Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Order a DIC test to evaluate if you have Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels. Testing includes tests for thrombocytopenia, an elevated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time, increased levels of plasma D-dimers (or serum fibrin degradation products), and a decreasing plasma fibrinogen level. Learn about your health today; order from Ulta Lab Tests.

Suffering from disseminated intravascular coagulation shouldn't be taken lightly. By getting a DIC test, you can move forward and work on treating this condition.      

Below the list of tests is a guide that explains and answers your questions on what you need to know about DIC tests, along with information on disseminated intravascular coagulation disorders, signs, symptoms, and diagnosis.

Name Matches
Screening test for abnormalities of coagulation factors that are involved in the extrinsic pathway. Also used to monitor effects of Warfarin therapy and to study patients with hereditary and acquired clotting disorders.

Screening test for deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors other than Factors VII and XIII. The test is also used to monitor patients on heparin therapy.

D-Dimer is one of the measurable by-products of activation of the fibrinolytic system. Quantitation of D-Dimer assesses fibrinolytic activation and intravascular thrombosis. D-Dimer is of particular value in excluding the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism among patients at high risk.

The Fibrin Monomer test is useful in diagnosing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or in differentiating DIC from primary fibrinolysis. Fibrin Monomer may be useful in monitoring response to treatment of DIC.

Low levels of fibrinogen are associated with bleeding most commonly secondary to liver disease or Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). Fibrinogen is an acute phase reactant and thus elevated levels may be associated with inflammation. Increased concentrations are also associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.

Screening test to aid in diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute occlusive vascular disease.

Low levels of fibrinogen are associated with bleeding most commonly secondary to liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Fibrinogen is an acute phase reactant and thus elevated levels may be associated with inflammation. Increased concentrations are also associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.

Before ordering this test consider The Complete Blood Count (CBC) with Differential and Platelets Blood Test (Test # 6399) which is a better value.

In Quest's internal studies of more than two thousand patient samples, no significant abnormalities were detected with manual differentials associated with test code 20253 that were not otherwise identified thru the test code 6399 CBC Reflex cascade.

This test is a CBC reflex test and it will include the components of the CBC (Includes Diff/PLT) with Smear Review based upon the test results of the following analytes if are above or below ranges as outlined in the test.

  • WBC 
  • Hemoglobin 
  • Hematocrit 
  • Platelet 
  • MCV 
  • MCH 
  • MCHC 
  • RBC 
  • RDW 
  • Relative Neutrophil % 
  • Relative Lymphocyte % 
  • Relative Monocyte % 
  • Eosinophil 
  • Basophil 
  • Platelet 

A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia, and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

The precursor of plasmin is plasminogen, plasmin lyses fibrin clots. Activity is increased in pregnancy and as an acute phase reactant. Rare hereditary deficiency of plasminogen predisposes to venous thrombosis. Low activity is associated with DIC, liver disease, and increased risk of thrombosis.

Aids in diagnosis of decreased activity of Protein C characterized by recurrent venous thrombosis. Acquired deficiencies associated with Protein C include: oral anticoagulant therapy, liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, malignancy, consumptive DIC, surgery, trauma, antibodies to Protein C and hepatic immaturity of the newborn.

In the presence of low Protein C Activity, Protein C Antigen is useful in classifying the deficiency as Type I or II.

Aids in diagnosis of congenital deficiencies characterized by recurrent venous thrombosis. Acquired deficiencies associated with Protein C include: oral anticoagulant therapy, liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, malignancy, consumptive DIC, surgery, trauma, antibodies to Protein C and hepatic immaturity of the newborn.

In 2016, there were 8,704 hospital admissions due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with an average age of 56. DIC is a serious and potentially fatal bleeding disorder, especially if you don't get immediate treatment.

Bleeding disorders develop when your blood doesn't clot properly. Sometimes they can occur spontaneously or due to injury and illness. For this reason, a DIC test is critical in letting you know where you stand. 

Suffering from DIC isn't anything that should be taken lightly. Keep reading this guide to find out everything you need to know about DIC and DIC tests.

What Is DIC?

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition that develops in your blood. In the initial stages of DIC, your blood clots excessively. These clots can reduce blood flow to parts of your body and even organs.

Eventually, as DIC progresses, your body ends up using all of its platelets and clotting components. As a result, you begin to experience excessive and life-threatening bleeding.

When the clotting proteins in your blood are depleted, you are at serious risk of bleeding, even from a minor injury. You can also have bleeding that spontaneously starts on its own.

