is also useful in monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants. It is also measured as an additional means for evaluating glucose tolerance and glibenclamide-glucose tests.

Peptide is useful in distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors, i.e., insulinomas, from exogenous insulin administration. C-Peptide concentrations are severely depressed or absent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. C-Peptide is also useful in monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants. It is also measured as an additional means for evaluating glucose tolerance and glibenclamide-glucose tests.

C-peptide is useful in distinguishing insulin-secreting tumors, i.e. , insulinomas, from exogenous insulin administration. C-peptide concentrations are severely depressed or absent in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. C-peptide is also useful in monitoring patients who have received islet cell or pancreatic transplants. It is also measured as an additional means for evaluating glucose tolerance and glibenclamide-glucose tests.

Description: The CRP test is used to identify and/or monitor inflammation in patients.

Also Known As: CRP Test, Inflammation test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a C-Reactive Protein test ordered?

When a person's medical history and signs and symptoms indicate that they may have a significant bacterial infection, a CRP test may be recommended. When a newborn displays signs of infection or when a person has sepsis symptoms including fever, chills, and rapid breathing and heart rate, it may be ordered.

It's also commonly requested on a regular basis to check illnesses like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, and it's routinely repeated to see if medication is working. This is especially effective for inflammation issues because CRP levels decrease as inflammation decreases.

What does a C-Reactive Protein blood test check for?

C-reactive protein is a protein produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream within a few hours following tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory event. After trauma or a heart attack, with active or uncontrolled autoimmune illnesses, and with acute bacterial infections like sepsis, markedly higher levels are reported. CRP levels can rise by a thousand-fold in response to inflammatory diseases, and their elevation in the blood can occur before pain, fever, or other clinical signs. The test detects inflammation caused by acute situations or monitors disease activity in chronic diseases by measuring the level of CRP in the blood.

The CRP test is not a diagnostic tool, although it can tell a doctor if inflammation is occurring. This information can be combined with other indicators like signs and symptoms, a physical exam, and other tests to establish whether someone has an acute inflammatory disorder or is having a flare-up of a chronic inflammatory disease. The health care provider may next do additional tests and treatment.

This CRP test should not be confused with the hs-CRP test. These are two separate CRP tests, each of which measures a different range of CRP levels in the blood for different purposes.

Lab tests often ordered with a C-Reactive Protein test:

  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • Procalcitonin
  • ANA
  • Rheumatoid Factor
  • Complement

Conditions where a C-Reactive Protein test is recommended:

  • Arthritis
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Sepsis
  • Vasculitis
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Meningitis and Encephalitis

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a C-Reactive Protein test?

A health practitioner uses the C-reactive protein test to diagnose inflammation. CRP is an acute phase reactant, a protein produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream within a few hours following tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory event. The CRP test is not a diagnostic test for any ailment, but it can be used in conjunction with other tests to determine whether a person has an acute or chronic inflammatory disorder.

CRP, for example, can be used to detect or track substantial inflammation in someone who is suspected of having an acute ailment like:

  • Sepsis is a dangerous bacterial infection.
  • An infection caused by a fungus
  • Inflammation of the pelvis

People with chronic inflammatory diseases can use the CRP test to detect flare-ups and/or see if their medication is working. Here are a few examples:

  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Arthritis, which can take many forms.
  • Autoimmune disorders, examples include lupus and vasculitis

CRP is occasionally requested in conjunction with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate, another inflammatory test. While the CRP test is not specific enough to diagnose an illness, it does serve as a broad marker for infection and inflammation, alerting doctors to the need for more testing and treatment. A variety of additional tests may be used to determine the source of inflammation, depending on the probable cause.

What do my C-Reactive Protein test results mean?

CRP levels in the blood are usually low.

CRP levels in the blood that are high or rising indicate the existence of inflammation, but they don't tell you where it is or what's causing it. A high CRP level can establish the presence of a severe bacterial infection in people who are suspected of having one. High levels of CRP in persons with chronic inflammatory disorders indicate a flare-up or that treatment isn't working.

When the CRP level rises and then falls, it indicates that the inflammation or infection is diminishing and/or responding to treatment.

Is there anything else I should know about C-Reactive Protein?

