The Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test contains 1 test with 2 biomarkers.
Brief Description: The Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test measures the levels of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin in the blood. These antibodies are associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases.
Also Known As: Thyroid Autoantibodies Test, Antithyroid Antibodies Test, Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Test, Thyroperoxidase Antibody Test, TPO Test, Anti-TPO Test, Antithyroglobulin Antibody Test, TgAb Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: Dietary supplements containing biotin may interfere in assays and may skew results to be either falsely high or falsely low. For patients receiving the recommended daily doses of biotin, draw samples at least 8 hours following the last biotin supplementation. For patients on mega-doses of biotin supplements, draw samples at least 72 hours following the last biotin supplementation.
When is a Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test ordered?
A Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test may be ordered in several situations to evaluate autoimmune thyroid diseases:
Diagnosis of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: The test is commonly ordered when there is a suspicion of autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease, to confirm the diagnosis. It helps differentiate between the different types of thyroid disorders.
Monitoring of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: For individuals with known autoimmune thyroid diseases, the test is used to monitor the progression of the disease, assess treatment response, and evaluate the risk of complications.
What does a Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies blood test check for?
Thyroid antibodies are antibodies that form when an individual's immune system incorrectly attacks the thyroid gland or thyroid protein components, causing chronic thyroid inflammation, tissue destruction, and/or thyroid function disruption. Specific thyroid antibodies in the blood are detected and quantified using laboratory techniques.
The thyroid gland is a tiny, butterfly-shaped gland in the throat that rests flat against the windpipe. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the two key hormones it generates, are critical in regulating the pace at which the body uses energy. Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid to generate T4 and T3 as needed by the body's feedback system. This mechanism aids in the maintenance of a reasonably constant level of thyroid hormones in the blood. Thyroid antibodies can cause chronic diseases and autoimmune disorders linked with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, such as Graves disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis, when they interfere with this process.
Thyroid antibody testing includes the following:
- Thyroid peroxidase antibody
- Thyroglobulin antibody
Lab tests often ordered with a Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test:
When TPO and TGab tests are ordered, they are typically part of a broader evaluation of thyroid function and autoimmunity. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside TPO and TgAb tests:
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH):
- Purpose: To measure the level of TSH, a pituitary hormone that regulates thyroid hormone production.
- Why Is It Ordered: TSH is the primary screening test for thyroid dysfunction and helps assess overall thyroid function. It can be elevated in hypothyroidism or suppressed in hyperthyroidism.
Free T4 (Thyroxine):
- Purpose: To measure the level of free, or unbound, T4 in the blood.
- Why Is It Ordered: Free T4 levels help evaluate thyroid gland function and can help diagnose hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, especially when correlated with TSH levels.
Free T3 (Triiodothyronine):
- Purpose: To measure the level of free, or unbound, T3 in the blood.
- Why Is It Ordered: Free T3 levels can be helpful in the assessment of hyperthyroidism. In some cases of hyperthyroidism, T3 is elevated even when T4 levels are normal.
Complete Blood Count (CBC):
- Purpose: To provide a general overview of health and detect conditions such as anemia.
- Why Is It Ordered: Some thyroid disorders can affect blood cell production, and it's important to rule out associated conditions like anemia.
Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulin (TSI) or TSH Receptor Antibody (TRAb):
- Purpose: To detect antibodies that stimulate the thyroid, often associated with Graves' disease.
- Why Is It Ordered: These tests can help confirm a diagnosis of Graves' disease, another common autoimmune thyroid condition.
Vitamin D Levels:
- Purpose: To measure the level of vitamin D, which can be low in autoimmune diseases.
- Why Is It Ordered: There is an association between vitamin D deficiency and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
Reverse T3 (rT3):
- Purpose: To measure the level of rT3, an inactive form of the hormone.
- Why Is It Ordered: Sometimes ordered in complex cases of thyroid dysfunction or in critically ill patients to assess overall thyroid hormone metabolism.
Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA):
- Purpose: To screen for other autoimmune disorders.
- Why Is It Ordered: People with one autoimmune disorder, like autoimmune thyroid disease, are at increased risk for other autoimmune conditions.
These tests, along with TPO and TgAb, can provide comprehensive information on thyroid function, diagnose specific types of thyroid diseases, and potentially identify other related autoimmune conditions. The selection of these tests will depend on the individual's symptoms, medical history, and the results of initial thyroid function tests.
Conditions where a Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test is recommended:
A Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test is commonly ordered for:
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. The test helps confirm the diagnosis by detecting elevated levels of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin.
