Blood Count

Blood Count Lab Tests and health information

The complete blood count test measures the health of your blood and its components WBC, RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, Platelet count, Neutrophils, Lymphs, Monocytes, Eos, Basos, Neutrophils (Absolute), Lymphs (Absolute), Monocytes(Absolute), Eos (Absolute), Basos (Absolute), Immature Granulocytes, Immature Grans (Abs).   

The CBC evaluates your overall health and can detect many diseases. Order your CBC test from Ulta Lab Tests today with confidential results online in 24 to 48 hours.

Below the list of tests is a guide that explains and answers your questions on what you need to know about complete blood count tests, along with information on how you can use these lab tests to learn and track your health.


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Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000+ cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3+ spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Complete Blood Count or CBC (H/H, RBC, Indices, WBC, Plt) test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood and counts your red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen.

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with White Blood Cell Count and Platelets Test, Hemogram Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a CBC test ordered?

The complete blood count is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary.

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding.

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working.

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis.

What does a CBC blood test check for?

The complete blood count is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances.

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. The following items are included in a conventional CBC:

  • White blood cell count.
  • RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC indicators such as mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width are all used to assess red blood cells. The reticulocyte count may or may not be included in the RBC evaluation.
  • Platelet count; may or may not include mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width in platelet evaluation

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells:

White Blood Cells

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of white blood cells in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in white blood cell production. Abnormal white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count.

Red Blood Cells

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity.

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood, and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood. This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances.

Platelets

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC.

Lab tests often ordered with a CBC test:

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a CBC test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a CBC test?

The complete blood count is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status. It can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • To check for a variety of ailments and disorders.
  • Assist in the diagnosis of a variety of illnesses, including anemia, infection, inflammation, bleeding disorders, and leukemia, to mention a few.
  • After a diagnosis has been made, keep an eye on the patient's condition and/or the treatment's effectiveness.
  • Treatments that are known to influence blood cells, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, should be monitored.

A complete blood count is a set of tests that assesses the three types of cells that circulate in the bloodstream. The following items are included in a CBC:

White blood cells, which are part of the body's defensive system against infections and cancer, as well as playing a role in allergies and inflammation, are assessed:

  • The total number of white blood cells in a person's blood sample is measured by a white blood cell count.

Red blood cells, which transport oxygen throughout the body, are assessed as follows:

  • The quantity of red blood cells in a person's blood sample is measured by a red blood cell count.
  • The overall amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood is measured by hemoglobin, which generally indicates the number of red blood cells in the blood.
  • Hematocrit is a measurement of how many red blood cells make up a person's total blood volume.
  • RBC indices are calculations that give information about the physical features of RBCs:
  • The average size of a single red blood cell is measured by the mean corpuscular volume.
  • The average quantity of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell is calculated as mean corpuscular hemoglobin.
  • The average concentration of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell is calculated as mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
  • The red cell distribution width is a measurement of RBC size variation.

The reticulocyte count, which is a measurement of the absolute count or percentage of immature red blood cells in the blood, may also be included in the CBC.

Platelets, which are cell fragments that are critical for proper blood coagulation, are assessed as follows:

  • The number of platelets in a person's blood sample is known as the platelet count.

With a CBC, the mean platelet volume can be reported. It's a calculation of platelet size on average.

A CBC can also reveal the platelet distribution width. It reflects the size uniformity of platelets.

Can a blood transfusion affect my CBC results?

Yes, a recent blood transfusion will have an effect on your CBC test results.

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean?

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health.

What do my Platelet results mean?

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.


Absolute Lymphocyte Count includes: WBC, Absolute Lymphocytes, % Lymphocytes, % Reactive Lymphocytes

Clinical Significance

Increased understanding of immunodeficiency syndrome and AIDS have identified the importance of absolute lymphocyte count in addition to the specific cell type such as CD4 lymphocytes. In pediatric ages up to 14 years old, acute infectious lymphocytosis is a clinical disorder, suspected to be of enterovirus-Coxsackie A subgroup that may have upper respiratory symptoms, fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain or a totally asymptomatic clinical course. Other conditions with absolute lymphocytosis are B. pertussis infection and lymphocytic leukemoid reaction. The most commonly known lymphocytosis with atypical morphology is due to cytomegalovirus and infectious mononucleosis. The malignant forms of absolute lymphocytosis are mostly due to lymphoproliferative disorders.


This panel is designed to evaluate a patient for the presence of potentially reversible (i.e., secondary) causes of dementia such as Vitamin B12 deficiency, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, anemia, hypoxia or hypercapnia, hepatic and renal encephalopathies, diabetes, and dehydration. The panel includes a Complete Blood Count, TSH, Vitamin B12, Folate, and a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel. It is modeled after the recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), a National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel, the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS), and others.1-4

Description: The Hematocrit test is a blood test used to measure the percentage of red blood cells in your blood, usually for determining anemia.