CRP levels can rise during pregnancy, as well as with the use of birth control tablets or hormone replacement therapy. Obese people have also been found to have higher CRP levels.

In the presence of inflammation, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate test will also rise; however, CRP rises first and then falls faster than the ESR.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


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Description: A Calcium test is a blood test that is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a wide range of medical conditions.

Also Known As: Ca Test, Serum Calcium Test, Calcium Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Calcium test ordered?

A blood calcium test is frequently requested during a general medical evaluation. It's usually part of the comprehensive metabolic panel or the basic metabolic panel, two sets of tests that can be done during an initial evaluation or as part of a routine medical checks.

Many people do not experience symptoms of high or low calcium until their levels are dangerously high or low.

When a person has certain types of cancer, kidney illness, or has had a kidney transplant, calcium monitoring may be required. When someone is being treated for abnormal calcium levels, monitoring may be required to determine the effectiveness of medications such as calcium or vitamin D supplements.

What does a Calcium blood test check for?

Calcium is one of the most plentiful and vital minerals in the human body. It is required for cell signaling as well as the proper operation of muscles, nerves, and the heart. Calcium is essential for blood clotting as well as bone growth, density, and maintenance. This test determines how much calcium is present in the blood.

Calcium is found complexed in the bones for 99 percent of the time, while the remaining 1% circulates in the blood. Calcium levels are closely monitored; if too little is absorbed or consumed, or if too much is lost through the kidney or stomach, calcium is removed from bone to keep blood concentrations stable. Approximately half of the calcium in the blood is metabolically active and "free." The other half is "bound" to albumin, with a minor proportion complexed to anions like phosphate, and both of these forms are metabolically inactive.

Blood calcium can be measured using two different tests. The free and bound forms of calcium are measured in the total calcium test. Only the free, physiologically active form of calcium is measured in the ionized calcium test.

Lab tests often ordered with a Calcium test:

  • Phosphorus
  • Vitamin D
  • Magnesium
  • PTH
  • Albumin
  • Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

Conditions where a Calcium test is recommended:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Thyroid Disease
  • Alcoholism
  • Malnutrition
  • Parathyroid Diseases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Multiple Myeloma

How does my health care provider use a Calcium test?

A blood calcium test is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of bone, heart, nerve, kidney, and tooth disorders. If a person has signs of a parathyroid disease, malabsorption, or an overactive thyroid, the test may be ordered.

A total calcium level is frequently checked as part of a standard health check. It's part of the comprehensive metabolic panel and the basic metabolic panel, which are both collections of tests used to diagnose or monitor a range of ailments.

When a total calcium result is abnormal, it is interpreted as a sign of an underlying disease. Additional tests to assess ionized calcium, urine calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and PTH-related peptide are frequently performed to assist determine the underlying problem. PTH and vitamin D are in charge of keeping calcium levels in the blood within a narrow range of values.

Measuring calcium and PTH combined can assist identify whether the parathyroid glands are functioning normally if the calcium is abnormal. Testing for vitamin D, phosphorus, and/or magnesium can assist evaluate whether the kidneys are excreting the right amount of calcium, and measuring urine calcium can help detect whether additional deficits or excesses exist. The balance of these many compounds is frequently just as critical as their concentrations.

The total calcium test is the most common test used to determine calcium status. Because the balance between free and bound calcium is usually constant and predictable, it is a reliable reflection of the quantity of free calcium present in the blood in most cases. However, the balance between bound and free calcium is altered in some persons, and total calcium is not a good indicator of calcium status. Ionized calcium measurement may be required in certain cases. Critically sick patients, those receiving blood transfusions or intravenous fluids, patients undergoing major surgery, and persons with blood protein disorders such low albumin are all candidates for ionized calcium testing.

What do my Calcium test results mean?

The amount of calcium circulating in the blood is not the same as the amount of calcium in the bones.

A feedback loop including PTH and vitamin D regulates and stabilizes calcium uptake, utilization, and excretion. Conditions and disorders that disturb calcium control can induce abnormal acute or chronic calcium elevations or declines, resulting in hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia symptoms.