Graves' Disease: Graves' disease is another autoimmune condition where the immune system stimulates the thyroid gland to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. The Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test can help differentiate Graves' disease from other thyroid disorders.
How does my healthcare provider use a Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
Healthcare providers use the results of a Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test to:
Confirm Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: Elevated levels of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin confirm the presence of autoimmune thyroid diseases, assisting in the diagnosis and differentiation of conditions such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease.
Monitor Disease Progression: Serial testing of Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies levels helps assess the progression of autoimmune thyroid diseases over time. It aids in monitoring the response to treatment and adjusting management strategies accordingly.
Evaluate Risk of Complications: High antibody levels may indicate an increased risk of complications, such as thyroid dysfunction or the development of thyroid nodules. The test results help healthcare providers identify individuals who require closer monitoring or specific interventions.
What do my Thyroid Antibodies test results mean?
Negative test results show that thyroid antibodies were not detected in the blood at the time of testing, implying that symptoms are caused by anything other than autoimmune disease. However, antibodies are absent in a small number of persons with autoimmune thyroid disease. Repeat testing may be done at a later date if it is suspected that the antibodies will develop over time, as with several autoimmune illnesses.
Thyroid antibodies can be identified in a range of thyroid and autoimmune conditions, including thyroid cancer, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, and autoimmune collagen vascular diseases, with mild to moderately high levels.
Thyroid autoimmune disorders such as Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves disease are usually associated with significantly elevated amounts.
Thyroid antibodies, in general, indicate the presence of an autoimmune thyroid illness, and the higher the level, the more likely it is. Antibody levels that grow over time may be more relevant than steady levels because they may suggest an increase in the severity of autoimmune illness. All of these antibodies can increase the risk of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in a growing baby or infant if they are present in a pregnant mother.
If a person with thyroid cancer has thyroglobulin antibodies, the testing for thyroglobulin levels may be hampered. This could suggest that the thyroglobulin test can't be utilized as a tumor marker or to track a person's thyroid cancer progression. The presence of thyroglobulin antibodies has little effect on some testing procedures, including mass spectrometry. The thyroglobulin test can be utilized as a tumor marker when tested in these methods, regardless of whether or not thyroglobulin antibodies are present. If a method is utilized that is impacted by thyroglobulin antibodies, the antibodies' levels can be used as a tumor marker to monitor thyroid cancer. If they first remain high or fall low but then rise over time, the treatment was ineffective and the malignancy is likely to continue or recur. If the levels are dropping and/or have dropped to low or undetectable levels, the therapy is more likely to have been successful in eradicating the malignancy.
Thyroid antibodies can be found in a small percentage of patients who are otherwise healthy. The incidence of these antibodies is higher in women, increases with age, and implies an increased risk of developing thyroid illness in the future for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. If a person has a thyroid antibody but no obvious thyroid disease, the healthcare professional will monitor the person's health over time. While the majority of people will never have thyroid problems, a small percentage will.
Most Common Questions About the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test:
Understanding the Test
What is the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
The TPO and TgAb test is a blood test that measures the levels of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in your blood. These antibodies can be present in certain autoimmune thyroid conditions.
Why is the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test done?
The TPO and TgAb test is typically performed to help diagnose autoimmune thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease. It can also be useful in understanding why a person might have an enlarged thyroid (goiter) or in monitoring certain types of thyroid cancer.
Interpreting the Results
What does a high level of TPO antibodies in the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test mean?
A high level of TPO antibodies is often associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. The presence of these antibodies suggests that the immune system is mistakenly attacking the thyroid gland.
What does a high level of TgAb antibodies in the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test mean?
High levels of TgAb antibodies could indicate an autoimmune thyroid disease. These antibodies might interfere with the normal function of thyroglobulin, a protein that plays a key role in the production of thyroid hormones.
About the Test
Can certain medications affect the results of the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
Yes, certain medications such as interferon, amiodarone, or lithium can potentially affect the results of the TPO and TgAb test. Always disclose all medications you are taking to your healthcare provider.
What factors can influence the results of the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
Factors such as pregnancy, age, and other autoimmune diseases can influence the results of the TPO and TgAb test. Some individuals may naturally have higher levels of these antibodies without having a thyroid disorder.
Understanding the Implications
What role do TPO and thyroglobulin play in the body, as assessed by the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) are both important in the production of thyroid hormones. TPO plays a key role in the production of T4 and T3, while thyroglobulin serves as a "storage" molecule for these hormones. The presence of antibodies against TPO and Tg can interfere with the normal function of the thyroid.