Also Known As: HCT Test, Crit Test, Packed Cell Volume Test, PCV Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hematocrit test ordered?

A full blood count usually includes a hematocrit measurement. It can also be ordered as part of a general health assessment, either by itself or in conjunction with a hemoglobin level. When a person develops signs and symptoms of a disorder that affects RBCs, such as anemia or polycythemia, these tests are frequently done.

When someone has signs and symptoms of severe dehydration, such as intense thirst, dry mouth or mucous membranes, and a lack of perspiration or urination, a hematocrit may be requested.

When someone has been identified with recurrent bleeding difficulties, anemia, or polycythemia, this test may be repeated numerous times or on a regular basis to check the success of treatment. It may also be ordered on a regular basis for persons receiving therapy for cancers that affect the bone marrow.

What does a Hematocrit blood test check for?

A hematocrit is a test that determines the percentage of red blood cells in a person’s blood. RBCs, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended in plasma, a fluid component of blood. The hematocrit is a ratio that compares the volume of red blood cells to the volume of all of these components together, which is known as whole blood. A percentage or fraction is used to express the value. A hematocrit of 40%, for example, indicates that there are 40 milliliters of red blood cells per 100 milliliters of blood.

The hematocrit is a quick and easy approach to assess a person’s red blood cells and screen for disorders like anemia. It’s frequently done in conjunction with a hemoglobin level, and it’s also a part of a complete blood count, which is commonly used to assess a person’s overall health.

RBCs are made in the bone marrow and discharged into the bloodstream when they are fully mature or almost so. They normally constitute about 37 to 49 percent of the blood volume. Hemoglobin, a protein that binds to oxygen, is found in RBCs. RBCs’ main job is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and organs. They also transfer a little amount of carbon dioxide from tissues and organs back to the lungs, where it is exhaled.

RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, and the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and degraded or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of disorders can impact the bone marrow’s ability to produce new RBCs or the longevity of those already in circulation, as well as cause substantial bleeding.

The hematocrit measures both the number and volume of red blood cells. The hematocrit will drop when the size of the RBCs decreases, and vice versa. In general, the hematocrit will rise as the number of red blood cells increases, and it will fall to less than normal when the number of RBCs produced by the bone marrow decreases, the number of RBCs destroyed increases, or blood is lost due to hemorrhage. The overall amount of RBCs and hematocrit will diminish if the bone marrow is unable to manufacture new RBCs quickly enough, resulting in anemia.

Anemia is a condition in which the body is unable to provide adequate oxygen to tissues and organs, resulting in weariness and weakness. Too many RBCs are created in polycythemia, and the blood thickens, causing sluggish blood flow and other complications.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hematocrit test:

  • Hemoglobin
  • RBC Count
  • Blood Smear
  • Iron Total
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Ferritin
  • Reticulocyte Count
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • G6PD
  • Erythropoietin
  • Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation

Conditions where a Hematocrit test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Thalassemia
  • Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
  • Bone Marrow Disorders

How does my health care provider use a Hematocrit test?

The hematocrit test is frequently used to diagnose anemia, usually in conjunction with a hemoglobin test or as part of a full blood count. The test can be used to detect, diagnose, or track a variety of illnesses and disorders that impact the amount of red blood cells in the blood. RBCs are red blood cells that circulate in the blood and transport oxygen throughout the body.

Some circumstances influence RBC formation in the bone marrow, resulting in an increase or decrease in the number of mature RBCs discharged into circulation. The longevity of RBCs in the circulation may be affected by other factors. The overall number of RBCs and hematocrit will diminish if there is increased destruction or loss of RBCs, and/or the bone marrow is unable to make new ones quickly enough, leading in anemia.

The hematocrit can tell if there's a problem with RBCs, but it can't tell what's causing it. A blood smear, reticulocyte count, iron studies, vitamin B levels, and, in more severe cases, a bone marrow examination are some of the other tests that may be conducted at the same time or as follow-up to establish a reason.

What do my Hematocrit test results mean?

Red blood cells make up between 37 percent to 49 percent of the total amount of blood.

Because a hematocrit is frequently performed as part of a complete blood count, other components including RBC count, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, and/or red blood cell indices are taken into account. Other considerations include age, gender, and race. In general, the hematocrit reflects the RBC count and hemoglobin readings.

Anemia is diagnosed by a low hematocrit, low RBC count, and low hemoglobin.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Hemoglobin (Hgb) test is a blood test that measures the amount of hemoglobin your red blood cells contain.

Also Known As: Hb Test, Hgb Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Hemoglobin test ordered?

The hemoglobin test may be requested as part of a general health assessment or when a person exhibits signs and symptoms of a red blood cell disorder such as anemia or polycythemia.

When someone has been diagnosed with recurrent bleeding difficulties, chronic anemias, or polycythemia, this test may be done numerous times or on a regular basis to check the effectiveness of treatment. It's also possible that it'll be ordered on a regular basis for those having therapy for cancers that are known to harm the bone marrow.