Total calcium is usually tested instead of ionized calcium since it is easier to do and requires no additional treatment of the blood sample. Because the free and bound forms of calcium make up about half of the total, total calcium is usually a decent depiction of free calcium. Because nearly half of the calcium in blood is bonded to protein, high or low protein levels might alter total calcium test findings. In these circumstances, an ionized calcium test is more appropriate for measuring free calcium.

A normal total or ionized calcium test, when combined with other normal laboratory findings, indicates that a person's calcium metabolism is normal and blood levels are properly managed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Cardio IQ® Insulin Resistance Panel with Score

Includes

  • Insulin, Intact, LC/MS/MS
  • C-Peptide, LC/MS/MS
  • Insulin Resistance Score

Patient Preparation

  • Overnight fasting is required

Clinical Significance

The determination of insulin in serum is primarily used for the diagnosis of glycemic disorders in diabetic and pre-diabetic patients in the assessment of insulin resistant syndromes. Insulin is synthesized by the pancreatic beta cell as a precursor, proinsulin. Proinsulin is processed to insulin and C-peptide, a contiguous peptide between the insulin A and B chains, as it passes through the cell. The C-peptide in the proinsulin ensures correct folding and processing of proinsulin as it passes through the cell. Both insulin and C-peptide are released together from the beta cells in response to increased glucose levels. Because of differences in half-life and hepatic clearance, peripheral blood levels of C-peptide and insulin are no longer equimolar but remain highly correlated. A steady-state plasma glucose test in individuals undergoing an insulin suppression test to assess insulin resistance found that the combination of insulin and C-peptide was a better indicator of insulin resistance than either one individually.

 

 



Chromogranin A, LC/MS/MS - Chromogranin-A (CgA) is an acidic glycoprotein expressed in the secretory granules of most normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine (NE) cell types, where it is released together with peptide hormones and biogenic amines. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a form of cancer that differ from other neoplasia in that they synthesize, store, and secrete peptides, e.g., CgA and amines. CgA is secreted from neuroendocrine-derived tumors including foregut, midgut and hindgut gastrointestinal NETs, pheochromocytomas, neuroblastomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, some pituitary tumors, functioning and non-functioning pancreatic NETs.
Significantly elevated CgA levels have been found in patients with other diseases, such as impaired renal function, untreated benign essential hypertension, gastritis, prostatic carcinoma, and hyperparathyroidism. The best-characterized circulating biomarker that identifies NETs in general is CgA. Monitoring blood CgA levels may effectively provide information that is helpful in delineating tumor burden and rate of tumor growth, predicting tumor response to therapy and providing some indication as to prognosis.


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Clinical Significance

The glucagon assay is useful primarily when considering a glucagon-secreting tumor of the pancreas. Glucagonomas cause an unusual but characteristic syndrome consisting of a rash, mild diabetes, weight loss and hypoamninoacidemia. Measurement of plasma glucagon confirms the diagnosis; glucagon levels are very high in the setting of glucagonoma.


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Description: A Glucose test is a blood test used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor conditions that affect glucose levels such as prediabetes, diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia.

Also Known As: Fasting Blood Glucose Test, FBG Test, Fasting Blood Sugar Test, FBS Test, Fasting Glucose Test, FG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting required

When is a Glucose test ordered?

Diabetes screening is recommended by several health groups, including the American Diabetes Association and the United States Preventive Services Task Force, when a person is 45 years old or has risk factors.

The ADA recommends retesting within three years if the screening test result is within normal limits, but the USPSTF recommends testing once a year. Annual testing may be used to monitor people with prediabetes.

When someone exhibits signs and symptoms of high blood glucose, a blood glucose test may be conducted.

Diabetics are frequently asked to self-check their glucose levels multiple times a day in order to monitor glucose levels and choose treatment alternatives as suggested by their doctor. Blood glucose levels may be ordered on a regular basis, along with other tests such as A1c, to track glucose control over time.

Unless they show early symptoms or have had gestational diabetes in a prior pregnancy, pregnant women are routinely screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. If a woman is at risk of type 2 diabetes, she may be tested early in her pregnancy, according to the American Diabetes Association. When a woman has type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes, her health care provider will normally order glucose levels to monitor her condition throughout the duration of her pregnancy and after delivery.

What does a Glucose blood test check for?

