Thyroglobulin Panel

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The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.


The thyroglobulin test is primarily used as a tumor marker to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for thyroid cancer and to monitor for recurrence. Not every thyroid cancer will produce thyroglobulin, but the most common types, the well-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, frequently do, resulting in increased levels of thyroglobulin in the blood.

Thyroglobulin Antibodies

Measurement of thyroglobulin antibodies is useful in the diagnosis and management of a variety of thyroid disorders including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves Disease and certain types of goiter.
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The Thyroglobulin Panel test contains 1 test with 2 biomarkers.

Brief Description: The Thyroglobulin Panel test is a comprehensive assessment of thyroid health that includes the measurement of thyroglobulin levels and often includes other thyroid function tests. Thyroglobulin is a protein produced by the thyroid gland and is a precursor to thyroid hormones. This panel provides valuable insights into thyroid function and is commonly used to diagnose and monitor thyroid disorders.

Also Known As: Thyroid Autoantibodies Test, Antithyroid Antibodies Test, Antithyroglobulin Antibody Test, TgAb Test, Tg Test, Thyroglobulin Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Thyroglobulin Panel test ordered?

Prior to the surgical excision of the thyroid gland for malignancy, a thyroglobulin test may be requested. Additionally, it is done after therapy is finished to see if any remaining thyroid tissue—whether healthy or cancerous—may have been left over. After surgery, it is frequently requested on a monthly basis to make sure the tumor has not returned or spread.

When a patient exhibits signs of hyperthyroidism and/or an enlarged thyroid gland and the doctor feels that the patient might be suffering from a thyroid condition like Graves disease or thyroiditis, the doctor may occasionally order a thyroglobulin test. When someone is receiving anti-thyroid drug treatment, it could be prescribed periodically to assess how well the medicine is working.

Rarely, it may be prescribed when a baby exhibits hypothyroidism-related symptoms.

When a person has irregular TSH and/or free T4 test results, symptoms of low or high thyroid hormone levels, or the appearance of a goiter, testing may be performed, especially if the reason is considered to be an autoimmune condition.

Hypothyroidism can produce a variety of symptoms, including:

  • Gaining weight
  • Fatigue
  • Skin that is dry
  • Hair loss
  • Cold intolerance
  • Constipation

Hyperthyroidism can produce symptoms such as:

  • Sweating
  • Heart rate that is quite fast
  • Anxiety
  • Tremors
  • Fatigue
  • Sleeping problems 
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Eyes that protrude

If a pregnant woman has a known autoimmune thyroid illness, or if another autoimmune disorder is suspected, one or more thyroid antibodies may be ordered early in the pregnancy and again at the end. These tests are performed to see if the newborn is at risk for thyroid problems. Thyroid antibodies can pass the placenta, causing hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in a newborn or developing kid.

Thyroid antibody testing may also be recommended if a person with another autoimmune condition has thyroid dysfunction symptoms and/or has reproductive problems that a healthcare provider suspects are caused by autoantibodies.

What does a Thyroglobulin Panel blood test check for?

The thyroid gland makes the protein thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin in the blood is measured by this test.

The thyroid gland creates hormones that aid in controlling how quickly the body burns through energy. It is a tiny, butterfly-shaped organ that rests flat against the windpipe in the throat. Thyroglobulin is produced and stored mostly in very tiny, ball-shaped structures called follicles.

T4 and T3 are derived from thyroglobulin. The pituitary hormone TSH stimulates the synthesis of these hormones as well as their release into the bloodstream.

All healthy people generate thyroglobulin, albeit its blood content is often quite low. Both benign and malignant illnesses result in an increase in thyroglobulin concentration. Therefore, it can be used to monitor patients with thyroid papillary and follicular cancer after diagnosis. On the one hand, it is a non-specific sign of a thyroid dysfunction.

Thyroglobulin antibodies are thyroid antibodies. Thyroid autoantibodies are antibodies that form when a person's immune system incorrectly attacks thyroid gland or thyroid protein components, causing chronic thyroid inflammation, tissue destruction, and/or thyroid function disruption. Specific thyroid autoantibodies in the blood are detected and quantified using laboratory techniques.

The thyroid gland is a tiny, butterfly-shaped gland in the throat that rests flat against the windpipe. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the two key hormones it generates, are critical in regulating the pace at which the body uses energy. Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid to generate T4 and T3 as needed by the body's feedback system. This mechanism aids in the maintenance of a reasonably constant level of thyroid hormones in the blood. Thyroid antibodies can cause chronic diseases and autoimmune disorders linked with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, such as Graves disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis, when they interfere with this process.