What does a Hemoglobin blood test check for?

Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein found in all red blood cells, which gives them their distinctive red color. RBCs use hemoglobin to bind to oxygen in the lungs and transport it to tissues and organs all over the body. It also aids in the movement of a little amount of carbon dioxide, which is a byproduct of cell metabolism, from tissues and organs to the lungs, where it is exhaled.

The hemoglobin test determines how much hemoglobin is present in a person's blood sample. To swiftly assess an individual's red blood cells, a hemoglobin level can be used alone or in conjunction with a hematocrit, a test that assesses the fraction of blood made up of RBCs. Red blood cells, which account for roughly 40% of the amount of blood, are created in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream when they are mature, or nearly so. RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, and the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and degraded or have been lost due to hemorrhage.

RBCs, and thus the level of hemoglobin in the blood, can be affected by a variety of diseases and situations. When the quantity of red blood cells grows, the hemoglobin level and hematocrit both rise. When the synthesis of RBCs by the bone marrow decreases, RBC destruction increases, or blood is lost owing to hemorrhage, the hemoglobin level and hematocrit fall below normal. Anemia is a disorder in which the body's tissues and organs do not acquire enough oxygen, causing exhaustion and weakness. It is caused by a decline in RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Polycythemia occurs when the body produces too many RBCs, causing the blood to thicken, resulting in sluggish blood flow and other complications.

Lab tests often ordered with a Hemoglobin test:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Hematocrit
  • Red Blood Cell Count (RBC Count)
  • Blood Smear
  • Iron Total
  • Ferritin
  • Reticulocyte Count
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate
  • Red Cell Indices
  • G6PD
  • Erythropoietin
  • Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation

Conditions where a Hemoglobin test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Thalassemia
  • Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
  • Hemoglobin Abnormalities
  • Bone Marrow Disorders

How does my health care provider use a Hemoglobin test?

Anemia is commonly detected with a hemoglobin test in conjunction with a hematocrit or as part of a complete blood count. The test can be used to detect, diagnose, or track a variety of illnesses and disorders that impact red blood cells and/or hemoglobin levels in the blood. All red blood cells include hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein that allows RBCs to bind to oxygen in the lungs and transport it to tissues and organs throughout the body.

A hemoglobin test can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Anemia and polycythemia are diagnosed, diagnosed, and measured.
  • Assess the patient's reaction to anemia or polycythemia treatment.
  • If the anemia is severe, you can help make decisions about blood transfusions or other therapies.

Some factors influence RBC production in the bone marrow, resulting in an increase or decrease in the quantity of mature RBCs discharged into the bloodstream. The longevity of RBCs in the circulation can be influenced by a variety of factors. The overall amount of RBCs and hemoglobin will diminish if there is greater destruction of RBCs or loss of RBCs through bleeding, and/or the bone marrow is unable to make new ones quickly enough, leading in anemia.

This test can tell you if you have an issue with red blood cell production or longevity, but it can't tell you what's causing it. A blood smear, reticulocyte count, iron studies, vitamin B12 and folate levels, and, in more severe cases, a bone marrow examination are some of the other tests that may be conducted at the same time or as follow-up to establish a reason.

What do my Hemoglobin test results mean?

Because hemoglobin levels are frequently measured as part of a complete blood count, the results of other components are taken into account. Hemoglobin levels must be interpreted in conjunction with other indicators such as RBC count, hematocrit, reticulocyte count, and/or red blood cell indices when they rise or fall. Other characteristics to consider are age, gender, and race. Hemoglobin reflects the RBC count and hematocrit results in general.

Anemia is defined as a low hemoglobin level combined with a low RBC count and a low hematocrit. Among the causes are:

  • Excessive blood loss-as a result of severe trauma or continuous bleeding from the digestive tract, bladder, or uterus.
  • Iron, folate, or B12 deficiency are examples of nutritional inadequacies.
  • Toxins, radiation, chemotherapy, infection, and medicines can all cause damage to the bone marrow.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, or tumors of the bone marrow, such as lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, or other cancers of the bone marrow
  • Renal failure—severe and chronic kidney illnesses cause the kidneys to produce less erythropoietin, a hormone that drives RBC synthesis in the bone marrow.
  • Inflammatory diseases or disorders that last a long time
  • Hemoglobin production is reduced.
  • Excessive destruction of red blood cells, such as hemolytic anemia caused by autoimmunity or faults in the red blood cell itself, such as hemoglobinopathy, RBC membrane abnormalities, or RBC enzyme.