A fasting glucose test measures glucose. Glucose is the major energy source for the body's cells and the brain and nervous system's only source of energy. A consistent supply must be provided, and a somewhat constant level of glucose in the blood must be maintained. The glucose level in the blood can be measured using a variety of methods. 

Fruits, vegetables, breads, and other carbohydrate-rich foods are broken down into glucose during digestion, which is absorbed by the small intestine and circulated throughout the body. Insulin, a hormone generated by the pancreas, is required for the use of glucose for energy production. Insulin promotes glucose transport into cells and instructs the liver to store surplus energy as glycogen for short-term storage or triglycerides in adipose cells.

Normally, blood glucose rises slightly after you eat or drink, and the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the blood, the amount of which is proportional to the size and substance of the meal. The level of glucose in the blood declines as glucose enters the cells and is digested, and the pancreas responds by delaying, then ceasing the secretion of insulin.

When blood glucose levels fall too low, such as between meals or after a strong activity, glucagon is released, which causes the liver to convert some glycogen back into glucose, so boosting blood glucose levels. The level of glucose in the blood remains pretty steady if the glucose/insulin feedback loop is working appropriately. When the balance is upset and the blood glucose level rises, the body strives to restore it by boosting insulin production and removing excess glucose through the urine.

Several diseases can cause the equilibrium between glucose and pancreatic hormones to be disrupted, resulting in high or low blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common cause. Diabetes is a collection of illnesses characterized by inadequate insulin production and/or insulin resistance. Untreated diabetes impairs a person's ability to digest and utilize glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed when the body is unable to produce any or enough insulin. People with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant and may or may not be able to produce enough of the hormone.

Organ failure, brain damage, coma, and, in extreme situations, death can result from severe, sudden fluctuations in blood glucose, either high or low. Chronically high blood glucose levels can harm body organs like the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels, and nerves over time. Hypoglycemia can harm the brain and nerves over time.

Gestational diabetes, or hyperglycemia that exclusively arises during pregnancy, can affect some women. If left untreated, this can result in large babies with low glucose levels being born to these mothers. Women with gestational diabetes may or may not acquire diabetes later in life.

Lab tests often ordered with a Glucose test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Lipid Panel
  • Urinalysis Complete
  • TSH
  • CMP
  • Insulin
  • Microalbumin
  • Fructosamine
  • C-Peptide

Conditions where a Glucose test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Pancreatic Diseases
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a Glucose test?

The blood glucose test can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Detect hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
  • Screen for diabetes in those who are at risk before symptoms appear; there may be no early indications or symptoms of diabetes in some circumstances. As a result, screening can aid in detecting it and allowing treatment to begin before the illness worsens or complications emerge.
  • Aid in the detection of diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes.
  • Monitor your blood sugar levels and manage your diabetes

Glucose levels should be monitored in those who have been diagnosed with diabetes.

Between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, glucose blood tests are performed to assess pregnant women for gestational diabetes. Pregnant women who have never been diagnosed with diabetes should be screened and diagnosed using either a one-step or two-step strategy, according to the American Diabetes Association and the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Other tests, including diabetic autoantibodies, insulin, and C-peptide, may be used in conjunction with glucose to assist in detecting the reason of elevated glucose levels, differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and assess insulin production.

What does my glucose test result mean?

High blood glucose levels are most commonly associated with diabetes, but they can also be caused by a variety of other diseases and ailments.

Hypoglycemia is defined by a drop in blood glucose to a level that triggers nervous system symptoms before affecting the brain. The Whipple triad is a set of three criteria for diagnosing hypoglycemia.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Glucose test is a blood test used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor conditions that affect glucose levels such as prediabetes, diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia.

Also Known As: Fasting Blood Glucose Test, FBG Test, Fasting Blood Sugar Test, FBS Test, Fasting Glucose Test, FG Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma

Test Preparation: Fasting required

When is a Glucose Plasma test ordered?

Diabetes screening is recommended by several health groups, including the American Diabetes Association and the United States Preventive Services Task Force, when a person is 45 years old or has risk factors.

The ADA recommends retesting within three years if the screening test result is within normal limits, but the USPSTF recommends testing once a year. Annual testing may be used to monitor people with prediabetes.