DIC can be both acute and chronic. Acute DIC starts rapidly developing over hours or days. Acute DIC is severe, and immediate hospital admission is necessary. Acute DIC is usually caused by trauma, surgery, or infection.

You develop blood clotting over time with chronic DIC, but it doesn't lead to bleeding like acute DIC. Chronic DIC usually results from blood clotting disorders or leukemia-like cancers. 

Risk factors for DIC

There are certain medical conditions and traumatic situations that put you at a higher risk of developing DIC. These include:

  • You've had surgery recently
  • You've delivered a baby recently
  • You've had a miscarriage 
  • A recent blood transfusion
  • Recent anesthesia
  • Sepsis or any fungal or bacterial infection
  • History of certain cancers like leukemia

Other risk factors include damage from serious trauma, burn, or head injury. You're also at increased risk for DIC if you have liver disease.

Causes of DIC

What causes disseminated intravascular coagulation? During the normal clotting process, the proteins that help your blood clot become overly active, which causes DIC. Common causes of DIC include:

  • Infection
  • Severe trauma
  • Inflammation
  • Surgery
  • Cancer

Other less common causes include hypothermia, pancreatitis, venomous snack bites, burns, and bleeding complications.

Signs and Symptoms of DIC

The main symptom of DIC is bleeding, often in many locations. The most common place to bleed from is the tissue from your mouth and nose. DIC can also cause internal bleeding. Other symptoms you might notice include:

  • Blood clots
  • Bruising easily
  • Vaginal or rectal bleeding
  • Red dots on your skin called petechiae

If you have cancer, DIC typically begins slowly with clotting in the veins rather than excessive bleeding.

Complications can occur if acute DIC isn't treated immediately. These complications usually come from the early stages of blood clots and after the clotting factors are depleted. 

Complications usually include excessive bleeding that can lead to death, stroke, or blood clots that cut off blood supply to your limbs or organs.

How is DIC Diagnosed?

It's essential to remember acute DIC is a medical emergency and requires medical treatment. DIC can become life-threatening if not treated right away. If you have signs and symptoms of severe bleeding, it's critical to call 911 right away.

Your doctor will do a physical exam, take your medical history, and ask you about your symptoms. If your doctor suspects you have DIC, they will order a series of blood tests.

These blood tests can identify your clotting factors, levels of platelets, and other blood components. Doctors make a diagnosis based on the combination of these results.

Lab Tests for DIC

A disseminated intravascular coagulation test includes a combination of tests to determine how fast your blood is clotting and how your blood clotting factors compare to the normal ranges.

The first test is an activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test. This test measures for any deficiencies of your plasma coagulation factors except for factors VII and XIII.

The next test is Prothrombin Time (PT) INR. This test measures any coagulation factors abnormalities and determines if your blood clots are too fast or not fast enough.

A fibrinogen activity test measures the level of fibrinogen in your blood. Fibrinogen is essential for blood clots to form. If your fibrinogen is low, you can be at risk for severe bleeding disorders.

The D-Dimer test tests the amount of D-Dimer or products of the activation of the fibrinolytic system. When this is activated, you're at high risk of developing serious blot clots.

fibrin monomer test is instrumental in diagnosing DIC and differentiating it from other blood clotting disorders.

DIC Scoring

The International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis developed a scoring scale as a guideline for diagnosing DIC. The design of this scale is specifically for people with critical illnesses known to trigger DIC. This scale categorizes patients with either "probably overt DIC" or "not overt DIC" based on specific lab parameters.

Your platelet count, fibrin makers, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen levels are measured and scored from 0 to 2. Low levels of each of these values get the highest amount of points.

Frequently Asked Questions About DIC

Are you wondering how worried you should be after a blood transfusion reaction? The good news is, any reaction from blood transfusions, including DIC, is rare. All blood goes through a strict screening process to determine blood type. 

Is there one single treatment for DIC? Treatment for DIC usually includes transfusions of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and other clotting factors. The replacement of blood platelets helps stop the bleeding and replace clotting factors.

What's the most common cause of DIC? Most of the time, inflammation, cancer, and infection are at the top of the list.   

DIC Test With Ulta Lab Tests

Ulta Lab Tests offers tests that are highly accurate and reliable, allowing you to make the best decisions about your health. Here are a few fantastic things to love about Ulta Lab Tests:

  • Secure and confidential results
  • No need for health insurance
  • No need for a physician's referral
  • Affordable pricing
  • 100% satisfaction guarantee

Order your DIC test today, and your results will be provided to you securely online in 24 to 48 hours in most cases.

Take charge of your health and shop with Ulta Lab Tests today!