Polycythemia is defined as a high hemoglobin level combined with a high RBC count and hematocrit. Among the causes are:

  • Lung disease-when a person's body is unable to breathe in and absorb enough oxygen. As a result, the body produces more red blood cells to compensate.
  • Congenital heart disease—in some cases, an improper connection between the two sides of the heart occurs, resulting in lower blood oxygen levels. The body responds by creating extra red blood cells in an attempt to compensate.
  • Excess erythropoietin-producing kidney tumors
  • Hemoglobin levels in heavy smokers are higher than in nonsmokers.
  • Genetic factors
  • Having to live at a high altitude
  • Dehydration causes hemoglobin to rise unnaturally when the volume of liquid in the blood declines.
  • Polycythemia vera-a rare condition in which the body creates too many RBCs.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


The detection and proper identification of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias is an important aspect of the evaluation of patients with anemia, microcytosis and erythrocytosis.

A complete blood count used as a screening test for various disease states to include: Anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

A complete blood count is used as a screening test for various disease states including anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

Clinical Significance

Assists in evaluating helper and suppressor cell immune status in immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS.


Includes

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Antibody Screen, RBC with Reflex to Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing 
  • ABO Group and Rh Type
  • RPR (Diagnosis) with Reflex to Titer and Confirmatory Testing
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation*
  • Rubella Antibody (IgG), Immune Status
  •  
  • If Antibody Screen is positive, Antibody Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86870, 86886, 86905).
  • If RPR screen is reactive, RPR Titer and FTA Confirmatory testing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86593, 86780).
  • If Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive, confirmatory testing based on the manufacturer's FDA approved recommendations will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87341).
  •  

Circulating antibodies to platelets have been associated with immune and drug-induced thrombocytopenia. Elevated levels of platelet - associated antibodies may occur in autoimmune thrombocytopenia, as well as thrombocytopenia associated with carcinoma, AIDS, and connective tissue diseases. Both circulating and associated platelet antibodies may play a role in platelet destruction. Platelet antibodies may consist of a single isotype (IgG, IgM, or IgA) or any combination of isotypes.

Platelets must be present in adequate numbers and have proper function to aid in hemostasis.

A complete blood count used as a screening test for various disease states to include: anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes

Most Popular

Description: Reticulocytes are red blood cells that are not fully developed yet. The reticulocyte test is used to measure the amount of underdeveloped red blood cells.

Also Known As: Retic Count Reticulocyte Percent Test, Reticulocyte Index Test, Corrected Reticulocyte Test, Reticulocyte Production Index Test, RPI Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Reticulocyte Count test ordered?

A reticulocyte count may be requested in the following situations:

  • A low RBC count, as well as a low hemoglobin and hematocrit, are found on a complete blood count.
  • A doctor wants to check the function of the bone marrow.
  • Paleness, loss of energy, exhaustion, weakness, shortness of breath, and/or blood in the stool are signs and symptoms of anemia or persistent bleeding.
  • A disorder known to impact RBC production, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, or renal illness, has been recognized and is being treated.
  • A person is receiving radiation or chemotherapy.
  • A bone marrow transplant has been performed.

When a person has an increased quantity of RBCs and an elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit, a blood test is performed to evaluate the degree and pace of RBC overproduction.

What does a Reticulocyte Count blood test check for?

Reticulocytes are young red blood cells that have just been created. The number and/or percentage of reticulocytes in the blood is determined by a reticulocyte test, which is a reflection of recent bone marrow function or activity.

Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow, where blood-forming stem cells differentiate and grow into reticulocytes, which then mature into mature RBCs. When compared to mature RBCs, reticulocytes have a volume of about 24 percent more. Although adult RBCs do not have a nucleus like most other cells in the body, reticulocytes still contain some genetic material. Reticulocytes lose the last traces of RNA as they mature, and most of them are fully matured within a day of being released from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. The reticulocyte count or percentage is an excellent measure of a person's ability to manufacture enough red blood cells in their bone marrow.

RBCs last around 120 days in circulation, and the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and degraded or have been lost due to hemorrhage. Normally, a steady number of RBCs is maintained in the blood by replacing deteriorated or lost RBCs on a regular basis.

A range of diseases and conditions, including those that cause severe bleeding, can impair the creation of new RBCs and/or their survival. These situations can cause an increase or decrease in the number of RBCs, as well as a change in the reticulocyte count.

Reticulocyte % higher than normal: Anemia is caused by a lack of RBCs in the blood due to acute or chronic bleeding or enhanced RBC breakdown (hemolysis). The body adjusts for this loss or responds to deficiency anemia treatment by increasing RBC production and releasing RBCs into the bloodstream before they mature. When this happens, the number and percentage of reticulocytes in the blood grows until the bone marrow's production capacity is reached or until a sufficient number of RBCs replaces those that were lost.

A lower-than-normal percentage of reticulocytes: When the bone marrow isn't working properly, RBC production can suffer. A bone marrow condition, such as aplastic anemia, can cause this. Other causes that might cause decreased production include liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, cancer treatments such as radiation or chemotherapy, a low amount of the hormone erythropoietin, or dietary shortages such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate. As old RBCs are eliminated from the blood but not entirely replaced, there are fewer RBCs in circulation, poorer hemoglobin and oxygen-carrying capacity, a lower hematocrit, and a lower number of reticulocytes.