When someone exhibits signs and symptoms of high blood glucose, a blood glucose test may be conducted.

Diabetics are frequently asked to self-check their glucose levels multiple times a day in order to monitor glucose levels and choose treatment alternatives as suggested by their doctor. Blood glucose levels may be ordered on a regular basis, along with other tests such as A1c, to track glucose control over time.

Unless they show early symptoms or have had gestational diabetes in a prior pregnancy, pregnant women are routinely screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy. If a woman is at risk of type 2 diabetes, she may be tested early in her pregnancy, according to the American Diabetes Association. When a woman has type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes, her health care provider will normally order glucose levels to monitor her condition throughout the duration of her pregnancy and after delivery.

What does a Glucose Plasma blood test check for?

A fasting glucose test measures glucose. Glucose is the major energy source for the body's cells and the brain and nervous system's only source of energy. A consistent supply must be provided, and a somewhat constant level of glucose in the blood must be maintained. The glucose level in the blood can be measured using a variety of methods. 

Fruits, vegetables, breads, and other carbohydrate-rich foods are broken down into glucose during digestion, which is absorbed by the small intestine and circulated throughout the body. Insulin, a hormone generated by the pancreas, is required for the use of glucose for energy production. Insulin promotes glucose transport into cells and instructs the liver to store surplus energy as glycogen for short-term storage or triglycerides in adipose cells.

Normally, blood glucose rises slightly after you eat or drink, and the pancreas responds by releasing insulin into the blood, the amount of which is proportional to the size and substance of the meal. The level of glucose in the blood declines as glucose enters the cells and is digested, and the pancreas responds by delaying, then ceasing the secretion of insulin.

When blood glucose levels fall too low, such as between meals or after a strong activity, glucagon is released, which causes the liver to convert some glycogen back into glucose, so boosting blood glucose levels. The level of glucose in the blood remains pretty steady if the glucose/insulin feedback loop is working appropriately. When the balance is upset and the blood glucose level rises, the body strives to restore it by boosting insulin production and removing excess glucose through the urine.

Several diseases can cause the equilibrium between glucose and pancreatic hormones to be disrupted, resulting in high or low blood glucose. Diabetes is the most common cause. Diabetes is a collection of illnesses characterized by inadequate insulin production and/or insulin resistance. Untreated diabetes impairs a person's ability to digest and utilize glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed when the body is unable to produce any or enough insulin. People with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant and may or may not be able to produce enough of the hormone.

Organ failure, brain damage, coma, and, in extreme situations, death can result from severe, sudden fluctuations in blood glucose, either high or low. Chronically high blood glucose levels can harm body organs like the kidneys, eyes, heart, blood vessels, and nerves over time. Hypoglycemia can harm the brain and nerves over time.

Gestational diabetes, or hyperglycemia that exclusively arises during pregnancy, can affect some women. If left untreated, this can result in large babies with low glucose levels being born to these mothers. Women with gestational diabetes may or may not acquire diabetes later in life.

Lab tests often ordered with a Glucose Plasma test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Lipid Panel
  • Urinalysis Complete
  • TSH
  • CMP
  • Insulin
  • Microalbumin
  • Fructosamine
  • C-Peptide

Conditions where a Glucose Plasma test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Pancreatic Diseases
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a Glucose Plasma test?

The blood glucose test can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Detect hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
  • Screen for diabetes in those who are at risk before symptoms appear; there may be no early indications or symptoms of diabetes in some circumstances. As a result, screening can aid in detecting it and allowing treatment to begin before the illness worsens or complications emerge.
  • Aid in the detection of diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes.
  • Monitor your blood sugar levels and manage your diabetes

Glucose levels should be monitored in those who have been diagnosed with diabetes.

Between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy, glucose blood tests are performed to assess pregnant women for gestational diabetes. Pregnant women who have never been diagnosed with diabetes should be screened and diagnosed using either a one-step or two-step strategy, according to the American Diabetes Association and the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Other tests, including diabetic autoantibodies, insulin, and C-peptide, may be used in conjunction with glucose to assist in detecting the reason of elevated glucose levels, differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and assess insulin production.

What does my glucose test result mean?

