Blood Chemistry Tests (Blood Disorder)

Blood chemistry tests are the key to understanding your health. They measure chemicals including enzymes, electrolytes, fats (also called lipids), hormones, sugars, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Learn about your health today, and order your confidential blood chem report from Ulta Lab Tests.

Below the list of tests is a guide that explains and answers your questions on what you need to know about blood chemistry tests, along with information on how you can use these lab tests to learn and track your health.

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Dr. Weatherby’s Standard Panel - "Blood Chemistry Analysis Standard Panel" contains the following 34 tests – Bilirubin, Fractionated; CBC (includes Differential and Platelets); Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP); Creatinine; DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay; Estradiol; Ferritin; Fibrinogen Activity, Clauss; Folate, Serum; Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT); Hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1C); Homocysteine; hs-CRP; Insulin; Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC); Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD); Lipid Panel With Ratios; Magnesium; Phosphate (as Phosphorus); Progesterone, Immunoassay; Protein, Total and Protein Electrophoresis, with Scan and PSA Total.

Dr. Weatherby’s Comprehensive Panel - "Blood Chemistry Analysis Comprehensive Panel" contains the following 45 tests - Bilirubin, Direct; Bilirubin, Fractionated; C-Peptide; C-Reactive Protein (CRP); CBC (includes Differential and Platelets); Collagen Cross-Linked N-Telopeptide (NTx), 24-Hour Urine; Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP); Cortisol, A.M.; Cortisol, P.M.; Creatine Kinase (CK), Total; Creatinine; Creatinine Clearance; DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay; Estradiol; Ferritin; Fibrinogen Activity, Clauss; Folate, Serum; Fructosamine; Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT); Gastrin; Hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1C); Homocysteine; hs-CRP; Insulin; Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC); Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD); Lipid Panel With Ratios; Magnesium; Phosphate (as Phosphorus); Progesterone, Immunoassay; Protein, Total and Protein Electrophoresis, with Scan; PSA Total; QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS; Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG); T3 Reverse (RT3), LC/MS/MS; T3 Total; T3, Free; T4, Free; Testosterone, Free, Bioavailable and Total, LC/MS/MS; Thyroid Panel; Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies; TSH; Uric Acid; Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin); and VLDL Cholesterol.

The BCA Chemistry Panel contains the following tests.

  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphate (as Phosphorus)
  • Uric Acid

Chemistry Panel (CMP) & Complete Blood Count (CBC) Blood Test

This test helps assess overall wellbeing, kidney and liver function, and blood cell count.
This panel contains the following tests:

Blood Sugar:

  • Fasting glucose

Kidney Function:

  • Uric acid
  • BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
  • Creatinine
  • BUN/creatinine ratio
  • eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate)

Electrolytes and Minerals:

  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Chloride
  • Calcium

Liver Function:

  • Total protein
  • Albumin
  • Globulin
  • Albumin/globulin ratio
  • Bilirubin
  • Alkaline phosphatase
  • LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)
  • AST (aspartate aminotransferase)
  • ALT (alanine transaminase)

Complete Blood Count:

  • Red blood cell count
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • MCV (mean corpuscular volume)
  • MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin)
  • MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)
  • RDW (red blood cell distribution)
  • White blood cell count
  • Differential count
  • Platelet count

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

A Complete Blood Count (CBC) Panel is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia, and inflammatory processes.

A CBC blood test includes the following biomarkers: WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs)

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Potassium measurements are useful in monitoring electrolyte balance in the diagnosis and treatment of disease conditions characterized by low or high blood potassium levels. Potassium is elevated in adrenal cortical insufficiency, acute renal failure and in some cases of diabetic acidosis. Potassium is decreased in diuretic administration and renal tubular acidosis.

False elevations of potassium may be due to hemolysis or rupture of platelets during coagulation process. The use of plasma potassium levels should be limited to those patients with spuriously elevated or depressed potassium levels due to blood samples left at room temperature, in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with very high WBC counts (false decline), and those with thrombocytosis (increased platelets) with counts in excess of one million (false elevation).

The SMAC-25 blood chemistry panel, often used as a general screening tool by many physicians. The SMAC-25 includes the following tests.

  • Amylase, Serum
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Creatine Kinase (CK), Total, Serum
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) (LDH)
  • Lactic Acid, Plasma
  • Lipid Panel
  • Magnesium, Serum
  • Phosphorus, Serum
  • Uric Acid, Serum

Sodium measurements are useful in the diagnosis and treatment of aldosteronism, diabetes insipidus, adrenal hypertension, Addison's Disease, dehydration, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, or other diseases involving electrolyte imbalance.

Want to get a good idea of how your health is doing?

Blood holds a lot of factors that can determine your health because of its function in the body. Ordering a blood test is a quick and easy process, and you get very insightful information about the quality of your health with the results.

Read on to discover more about blood chemistry lab tests and why they're important now.

Blood Testing: What It Is and Why It's Important

Blood testing is the analysis of extracted blood samples through biochemical processes. It's one of the most powerful ways to check your current health.

Blood chemistry tests are great for checking biomarkers that evaluate the health of your organs, like your heart, kidney, liver, digestive system, lungs, endocrine system, and for diseases ranging from immune to infections. Blood is the carrier and transport system of oxygen and other resources the body needs. Depending on the blood test you take, these tests can help detect issues before you have symptoms and provide an accurate disease diagnosis. Blood tests can also help doctors determine if your organs are well and functioning correctly.

Taking blood tests is important because they are the fastest way to determine risk factors and verify the diagnosis of diseases.