Due to excessive RBC production by the bone marrow, both the reticulocyte and RBC counts might occasionally rise. This could be caused by increased erythropoietin production, diseases that cause chronic RBC overproduction (polycythemia vera), or cigarette smoking.

Some medications can increase or reduce the number of reticulocytes in the body.

Lab tests often ordered with a Reticulocyte Count test:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Red Blood Cell Count
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • Blood Smear
  • Erythropoietin
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate
  • Haptoglobin
  • G6PD
  • Iron Total
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Ferritin

Conditions where a Reticulocyte Count test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Bone Marrow Disorders
  • Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

How does my health care provider use a Reticulocyte Count test?

A reticulocyte test is used to assess the number and/or percentage of reticulocytes in the blood to aid in the diagnosis of red blood cell abnormalities such as anemia and bone marrow illnesses. Reticulocytes are young red blood cells that have just been created. Before being released into the circulation, they develop and mature in the bone marrow.

The reticulocyte test can be used in the following situations:

  • To help determine the reason of aberrant results on a complete blood count, RBC count, hemoglobin, or hematocrit.
  • To see if the bone marrow is appropriately functioning and reacting to the body's need for red blood cells.
  • To aid in the detection and differentiation of various kinds of anemia
  • To track how well people are responding to treatments, such as those for iron deficiency anemia.
  • To track the activity of the bone marrow after therapies like chemotherapy.
  • To keep track of how well you're doing after a bone marrow transplant.

A reticulocyte count is usually done using an automated device and can be done in conjunction with a complete blood count, which includes an RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. It is possible to report either an absolute number of reticulocytes or a percentage of reticulocytes. The number of reticulocytes is compared to the total number of red blood cells as a percentage:

[ Number of Reticulocytes / Total Red Blood Cells ] X 100 = Reticulocyte Percentage

Several more tests, in addition to a reticulocyte count, can be done to further screen someone for a disorder that affects RBC production. Here are a few examples:

  • Iron testing
  • Haptoglobin
  • G6PD
  • Erythropoietin
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate

Following up on abnormal results from early tests, a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy may be performed. This is an invasive operation that is not performed on everyone. If necessary, it can, however, supply extra information.

What do my reticulocyte count test results mean?

The results must be carefully evaluated in conjunction with the results of other tests, such as a red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, or a complete blood count. The reticulocyte count, in general, reflects recent bone marrow activity. The results could reveal whether a disease or condition is present that is causing an elevated need for new RBCs, as well as whether the bone marrow is capable of meeting that demand. Overproduction of RBCs may be detected in some cases.

When anemia is present and the bone marrow responds adequately to the demand for more RBCs, the bone marrow will create more and allow for the early release of more immature RBCs, resulting in an increase in the number of reticulocytes in the blood.

A high reticulocyte count along with low RBCs, hemoglobin, and hematocrit may indicate the following conditions:

  • When a person bleeds, the number of reticulocytes increases after a few days to make up for the loss of red blood cells. If someone has chronic blood loss, the marrow will try to keep up with the need for new RBCs by increasing the number of reticulocytes.
  • Anemia is caused by an increase in the breakdown of RBCs in hemolytic anemia. To compensate, the bone marrow boosts RBC production, resulting in a high reticulocyte count.
  • Hemolytic illness of the newborn: Similar to hemolytic anemia, this syndrome causes an increase in RBC destruction.

For example, a low reticulocyte count with low hemoglobin, low red blood cells, and low hematocrit can be detected when:

  • Anemia due to a lack of iron
  • Folic acid deficiency or pernicious anemia
  • Aplastic anemia is a kind of anemia that occurs when the
  • Radiation therapy is a type of treatment that uses a
  • Infection or malignancy can induce bone marrow failure.
  • A low level of erythropoietin can be caused by severe kidney disease.
  • Alcoholism
  • Endocrine illness

When a person has anemia, the percentage of reticulocytes in their blood may appear to be higher than the total number of RBCs. A calculation known as a corrected reticulocyte count or reticulocyte index may be reported to get a more accurate estimate of bone marrow function. When a person's hematocrit is compared to a normal hematocrit reading, the RI is computed. The reticulocyte production index and an immature reticulocyte fraction are two more estimates that may be presented. The IRF was once known as the reticulocyte maturity index, but it is currently the most widely used phrase to describe the younger percentage of reticulocytes.

The existence of a disease or condition is indicated by the reticulocyte test, however it is not specifically diagnostic of any disease. It's a warning that more research is needed, as well as a method for monitoring therapy effectiveness.

When reticulocyte numbers increase after chemotherapy, a bone marrow transplant, or treatment for an iron, vitamin B12, or folate shortage, bone marrow RBC production is on the mend.