High blood glucose levels are most commonly associated with diabetes, but they can also be caused by a variety of other diseases and ailments.

Hypoglycemia is defined by a drop in blood glucose to a level that triggers nervous system symptoms before affecting the brain. The Whipple triad is a set of three criteria for diagnosing hypoglycemia.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Plasma glucose levels may be abnormally high (hyperglycemia) or abnormally low (hypoglycemia). Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, idiopathic hypoglycemia, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasm.


Every year in the United States, about 275,000 people are admitted to the hospital for acute pancreatitis. 

Acute pancreatitis is a severe form of pancreatic disease, and an amylase serum test is an important tool for diagnosing pancreatic problems.

If you leave pancreatic disease left untreated, it can lead to serious long-term health complications.

If you're looking to learn more about amylase serum testing and common pancreatic diseases, then keep reading this guide to find out everything you need to know.

What is Pancreatic Disease

Pancreatitis is Either Chronic or Acute

Acute pancreatitis means that the inflammation will develop fast and then subside within days or weeks. The pancreas will return to a state of normality once it heals. The primary cause is long-term alcohol abuse and gallstones. When acute pancreatitis becomes more frequent, it can result in chronic pancreatitis.  

Chronic pancreatitis involves inflammation that is long-lasting. It can also lead to scar tissue development inside this gland which stops it from working correctly. Long-term alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of the condition known as chronic pancreatitis. There is also an increased risk of contracting this condition for those who smoke cigarettes.  

Pancreatic Insufficiency 
This is a condition whereby the pancreas cannot transport or/and produce a sufficient amount of digestive enzymes to break down the food that enters the intestine. This is also a condition that goes by the name of EPI (or Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency)  
EPI usually occurs from progressive or ongoing pancreatic damage caused by several types of conditions. It is commonly linked to cystic fibrosis that occurs in children and chronic pancreatitis in adults. It is not usually caused by pancreatic cancer.  
One of the most common disorders of the pancreas that cause pancreatic disease is pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is when your pancreas becomes inflamed and painful.

Your pancreas is one busy organ, and it's responsible for producing digestive enzymes. These enzymes also help the hormones that regulate your blood sugar.

Pancreatitis can be either acute or chronic. Acute pancreatitis comes on very suddenly and improves within a week after treatment begins. But some cases of acute pancreatitis are so severe they require a hospital stay. 

Severe and untreated cases of acute pancreatitis can lead to necrotizing pancreatitis, which refers to cell and tissue death in your pancreas. Immediate treatment is necessary.

Chronic pancreatitis is long-lasting and doesn't heal or improve like acute pancreatitis. Instead, chronic pancreatitis worsens over time and causes permanent pancreatic damage in many cases.

Other Types of Pancreatic Disease

A Pancreatic disease can also be inherited, called hereditary pancreatitis. This disease is characterized by frequent pancreatitis attacks early in life, most often when you're under 30. Your family history and genetic testing can identify what pancreatic conditions you may be at risk for.

Another type of pancreatic disease is Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). EPI develops when you become deficient in the pancreatic enzymes necessary for digestion. This deficiency becomes so severe that you become severely malnourished.

Causes of EPI include pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cystic fibrosis, narrowing of the pancreatic duct, and diabetes.  

Pancreatic Cancer

Over 60,000 people in the US are diagnosed every year with pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer begins growing in the tissue of your pancreas, and the most common type is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatic cancer is rarely detected in its early stages, as it usually doesn't cause symptoms until after it's spread to your other organs. Although doctors have yet to identify a clear cause, DNA mutations play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer. 

Other risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, obesity, chronic inflammation of the pancreas, and being over 65.

Causes of Pancreatitis

When you have pancreatitis, your digestive enzymes are activated while still in your pancreas. This activation irritates the cells in your pancreas, causing pain and inflammation.

Gallstones are the leading cause of acute pancreatitis. Other pancreatitis causes include:

  • Alcoholism
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Infection
  • Obesity
  • High levels of calcium
  • High levels of triglycerides
  • Abdominal injury
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Infections from food poisoning such as Salmonella
  • Hepatitis B

However, there are cases where the cause of pancreatitis can't be found. 