Lab tests often ordered with a Thyroglobulin Panel test:

When a Thyroglobulin Panel is ordered, it's often part of a broader evaluation of thyroid function and cancer monitoring. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:

  1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH):

    • Purpose: To measure the level of TSH, a hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland.
    • Why Is It Ordered: TSH levels are closely monitored in thyroid cancer patients, especially those who have undergone thyroidectomy, as TSH suppression therapy is often used to prevent cancer recurrence.
  2. Free T4 (Thyroxine) and Free T3 (Triiodothyronine):

    • Purpose: To measure the levels of active thyroid hormones in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess thyroid function, especially in individuals who are taking thyroid hormone replacement therapy after thyroidectomy.
  3. Calcitonin and Calcium Levels:

    • Purpose: To measure calcitonin, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland, and calcium levels.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Though calcitonin is more specific for medullary thyroid cancer, it can sometimes be useful in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer, and calcium levels are important to monitor post-thyroidectomy.
  4. Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies:

    • Purpose: To detect antibodies against thyroid components.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess for autoimmune thyroid conditions, which can coexist with thyroid cancer and influence thyroglobulin levels.
  5. Liver Function Test:

    • Purpose: To assess liver health.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate liver function, as liver enzymes can occasionally be affected by thyroid disorders or treatments.

These tests, when ordered alongside a Thyroglobulin Panel, provide a comprehensive view of thyroid function and thyroid cancer monitoring. They are crucial for assessing the effectiveness of treatment, monitoring for recurrence of cancer, and managing thyroid hormone replacement therapy. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual’s history of thyroid disease, treatment status, and current health condition.

Conditions where a Thyroglobulin Panel test is recommended:

The Thyroglobulin Panel test is essential for the diagnosis and monitoring of various thyroid conditions:

  • Thyroid Cancer: It's a crucial marker to monitor for recurrence in thyroid cancer patients.
  • Thyroiditis: Elevated thyroglobulin levels may indicate inflammation of the thyroid gland.
  • Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders: Abnormal antibodies can point to conditions like Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease.

How does my health care provider use a Thyroglobulin Panel test?

The main purposes of the thyroglobulin test are to monitor for recurrence and assess the efficacy of thyroid cancer treatment. The most prevalent kinds of thyroid cancer, the well-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid tumors, typically do so, leading to elevated levels of thyroglobulin in the blood. However, thyroid malignancies do not always create thyroglobulin.

Prior to thyroid cancer treatment, thyroglobulin testing and a TSH test may be done to ascertain whether the malignancy is making thyroglobulin. If so, the test can be requested on a regular basis after treatment to check for cancer recurrence. To examine the change in concentration, several thyroglobulin levels may be ordered throughout time. The change frequently offers more details than just one value.

In some cases, thyroglobulin testing is required to evaluate the efficacy of treatment for illnesses like Graves disease and to help identify the origin of hyperthyroidism.

Rarely, the test may be required to distinguish between subacute thyroiditis and thyrotoxicosis factitia, as well as to identify the root cause of congenital hypothyroidism in infants.

Thyroid antibodies, such as thyroid peroxidase antibody, are tested to assist diagnose and differentiate autoimmune thyroid disease from other types of thyroid failure. Thyroid autoantibodies form when a person's immune system mistakenly targets thyroid gland or thyroid protein components, causing chronic thyroid inflammation, tissue destruction, and/or thyroid function disruption.

To aid in the diagnosis and/or monitoring of an autoimmune thyroid condition, one or more of the following tests may be used:

  • Thyroid peroxidase antibody, an antibody that targets thyroid peroxidase enzyme in the thyroid gland, can be seen in Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis.
  • Thyroglobulin antibody is an antibody that targets thyroglobulin, the thyroid hormone's storage form.

These tests may be conducted to determine the reason of an enlarged thyroid or other symptoms linked to low or high thyroid hormone levels. When other thyroid test findings, such as total or free T3, free T4, and/or TSH, indicate thyroid dysfunction, testing may be done as a follow-up.

A thyroid antibody test or several thyroid antibody tests may be conducted to see if a person with an autoimmune disorder is at risk of thyroid dysfunction. Disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and pernicious anemia can cause this.

A thyroglobulin test may be used to monitor someone who is being treated for thyroid cancer. The thyroglobulin antibody test is utilized in this scenario to see if the antibody is present in the person's blood and will interfere with the thyroglobulin level test.

What do my thyroglobulin panel results mean?

In extremely little amounts, thyroglobulin is found in the blood of every healthy person.

Thyroglobulin may serve as a tumor marker if levels are initially high in a thyroid cancer patient who has been diagnosed with the disease.

After the surgical excision of the thyroid and/or after subsequent radioactive iodine treatments, thyroglobulin levels should be undetectable or extremely low. A person may still have some normal or cancerous remaining thyroid tissue in their body, necessitating further therapy, if the thyroglobulin content in their blood is still detectable after surgery.

Following a thyroglobulin test, a medical professional could recommend radioactive iodine scans and/or treatments to find and/or eliminate any thyroid cancer or normal thyroid tissue that may still be present. Thyroglobulin levels are then rechecked a few weeks or months later to make sure the treatment was effective, and they are then routinely tested after that.

The cancer is likely returning or spreading if the level of thyroglobulin is low for a few weeks or months following surgery but gradually starts to climb over time.

Thyroglobulin levels that are declining in Graves disease patients after treatment show a positive response.

The test is not frequently requested with illnesses like goiter, thyroiditis, or hyperthyroidism, but people with these conditions may have elevated thyroglobulin levels.