A high reticulocyte count can indicate an overproduction of RBCs in people who do not have anemia or have a high RBC count. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Polycythemia vera
  • Excess erythropoietin-producing tumor

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Includes

  • Hemoglobin A, Hemoglobin F, Hemoglobin A2 (Quant), Hemoglobin A2 Prime, Hemoglobin S, Hemoglobin C, Hemoglobin D, Hemoglobin G, Hemoglobin Lepore, Hemoglobin E, Hemoglobin Barts, Variant Hemoglobin, HPLC, Hemogram (Red Blood Cell Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW), Ferritin and Interpretation
  •  
  • This is a reflexive profile. Additional testing, such as molecular tests, will be added at an additional charge, if indicated.
  •  
  • If results suggest sickling hemoglobin, Sickle Cell Screen will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 85660). 
  •  
  • If results suggest an unstable hemoglobin based on % of the variant and pattern seen on HPLC and Electrophoresis , Unstable Hemoglobin (Isopropanol) will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 83068).
  •  
  • If the hemogram shows microcytosis or decreased MCH or both and, there is no evidence of beta thalassemia (i.e., normal A2 and HbF), Alpha Globin common mutation analysis will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 81257). In consultation with the client, this test may also be performed (at an additional charge) in an individual with a normal hemogram for genetic counseling purposes as individuals with mild alpha thalassemia commonly have a normal hemogram and normal fractions.
  •  
  • If HPLC or CZE, point to an unidentified alpha globin variant, the sample will be sent for DNA sequencing and Alpha Globin Complete will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 81259).
  •  
  • If the genotyping results for the common deletions do not match the phenotype, Alpha Globin Gene Deletion or Duplication will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 81269) and Alpha Globin Complete will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 81259).
  •  
  • If a rare beta globin variant cannot be definitively identified by HPLC or CZE, Beta Globin Complete will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 81364).
  •  
  • If result suggests Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin or Delta beta thalassemia or a beta thalassemia with negative beta globin sequencing, Beta globin gene dosage assay will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s) 81363).
  •  
  • Gamma globin gene sequencing or delta globin gene sequencing may be added at an additional charge, if clinically indicated. These tests are performed at an outside reference lab. Not applicable to CA and FL clients.
  • If a reflex test is added, Genotype/phenotype review will be added at an additional charge (CPT code(s) 80500).

 

Clinical Significance

Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Comprehensive Evaluation - Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are disorders related to hemoglobin pathophysiology. Although hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias are two genetically distinct disease groups, the clinical manifestations of both include anemia of variable severity and variable pathophysiology.
Thalassemias are group of autosomal recessive disorder of hemoglobin synthesis characterized by the reduction in the rate of synthesis of globin chain of one or more globin chain. The decreased synthesis of globin chain may result from gene deletion, non-sense mutation or mutation that affects the transcription or stability of mRNA products. Thalassemias are classified by the type and magnitude of decreased synthesis of the globin chain and severity of the clinical symptoms. The clinical manifestation ranges from mild anemia with microcytosis to fatal severe anemia.
In the alpha-thalassemias, there is absence or decreased production of beta-globin subunits, whereas in the beta- thalassemias, there is absent or reduced production of beta globin subunits. Rare thalassemias affecting the production of delta or gamma globin subunits have also been described but are not clinically significant disorders.
The beta-thalassemias can be sub-classified into those in which there is total absence of normal beta globin subunit synthesis or accumulation, the beta-zero thalassemias, and those in which some structurally normal beta globin subunits are synthesized, but in markedly decreased amounts, the beta-plus thalassemias. The alpha-thalassemia syndromes however, are usually caused by the deletion of one or more alpha globin genes and are sub-classified according to the number of alpha globin genes that are deleted (or mutated): one gene deleted (alpha-plus thalassemia); two genes deleted on the same chromosome or in cis (alpha-zero thalassemia); three genes deleted (HbH disease); or four genes deleted (hydrops fetalis with Hb Bart's).
Hemoglobinopathies results from the abnormal structure of One of the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule (mutation of alpha and/or beta globin chain resulting in a variant form of Hemoglobin A). They are inherited single- gene disorders and in most cases, they are inherited as autosomal co-dominant traits. A large number (>800) of variants of hemoglobin (Hb) have been recognized. They are identified by capital letters (eg, Hb A or Hb S), or by the city in which the variant was first discovered (eg, Hb Koln).
Alpha chain variants usually form less than 25% of the total hemoglobin because the mutation typically occurs in one of the four genes that codes for alpha globin chain. For beta globin variants in the heterozygous state the variant forms more than 25% but less than 50% of the total hemoglobin. Ranked in order of relative frequency, these are: Hb S (sickle cell disease and trait), C, E, Lepore, G-Philadelphia, D-Los Angeles, Koln, Constant Spring, O-Arab, and others.
Most common beta globin variants include HbS, HbC, HbD, HbE and HbG. A mutation in one beta globin subunit results in a combination of variant and normal hemoglobin and denotes carrier or trait status, also known as the heterozygote state. Mutations in both beta globin subunits result in disease based on a homozygous expression such as sickle cell anemia (HbSS). Other diseases under sickle cell disease (SCD) are HbSE, HbSC and HbS beta-thalassemia.