Types of Blood Chemistry Tests

Depending on what you are testing or screening for, there are many hundreds of blood tests available. There are tests for detecting blood diseases, disorders and checking on organ function. Here are some basic blood chemistry tests frequently ordered, and here is a link to 19 important lab tests that you may want to review with your doctor.

Complete Blood Count

The Complete Blood Count or CBC is the most common blood test performed. This blood test is often a part of a routine check-up. The CBC test helps in detecting blood diseases and blood disorders like anemia and clotting problems. The CBC is also used to help detect blood cancers like Leukemia and immune system disorders.

The CBC blood test measures 33 biomarkers, including the red and white blood cells and platelets. Identifying a disease with a CBC test depends on which blood part has abnormal low or high counts.

Red Blood Cells (RBC)

The red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. When a CBC shows abnormal RBC levels, this can be a factor of anemia, dehydration, or bleeding.

Alongside your RBCs, CBC also checks with your Hemoglobin and Hematocrit levels.

White Blood Cells (WBC)

White blood cells are your body’s first line of defense against infections and diseases. CBC test results with either a high or low WBC count can mean an infection or blood cancer.

In some cases, this can also point to an immune system disorder. These diseases are often easy to diagnose with the help of blood tests.


Platelets are the blood cell fragments in charge of blood clotting. When platelet levels become abnormal, this can mean a bleeding disorder. Other times it can mean a thrombotic disorder, which is a case of too much blood clotting.

Basic Metabolic Panel

Basic Metabolic Panel is a group of 11 biomarkers tests that gauge the health of your kidneys and the balance of your electrolytes. They are tests that often use the plasma or the fluid part of your blood. The Basic Metabolic Panel tests give doctors the data on your muscles, bones, and organs, like kidneys and liver.


Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including those in the brain. The hormones insulin and glucagon help control blood glucose levels.


You have more calcium in your body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99% of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong.

The rest is throughout the body in blood, muscle, and the fluid between cells. Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, secrete hormones and enzymes and send messages through the nervous system.


Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. It helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells.


Sodium is a substance that the body needs to work properly. It is vital to normal body processes, including nerve and muscle function.

Carbon Dioxide 

CO2 is carbon dioxide. Measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum. In the body, most CO2 is in the form of a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-).


Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body's acid-base balance.


The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work.

Urea Nitrogen (Bun) 

BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. BUN measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood.

Bun/Creatinine Ratio 

A ratio between a person’s BUN and blood creatinine to help determine what is causing these concentrations to be higher than normal. The ratio of BUN to creatinine is usually between 10:1 and 20:1. An increased ratio may be due to a condition that causes a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys, such as congestive heart failure or dehydration.

It may also be seen with increased protein, gastrointestinal bleeding, or increased protein in the diet. The ratio may be decreased with liver disease (due to a decrease in the formation of urea) and malnutrition.


Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are the tiny filters in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood.

Hepatic Function Panel

This panel, also known as the liver panel, contains the following 10 biomarkers that measure the health of your liver.


Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.

Albumin/Globulin Ratio 

The ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G ratio) is calculated from measured albumin and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin). Normally, there is a little more albumin than globulins, giving a normal A/G ratio of slightly over. Because disease states affect the relative amounts of albumin and globulin, the A/G ratio may provide a clue as to the cause of the change in protein levels.

Alkaline Phosphatase 

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.


Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in the release of the substance into the blood.


AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in high amounts in the liver, heart, and muscle cells. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.

Bilirubin, Direct, Indirect and Total 

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells is replaced by new blood cells every day.

Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.


Globulin is the collective term for most blood proteins other than albumin. Identifying the types of globulins can help diagnose certain disorders. Globulins are roughly divided into three groups: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins.

Gamma globulins include antibodies such as immunoglobulins (Ig) M, G, and A.

Protein, Total 

The total protein is the total amount of two classes of proteins, albumin, and globulin, that are found in the fluid portion of your blood. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Your albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels, and your globulins are an important part of your immune system.

Benefits of Blood Testing

There are many benefits to having your blood tested periodically. Here are some of them.

  • They are a reliable source of data for your health and wellness
  • Blood tests are an excellent way to detect and diagnose diseases
  • They help in checking your metabolism
  • They are good ways to determine if you are diabetic or pre-diabetic
  • Blood chemistry lab tests check your organs' health and functionality
    The tests help in keeping you up to date with your hormone levels and keep them in optimal health
  • They allow you to determine and avoid your risks for stroke and heart disease
  • Blood tests are an excellent way to measure your health

Getting blood tests regularly to establish your baseline biomarkers and track changes in your biomarkers is an excellent way to keep track of your health and avoid health risks. If you haven't checked your blood in a while, now is the time to take control of your health with blood chemistry tests from Ulta Lab Tests.

Blood Chemistry Lab Tests and Why You Need Them

Blood chemistry tests are essential laboratory tests that people should not overlook—looking to get a blood test done?

Ulta Lab Tests offers highly accurate and reliable tests so that you can make informed decisions about your health. Here are a few great things to love about Ulta Lab Tests:

  • You'll get secure and confidential results
  • You don't need health insurance
  • You don't need a physician's referral
  • You'll get affordable pricing
  • We offer a 100% satisfaction guarantee

We aim to simplify the testing process as much as possible. You can order multiple blood tests to be performed with only a single blood draw. You can schedule all of the testing services you need to be performed in a single visit with Ulta Lab Test at a nearby patient service center.

Getting your results is quick and easy as well. Log into your unique patient portal, and you'll be able to view all current and past test results you've ordered through Ulta Lab Tests.