Negative test results show that thyroid autoantibodies were not detected in the blood at the time of testing, implying that symptoms are caused by anything other than autoimmune disease. However, autoantibodies are absent in a small number of persons with autoimmune thyroid disease. Repeat testing may be done at a later date if it is suspected that the autoantibodies will develop over time, as with several autoimmune illnesses.

Thyroid antibodies can be identified in a range of thyroid and autoimmune conditions, including thyroid cancer, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, and autoimmune collagen vascular diseases, with mild to moderately high levels.

Thyroid autoimmune disorders such as Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves disease are usually associated with significantly elevated amounts.

Thyroid antibodies, in general, indicate the presence of an autoimmune thyroid illness, and the higher the level, the more likely it is. Autoantibody levels that grow over time may be more relevant than steady levels because they may suggest an increase in the severity of autoimmune illness. All of these antibodies can increase the risk of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in a growing baby or infant if they are present in a pregnant mother.

If a person with thyroid cancer has thyroglobulin antibodies, the testing for thyroglobulin levels may be hampered. This could suggest that the thyroglobulin test can't be utilized as a tumor marker or to track a person's thyroid cancer progression. The presence of thyroglobulin antibodies has little effect on some testing procedures, including mass spectrometry. The thyroglobulin test can be utilized as a tumor marker when tested in these methods, regardless of whether or not thyroglobulin antibodies are present. If a method is utilized that is impacted by thyroglobulin antibodies, the antibodies' levels can be used as a tumor marker to monitor thyroid cancer. If they first remain high or fall low but then rise over time, the treatment was ineffective and the malignancy is likely to continue or recur. If the levels are dropping and/or have dropped to low or undetectable levels, the therapy is more likely to have been successful in eradicating the malignancy.

Thyroid antibodies can be found in a small percentage of patients who are otherwise healthy. The incidence of these antibodies is higher in women, increases with age, and implies an increased risk of developing thyroid illness in the future for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. If a person has a thyroid antibody but no obvious thyroid disease, the healthcare professional will monitor the person's health over time. While the majority of people will never have thyroid problems, a small percentage will.

Most Common Questions About the Thyroglobulin Panel test:

Clinical Utility and Interpretation

What is the significance of the Thyroglobulin Panel test?

The Thyroglobulin Panel test measures the level of thyroglobulin (Tg) in the blood. Thyroglobulin is a protein made by the thyroid gland and can serve as a tumor marker for certain types of thyroid cancers, especially well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.

How are the results of the Thyroglobulin Panel test interpreted?

The presence of thyroglobulin in the blood can be a normal occurrence, but significantly elevated levels, especially in patients who have had their thyroid removed due to thyroid cancer, may suggest the recurrence or persistence of cancer. It's important to interpret results in the context of the clinical scenario and consider the presence of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, which can interfere with the assay.

Clinical Applications and Diagnoses

When is the Thyroglobulin Panel test typically ordered?

The Thyroglobulin Panel test is commonly ordered after a patient has undergone surgery for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, primarily to monitor for potential recurrence. It may also be ordered periodically alongside other thyroid tests to monitor the effectiveness of thyroid cancer treatment.

How does the Thyroglobulin Panel test assist in monitoring thyroid cancer treatment?

After the surgical removal of thyroid tissue or radioactive iodine treatment, thyroglobulin levels should ideally decrease and may even become undetectable. Persistently elevated levels or rising levels over time can suggest that thyroid cancer cells are still present or are recurring.

Comparative Insights

How does the Thyroglobulin Panel test differ from other thyroid tests?

Unlike other thyroid tests like TSH, Free T4, or Free T3, which assess thyroid function, the Thyroglobulin Panel specifically measures the thyroglobulin protein level as an indicator of certain thyroid cancer cells' presence. It is a marker for thyroid tissue and, by extension, certain types of thyroid cancers.

Understanding Limitations and Challenges

What role do anti-thyroglobulin antibodies play in the interpretation of the Thyroglobulin Panel test?

Anti-thyroglobulin antibodies are naturally occurring antibodies that recognize and bind to thyroglobulin. Their presence can falsely lower the measured level of thyroglobulin in the blood, making the interpretation challenging. Most labs will also test for these antibodies when assessing thyroglobulin levels, and if they are present, alternative monitoring methods or assays might be considered.

Additional Questions and Insights

Are there conditions other than thyroid cancer that can affect thyroglobulin levels?

Yes, conditions such as Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or thyroiditis can lead to elevated thyroglobulin levels. Additionally, benign thyroid conditions, such as nodules or goiters, can also increase thyroglobulin levels. Thus, while elevated levels may raise suspicion for thyroid cancer, especially in the right clinical context, they can also be seen in other benign thyroid diseases.

If the Thyroglobulin Panel test indicates elevated levels but there's no history of thyroid cancer, what might be the next steps?

If there's no history of thyroid cancer and thyroglobulin levels are elevated, the physician will likely look for other causes. This could include ordering imaging studies like thyroid ultrasound, evaluating for inflammatory thyroid conditions, or checking for benign growths or nodules on the thyroid gland.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

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