Most commonly utilized test to monitor characteristic response to infection. Diagnostically useful for diseases such as leukemia, leukocyte disorders, as well as monitoring therapy of these diseases.

A screening test for various disease states to include leukemia and inflammatory processes.


A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that your doctor may order to get an in-depth examination of your health. 

If you're looking to take control and improve your health, it's important that you have an understanding of what exactly a CBC measures. That's why today, we've got a complete CBC explained guide to help you understand what a CBC test is and where your test results should be.

Are you looking to learn more about how to understand your complete blood count? We've created a complete guide to help you understand. Keep reading to learn more!

CBC Explained: What Is a Complete Blood Count?

A complete blood count test is often called a CBC test. This blood test provides a medical professional with an important look at the health of one's blood. The information that a CBC test provides professionals can help lead to a diagnosis of cancer, an infection, anemia, and other health conditions.

A CBC test measures the white blood cells, the red blood cells, and the blood platelets found in your blood. This is one of the most commonly ordered blood tests, as it's a great way for doctors to take a peek into your overall health without excessive testing.

What Biomarkers Are Measured? 

Fifteen biomarkers are measured with a complete blood cell test. Here are the biomarkers that are measured and what they each mean for your health:

Red Blood Cell Count

Red blood cells are the most plentiful type of cell found in your blood. Surprisingly, nearly half of the volume of your blood is comprised of red blood cells.

The primary function of the red blood cell is to gather up oxygen from the lungs, move it through your body, and leave it with your tissues. What makes red blood cells so unique is that they have hemoglobin, which is a protein that carries iron.

Thanks to the hemoglobin found in your red blood cells, it can saturate themselves with oxygen and release it the tissues in your body that need it the most. Keeping a healthy balance of red blood cells is incredibly essential for your body to function normally. 

The red blood cell count detects the number of red blood cells that are in your blood. In addition, this test also shows how much oxygen your blood cells have the potential to carry.

If your red blood cell count is low, it could be a sign that your red blood cells are breaking down at an unsustainable rate. It could also be a sign that your red blood cells aren't being produced fast enough. When your red blood cells aren't being produced quickly enough, it's a sign that your body is lacking specific nutrients.

A healthy range for a RBC count in females is 3.80-5.10 million/uL and in males 4.20-5.80 million/uL, as reported by Quest.

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is vital to the red blood cell. The CBC measures the amount of hemoglobin found in your blood, as well as how much oxygen your red blood cells can carry.

For females, a standard range of hemoglobin is 11.7-15.5 g/dL. For men, a healthy range is between 13.2.0-17.1 g/dL, as reported through Quest.

Hematocrit

Hematocrit biomarker identifies how much blood as a percentage comes from red blood cells. It also is an indicator of how much oxygen your blood can carry. When your hematocrit levels are balanced, your body's physical performance is increased.

Plus, healthy levels of hematocrit can help to ensure the health of your cardiovascular system, which can reduce your risk of having a stroke.

For men, a healthy level of hematocrit is between 38.5% to 50%, while a healthy level for women is between 35% and 45%, as reported through Quest.

MCV

MCV is an abbreviation of the term mean corpuscular volume. Mean corpuscular volume measures the size of your red blood cells. Discovering the size of your red blood cells is important, as it's an indicator of how much oxygen your cells can carry.

Small red blood cells can be a tool in diagnosing an iron deficiency. In contrast, large red blood cells show that your body has the capability of carrying a more substantial amount of hemoglobin.

A normal range will fall between 80 to 100 femtoliters.

MCH

MCH is an abbreviation of the term mean corpuscular hemoglobin. MCH is one of the ways that is used to discover the average amount of hemoglobin that's in one red blood cell. Often paired with MCHC, this biomarker is used to find out the potential for the average red blood cell's ability to carry oxygen throughout your body.

You must keep in mind that MCH is simply an average. However, the normal range is between 27 to 33 picograms, as reported by Quest.

MCHC

MCHC is an abbreviation of the term mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. This is another biomarker used to discover how much hemoglobin is available in a single red blood cell.

You also should keep in the back of your mind that MCHC is an average. A healthy range for the MCHC test is between 32-36 g/dL, as reported by Quest.

RDW

RDW stands for _red blood cell distribution width. _This biomarker shows how unvarying the volume of your red blood cells is. The higher your RDW is is a sign that there's a significant dissimilarity among your red blood cells.

An iron deficiency, chronic inflammation, or a nutritional imbalance can contributing factors for a high RDW.

