The ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test contains 1 test with 7 biomarkers.
Brief Description: The ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test is a blood test that measures antinuclear antibodies (ANA) using the Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) method. It is a comprehensive screening test for autoimmune diseases, which occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the body.
Also Known As: ANA, ANA Screen IFA with Reflex to Titer and pattern IFA, ANA with Reflex, Antinuclear Antibody Screen, DNA-DS Antibody Test, DNA-DS Test, Anti ds-DNA Test, Scl-70 Antibody Test, Anti Scl-70 test, sjogren’s antibody test, SSA-A antibody test, SS-B Antibody test, Sm Antibody Test, Rnp Antibody Sm Rnp Antibody Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: No preparation required
If ANA Screen, IFA is positive, then ANA Titer and Pattern will be performed at an additional charge - $13.00
When is a Comprehensive ANA IFA Panel test ordered?
A healthcare provider may order an ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test when a patient exhibits symptoms that suggest an autoimmune disorder. Common symptoms that may prompt the test include unexplained joint pain, fatigue, skin rashes, fever, and swelling. The test is also ordered to monitor disease progression and response to treatment in patients with known autoimmune diseases.
What does a Comprehensive ANA IFA Panel blood test check for?
Antinuclear antibodies are a type of antibody produced by the immune system when it is unable to differentiate between its own cells and foreign cells. Autoantibodies are antibodies that attack the body's own healthy cells, causing symptoms like tissue and organ inflammation, joint and muscle discomfort, and weariness. The moniker "antinuclear" comes from the fact that ANA specifically targets chemicals located in a cell's nucleus. The presence of these autoantibodies in the blood is detected by the ANA test.
The presence of ANA may be a sign of an autoimmune process, and it has been linked to a variety of autoimmune illnesses, the most common of which being systemic lupus erythematosus.
One of the most common tests used to detect an autoimmune disorder or rule out other conditions with comparable signs and symptoms is the ANA test. As a result, it's frequently followed by other autoantibody tests that can help establish a diagnosis. An ENA panel, anti-dsDNA, anti-centromere, and/or anti-histone test are examples of these.
Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive ANA IFA Panel test:
- ENA Panel
- Sed Rate (ESR)
- C-Reactive Protein
- Centromere antibody
- Histone Antibody
- Nuclear Antibody
Conditions where a Comprehensive ANA IFA Panel test is recommended:
The ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test is commonly used to screen for and diagnose a wide range of autoimmune diseases, including but not limited to:
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): A chronic autoimmune disease that affects various organs and tissues.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the joints.
Sjögren's Syndrome: An autoimmune condition that primarily affects the glands that produce tears and saliva.
Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma): A disease that causes thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissues.
How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive ANA IFA Panel?
The antinuclear antibody test is one of the most common tests used to identify systemic lupus erythematosus. It is used as a primary test to assist evaluate a person for autoimmune illnesses that affect multiple tissues and organs throughout the body.
When a person's immune system fails to discriminate between their own cells and foreign cells, autoantibodies called ANA are created. They attack chemicals found in a cell's nucleus, causing organ and tissue damage.
ANA testing may be utilized in conjunction with or after other autoantibody tests, depending on a person's indications and symptoms and the suspected condition. Antibodies that target specific compounds within cell nuclei, such as anti-dsDNA, anti-centromere, anti-nucleolar, anti-histone, and anti-RNA antibodies, are detected by some of these tests, which are considered subsets of the general ANA test. In addition, an ENA panel can be utilized as a follow-up to an ANA.
These further tests are performed in addition to a person's clinical history to assist diagnose or rule out other autoimmune conditions such Sjögren syndrome, polymyositis, and scleroderma.
To detect ANA, various laboratories may employ different test procedures. Immunoassay and indirect fluorescent antibody are two typical approaches. The IFA is regarded as the gold standard. Some labs will test for ANA using immunoassay and then employ IFA to confirm positive or equivocal results.
An indirect fluorescent antibody is created by mixing a person's blood sample with cells attached to a slide. Autoantibodies in the blood bind to the cells and cause them to react. A fluorescent antibody reagent is used to treat the slide, which is then inspected under a microscope. The existence of fluorescence is observed, as well as the pattern of fluorescence.
Immunoassays—these procedures are frequently carried out using automated equipment, however they are less sensitive than IFA in identifying ANA.
Other laboratory tests linked to inflammation, such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and/or C-reactive protein, can be used to assess a person's risk of SLE or another autoimmune disease.
What do my ANA test results mean?
A positive ANA test indicates the presence of autoantibodies. This shows the presence of an autoimmune disease in someone who has signs and symptoms, but more testing is needed to make a definitive diagnosis.
Because ANA test results can be positive in persons who have no known autoimmune disease, they must be carefully assessed in conjunction with a person's indications and symptoms.
Because an ANA test can become positive before signs and symptoms of an autoimmune disease appear, determining the meaning of a positive ANA in a person who has no symptoms can take some time.
SLE is unlikely to be diagnosed with a negative ANA result. It is normally not required to repeat a negative ANA test right away; however, because autoimmune illnesses are episodic, it may be desirable to repeat the ANA test at a later date if symptoms persist.
Most Common Questions About the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test:
Understanding the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive Test
What is the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test?
The ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test is a blood test that screens for antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). These are antibodies produced by the immune system that target the body's own tissues, which are often present in autoimmune disorders. The "IFA" refers to "Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay", a method used to detect these antibodies.