Risk factors for Pancreatitis

Lifestyle and genetics are the most significant risk factors for developing pancreatitis. You can cut your chances of developing pancreatitis in half if you reduce alcohol consumption and quit smoking cigarettes. 

Obesity is the next most significant risk factor. Losing weight and exercising daily can keep pancreatitis at bay. 

Genetics play a role too. If you have family members with chronic pancreatitis, your chances are also greater. Men also have a greater chance than women of getting pancreatitis. 

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of pancreatitis depend on if you have acute or chronic pancreatitis. With acute pancreatitis, you'll find symptoms like:

  • Fever
  • Fast heart rate
  • Upper abdominal pain that goes around to your pack
  • Pain that's worse after you eat
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Tenderness to your abdomen

Symptoms of chronic pancreatitis include weight loss, abdominal pain, and oily, smelly stools. See your doctor right away if you have ongoing abdominal pain that doesn't stop. Seek emergency treatment if your pain is so severe you can't get comfortable.

Repeated bouts of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis, scar tissue formation, loss of pancreatic function, and serious medical complications. 

Complications of Pancreatic Disease

Pancreatitis can become severe and cause serious and even fatal complications like:

  • Severe pancreatic infections
  • Kidney failure
  • Heart failure
  • Diabetes
  • Malnutrition
  • Bleeding in your pancreas
  • Obstruction of your pancreatic duct
  • Severe damage to your pancreas
  • Death

Pancreatitis also may create chemical changes in your body that affect how well your lungs function. Some people with pancreatitis have low oxygen levels.

When you have frequent episodes of pancreatitis and long-term inflammation, you increase your risk of developing pancreatic cancer in the future.

Treatments of Pancreatic Diseases

Treatment for pancreatitis depends on how serious it is. Treatment includes pain medication, bowel rest (not eating for a day or two), and plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration for mild acute pancreatitis.

With severe acute pancreatitis, you typically need to be admitted to the hospital for IV fluids, antibiotics, nutrition, and even surgery. People with severe pancreatitis are at the most risk for organ failure and shock.

Diagnosis of Pancreatic Diseases

Your doctor will first perform a physical exam and ask detailed questions about your health history to diagnose pancreatic disease.

After your assessment, your doctor will want to order further diagnostic tests to confirm or rule out pancreatitis.

Imaging tests include a chest X-ray to check your heart and lungs and an ultrasound to examine your pancreas, gallbladder, and other organs.

Your doctor will often order an Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a procedure that uses a long tube to visualize and diagnose liver, gallbladder, and pancreas problems.  

Next, your doctor will order blood tests such as amylase and lipase to evaluate how your pancreas functions.

Lab Tests

The enzyme amylase helps you to digest carbohydrates. Amylase is often elevated in pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis.

Acute pancreatitis is a severe form of pancreatic disease, and an amylase serum lab test is a fantastic tool for diagnosing pancreatic problems. Elevated amylase levels reaching three times the normal limit is an excellent indicator of acute pancreatitis. 

An amylase serum test is also helpful in monitoring the cell damage in chronic pancreatitis. 

Lipase is another pancreatic disease test that is often used to help confirm a diagnosis of pancreatitis. Lipase is an enzyme that helps digest fats. Your lipase levels will rise within 8 hours after pancreatitis symptoms start. 

Your doctor will also likely order a complete blood counttriglyceride levels, and a comprehensive metabolic panel to assess your organs and overall health status.

Pancreatic Disease FAQS

Did you know the pancreas has four main parts? The head, neck, body, and tail make up your pancreas, and the pancreatic head attaches to your small intestine.

The venom from a bite of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus can cause pancreatitis.

People knew all about the pancreas even in 300 BCE. The ancient Greeks identified the pancreas as a gland but didn't fully understand how it functioned.

Amylase Serum Test

Make the right choice for your amylase serum test. Choose Ulta Lab Tests for all your lab testing needs. Our tests are reliable and guarantee accurate results.

With Ulta Labs, you don't need insurance or a doctor's referral. We offer affordable pricing for all tests, including a doctor's order. 

Once you order your pancreatic disease test, you'll have secure and confidential results, usually within 24 to 48 hours.

Take charge with Ulta Lab Tests and start living a healthier tomorrow.