For males and females, a healthy RDW is between 11% to 15%, as reported by Quest.

Platelet Count

Platelets are the cells in your blood that are responsible for making sure that your blood can stick together enough to form a blood clot.

A healthy platelet count should range between 140-400 thousand/uL, as reported by Quest.

MPV

MPV is an abbreviation of the term _mean platelet volume. _This test measures the average size of the platelets that are found in your blood.

When your MPV levels are marked as high, it means that platelets are at a larger size than the average persons. This elevation could be a sign that your body is producing too many platelets.

If your MPV levels have been marked as low, it could mean that your body is destroying platelets too soon. As a result, your bone marrow is producing platelets too quickly.

White Blood Cell Differential Count

The white blood cell differential count is a summary of the different types of white blood cells that are found in your bloodstream. With the review of leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocytes, basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils, you'll be provided with an in-depth look at your immune system.  

The Five Different Types of WBC:

Separate from your red blood cells, white blood cells are also tested during a CBC test. Five different types of white blood cells are found in your bloodstream and include leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils.

Leukocytes

White blood cells are called leukocytes, which play a vital role in maintaining the healthy functioning of your immune system. This biomarker is your white blood cell count, which is also often called your leukocyte count.

A healthy range for your WBC is between 3.8-10.8 Thousand/uL, as reported by Quest.

Neutrophils

Neutrophils are the most commonly found white blood cells in your blood, making for about 70% of the white blood cells found in your body. They're the first response your body uses to fight against any infections that enter your bloodstream.

When low levels of neutrophil are found in your blood, it may be a sign that your body is fighting against a viral infection. Another cause of low neutrophil levels in your blood is a sign that your body is adapting to the stress it's been under while you're training to become an endurance athlete.

A healthy level of neutrophils is between 1500-7800 cells/uL, as reported by Quest.

Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes represent between 20% to 40% of the white blood cells circulating throughout your blood. This white blood cell is acting as a wall of protection against the constant beratement of bacteria and infections introduced to your body.

When there's a high amount of lymphocytes found in your blood, it's a sign that your body may have a bacterial infection or that it's your body response to acute stress.

A healthy range of lymphocytes is between 850-3900 cells/uL, as reported by Quest.

Basophils

Along with eosinophils, basophils are the least common type of white blood cells. If an increased amount of basophil cells are found in your bloodstream, it's a sign that your body could be fighting against an allergic reaction or an infection from a parasite.

A healthy level of basophils should be between 0-200 cells/uL, as reported by Quest.

Eosinophils

As another uncommon white blood cell, eosinophils are responsible for how your body reacts when you have an allergic reaction. High levels of eosinophils are a sign that your body is fighting off a type of infection.

A normal range of eosinophil is between 15-500 cells/uL, as reported by Quest.

Monocytes

This type of white blood cell is responsible for fighting off viruses, fungi, and bacteria. In terms of size, they're the largest white blood cell that is found in your bloodstream.

Formed in your bone marrow, this type of white blood cell is the first responder when there is a specific type of bacteria or germ that enters your body. They also play a large part in making sure that any damaged tissue is repaired correctly.

A healthy range of monocytes is between 200-950 cells/uL, as reported by Quest.

What Health Problems Can Be Identified by a CBC?

When the doctor orders a CBC, it may just be part of the physical exam preventative care that you're getting. The results of the biomarkers will provide your doctor with a better insight into how many blood cells that are in your body, how they're shaped, and how they're functioning.

If there is a concern for many health conditions, a CBC is a useful tool to use to eliminate the concern of any potential health conditions, as well as being helpful to diagnose health conditions.

Besides a physical exam, your doctor may order a complete blood count test if you have reported: 

  • Feeling sick
  • Have had a fever
  • Showing other signs of a possible infection, such as swollen lymph nodes
  • Feeling weak
  • Easy bruising
  • Excessive bleeding or your blood takes a while to clot
  • Feeling tired all the time
  • Losing weight without trying to
  • Take medications that could affect your blood count

Here's a list of conditions that your CBC test could help you and your doctor to identify: 

  • Anemia
  • Certain forms of cancer
  • Mineral deficiencies
  • Vitamin deficiencies
  • Inflammation
  • Dehydration
  • Heart disease
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Infection
  • Bone marrow complications

If your doctor ordered this blood test and you were looking to have CBC explained, we hope that we were able to provide you with a better understanding. The results from a CBC blood test can be beneficial when your doctor is trying to rule out or diagnose a health condition.  

The Importance of a CBC Test

If you need help understanding the health of your blood, we'd love to help. We offer the CBC lab test as part of our selection of 1,500 lab tests, and we provide explanations on each biomarker.

You can select your lab tests, order directly online, choose a convenient patient service center near you, and review your test results typically in 1 to 2 days after your blood is collected.

Take charge of your health and get tested today at ultalabtests.com.