The Immunofixation (IFE), Serum test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.
Brief Description: The Immunofixation test, also known as Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE), is a laboratory procedure used to detect and identify abnormal proteins in the blood, especially monoclonal proteins (proteins produced by a single type of cell). The test involves separating proteins in a sample based on their size and electrical charge, and then exposing the separated proteins to antibodies specific to different protein types.
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When and Why an Immunofixation Test May Be Ordered
A healthcare provider may order an Immunofixation test for several reasons:
Follow-up to Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPEP): If an SPEP test identifies the presence of abnormal proteins, IFE might be ordered to further characterize and identify those proteins.
Suspected Plasma Cell Disorders: For patients showing symptoms of or are at risk for plasma cell disorders, such as multiple myeloma or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
Monitoring Treatment: In patients diagnosed with conditions producing abnormal proteins, the test may be repeated periodically to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
What the Immunofixation Test Checks For
The Immunofixation test primarily looks for:
Monoclonal Proteins: These are abnormal proteins (often antibodies or fragments of antibodies) produced by a clone of plasma cells. They can be indicative of various disorders.
Identification of Protein Type: By using specific antibodies, the test can determine which type of protein is present, such as IgG, IgA, IgM, kappa, or lambda.
Other Lab Tests Ordered Alongside the Immunofixation Test
When evaluating potential plasma cell disorders or other conditions, several other tests might be ordered in tandem with Immunofixation:
Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPEP): To separate and measure proteins in the blood.
Urine Protein Electrophoresis (UPEP) and Urine Immunofixation: To detect and identify abnormal proteins in the urine.
Complete Blood Count (CBC): To measure overall health and detect other disorders.
Bone Marrow Biopsy: For a detailed examination of the bone marrow, especially when multiple myeloma or a related disorder is suspected.
Conditions or Diseases that Require an Immunofixation Test
Multiple Myeloma: A cancer of plasma cells that can result in the production of a specific type of abnormal protein.
Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia: A type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma which can produce abnormal proteins.
Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS): A condition in which an abnormal protein is present but doesn't cause any symptoms or complications on its own.
Amyloidosis: A disease where abnormal proteins build up in tissues and organs.
Usage of Immunofixation Test Results by Health Care Providers
Diagnosis: Identifying the presence and type of monoclonal protein can help diagnose conditions like multiple myeloma or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
Treatment Guidance: Monitoring the levels of monoclonal proteins can help doctors decide on treatment approaches or measure the effectiveness of ongoing treatments.
Prognosis: The amount and type of monoclonal protein can sometimes give insights into the prognosis of the condition.
In essence, the Immunofixation test is an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of conditions associated with abnormal protein production. It provides critical insights into the nature and extent of these disorders, guiding both treatment and prognosis.
Most Common Questions About the Immunofixation test:
Purpose and Indications for the Immunofixation Test
What is the primary purpose of the Immunofixation test?
The Immunofixation test is primarily used to detect and identify abnormal proteins or monoclonal proteins (M-proteins) in the blood and urine. Detecting these proteins can aid in the diagnosis of conditions like multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and other related diseases.
When might a healthcare provider recommend the Immunofixation test?
A healthcare provider might recommend the Immunofixation test if initial blood tests, such as serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) or urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP), show abnormal results or suggest the presence of an M-protein. It can help confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific type of protein.
Interpreting the Results
What do the results of the Immunofixation test indicate?
The Immunofixation test results can identify specific types of abnormal proteins. For instance, if the test detects an abnormal amount of IgG kappa light chains, it suggests the presence of an IgG kappa monoclonal protein, which might be seen in conditions like multiple myeloma.
Implications and Management
If a patient tests positive for an abnormal protein using the Immunofixation test, what are the next steps?
If an abnormal protein is detected, the healthcare provider will usually order further tests, such as bone marrow biopsy, imaging studies, or additional blood tests to determine the cause and the extent of the disease. The results from the Immunofixation test will also guide treatment decisions.
What conditions can be diagnosed or ruled out using the Immunofixation test?
While the Immunofixation test can't conclusively diagnose a condition by itself, in conjunction with other tests and clinical findings, it can help diagnose conditions like multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and primary amyloidosis.
Test Mechanisms and Specifics
How does the Immunofixation test differ from serum or urine protein electrophoresis (SPEP/UPEP)?
While both SPEP and UPEP separate proteins based on their size and charge, the Immunofixation test goes a step further by using antibodies to "fix" or pinpoint specific proteins. This allows it to identify the exact type of abnormal protein present, making it more precise.
Why is it sometimes necessary to perform both serum and urine Immunofixation tests?
Some abnormal proteins might be present in the blood but not in the urine, and vice versa. Performing both tests ensures that no abnormal proteins are missed, providing a more comprehensive picture.
How does the Immunofixation test contribute to the monitoring of diseases like multiple myeloma?
The Immunofixation test can track the levels of abnormal proteins over time, helping assess the effectiveness of treatment for diseases like multiple myeloma. Decreasing levels might indicate a positive response to treatment, while increasing levels could suggest disease progression.
Is the Immunofixation test used as a standalone diagnostic tool?
No, the Immunofixation test is typically used in conjunction with other tests and clinical assessments. It provides valuable information, but a definitive diagnosis usually requires a combination of findings from multiple sources.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.