What diseases can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test help diagnose?
The test helps diagnose autoimmune disorders such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease, among others. However, having ANAs can also be normal, especially at low levels, or can occur in other conditions, so it's used as part of the diagnostic process rather than as a definitive test.
Interpreting ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive Test Results
What do positive ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test results mean?
Positive results mean that antinuclear antibodies were found in the blood. This can be a sign of an autoimmune disorder, but it doesn't necessarily mean one is present. The pattern and titer of the ANA can provide clues as to what type of autoimmune disorder might be present.
What do negative ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test results mean?
Negative results mean that no antinuclear antibodies were detected. This typically suggests that an autoimmune disorder is less likely, although it doesn't rule it out entirely, as some people with certain autoimmune conditions can test negative.
ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive Test and Specific Health Conditions
How is the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test used in diagnosing lupus?
ANA is positive in nearly all people with lupus, so it's often used as a screening test when lupus is suspected. However, other tests are also used, as ANA can be positive in many other conditions or even in healthy people.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test differentiate between different autoimmune disorders?
The ANA test can give clues as to the type of autoimmune disorder based on the pattern of the ANA and the presence of other antibodies. However, it's usually used in combination with other tests and clinical findings to make a diagnosis.
ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive Test in Treatment Considerations
How do ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test results guide treatment decisions?
The results can help guide treatment by suggesting the presence of an autoimmune disorder that might need treatment. The specific treatment would depend on the type of disorder and the person's symptoms.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test be used to monitor disease progression or treatment effectiveness?
While ANA levels can change over time, they are not typically used to monitor disease progression or treatment effectiveness in most autoimmune disorders, as they don't correlate well with disease activity. Other tests and clinical evaluations are usually more useful for this purpose.
ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive Test and Other Diagnostic Tools
How does the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test complement other diagnostic tools in diagnosing autoimmune disorders?
The ANA test is often used as an initial screening test when an autoimmune disorder is suspected. If it's positive, other more specific tests might be done to help diagnose a specific disorder.
Why might the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test be performed along with other antibody tests?
As ANAs are fairly nonspecific, they're often tested along with other, more specific antibodies to help diagnose certain autoimmune disorders. For example, antibodies to double-stranded DNA or Smith antigen are more specific for lupus.
Patient Considerations for the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive Test
What factors might cause a false positive or false negative ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test?
Certain medications can cause a false positive ANA, and the test is more likely to be positive in older people or in people with certain infections or other diseases. A false negative could occur if the test is performed too early in the course of an autoimmune disease, before antibodies have formed.
How might the presence of other diseases affect the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test results?
Certain infections, liver disease, and other conditions can cause a positive ANA without an autoimmune disease being present. Having one autoimmune disease can also make it more likely to develop antibodies related to another autoimmune disease.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test be used during pregnancy?
Yes, the test can be used during pregnancy. Autoimmune disorders can affect pregnancy outcomes, so it's important to diagnose and manage them appropriately.
Understanding the Advancements and Limitations of the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive Test
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test results be influenced by genetic factors?
Yes, there is a genetic component to the development of autoimmune diseases and the presence of ANAs, although the exact relationship is complex and not fully understood.
Are there technological advancements that have improved the accuracy or utility of the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test?
Advancements in lab techniques, such as the use of cell substrates and automated reading systems, have improved the accuracy and consistency of the ANA test.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test be used to predict the risk of developing an autoimmune disease?
Having a positive ANA test can increase the risk of developing an autoimmune disease, especially if there are other risk factors present, but it doesn't guarantee that one will develop.
How do lifestyle changes or interventions affect the results of an ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test?
Lifestyle changes or interventions wouldn't typically affect the results of an ANA test, as it's testing for an immune system response that isn't generally influenced by lifestyle factors.
How does the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test contribute to the understanding of autoimmune diseases in the medical community?
The ANA test has been a key tool in understanding the immune response in autoimmune diseases. It was one of the first tests that showed the immune system could target the body's own cells.
Are there newer diagnostic methods that may surpass the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test in the future?
There's ongoing research into more specific biomarkers for autoimmune diseases, which may eventually provide more specific and sensitive tests than the ANA. However, the ANA test is likely to remain a useful screening tool due to its broad applicability.
How do ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test results affect long-term patient management?
Positive ANA results may require long-term monitoring for the development of autoimmune diseases, especially if other symptoms or lab abnormalities are present.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test results change over time?
Yes, ANA results can change over time. They can become positive before symptoms of an autoimmune disease appear, and they can also become negative or change patterns.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test be used to monitor the prognosis of a disease?
ANA testing is not typically used to monitor prognosis. The results don't usually correlate well with disease activity or prognosis in most autoimmune diseases.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test be used to monitor the impact of a specific treatment?
ANA testing is generally not used to monitor the impact of treatment, as ANA levels don't correlate well with disease activity.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test be used for population screening?
ANA testing is not typically used for population screening, as many people have positive ANAs without having an autoimmune disease. It's best used when there's a clinical suspicion of an autoimmune disease based on symptoms and other findings.
Can the ANA, IFA Panel Comprehensive test provide insights into disease pathogenesis?
The presence of ANAs indicates that the immune system is reacting against the body's own cells, which is a key aspect of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, why this occurs and why specific antibodies are associated with specific diseases are areas of ongoing research.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.