Can the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test give insight into my autoimmune status?
Yes, the TPO and TgAb test can provide insights into autoimmune status as it relates to the thyroid. Elevated levels of these antibodies are indicative of autoimmune thyroid conditions.
Risks and Precautions
Are there risks associated with having high levels of TPO or TgAb antibodies as indicated by the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
High levels of TPO or TgAb antibodies can indicate an increased risk for autoimmune thyroid disease, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease. These conditions can lead to hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, respectively, if left untreated.
Can the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test provide insight into my risk of developing certain diseases?
Yes, elevated levels of TPO or TgAb antibodies can indicate an increased risk for developing autoimmune thyroid disease. In some cases, these antibodies can also be elevated in other autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
Dealing with Abnormal Results
What should I do if my Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test shows high levels of antibodies?
If your TPO and TgAb test shows high levels of antibodies, you should consult your healthcare provider. They can help determine the cause of the high levels and recommend appropriate treatment or further evaluation.
Are there ways to lower high levels of TPO or TgAb antibodies as identified in the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
Treatment for high levels of TPO or TgAb antibodies focuses on managing the underlying thyroid condition. This might include medication to regulate thyroid hormone levels, and in some cases, dietary changes or supplements. There's no direct treatment to lower the antibodies levels themselves, but managing the underlying condition can often lead to a reduction in antibody levels over time.
Interpreting the Test Results
How are the results of the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test interpreted?
The results of the TPO and TgAb test are interpreted based on reference ranges provided by the lab. If your levels are higher than the reference range, it might suggest an autoimmune thyroid condition.
Understanding the Test with Other Conditions
How does the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test relate to thyroid cancer?
Certain types of thyroid cancer, like papillary or follicular thyroid cancer, can elevate TgAb levels. Monitoring TgAb can be helpful following the treatment of these cancers to detect any possible recurrence.
Does the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test help diagnose thyroiditis?
Yes, the TPO and TgAb test is one of the diagnostic tools for thyroiditis, specifically autoimmune thyroiditis such as Hashimoto's disease. These antibodies are often elevated in these conditions.
The Test in the Larger Context of Health
What is the relevance of the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test to overall health?
The TPO and TgAb test can indicate whether the immune system is attacking the thyroid, which can lead to dysfunction of the gland and affect overall health. Thyroid hormones regulate many body processes, including metabolism, heart rate, and body temperature, so maintaining thyroid health is important for overall well-being.
Does the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test provide insight into fertility issues?
Elevated levels of TPO or TgAb antibodies, indicative of autoimmune thyroid disease, can potentially impact fertility. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can disrupt menstrual cycles and ovulation, which can affect fertility.
Managing and Monitoring Thyroid Health
If I have a diagnosed thyroid disorder, will I need to take the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test regularly?
Your healthcare provider will determine how frequently you should have the TPO and TgAb test. Regular monitoring can help manage an existing thyroid disorder and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments.
How is the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test used in the management of a thyroid disorder?
The TPO and TgAb test is used to monitor the levels of thyroid antibodies, which can help evaluate the progression of autoimmune thyroid disease and the effectiveness of treatments.
Can the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test be used to monitor my condition if I have Graves' disease?
Yes, the TPO and TgAb test can be used to monitor Graves' disease. These antibody levels can help assess the severity of the disease and the response to treatment.
Living with Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders
What lifestyle changes might be recommended if the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test indicates an autoimmune thyroid disorder?
Lifestyle recommendations may include maintaining a balanced diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep. Avoiding certain foods that can affect thyroid function, such as those high in iodine or goitrogens, might also be suggested.
What steps can I take to manage my symptoms if the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test indicates an autoimmune thyroid disorder?
Management of symptoms can include regular monitoring and treatment of thyroid hormone levels, adopting a balanced diet, engaging in regular exercise, and managing stress levels. Your healthcare provider might also recommend medications to alleviate specific symptoms.
Understanding the Test in Different Populations
Are certain people more likely to have abnormal Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test results?
Yes, women are more likely to have autoimmune thyroid disorders, and hence abnormal TPO and TgAb test results. Also, individuals with a family history of thyroid or other autoimmune disorders are at an increased risk.
Does age affect the results of the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
The prevalence of TPO and TgAb antibodies can increase with age. However, having these antibodies does not always result in thyroid disease. Your healthcare provider will interpret your results in the context of your overall health and symptoms.
The Importance of Discussion with Healthcare Provider
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before getting the Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies test?
Before getting the TPO and TgAb test, you should discuss any symptoms you've been experiencing, your medical history, and any medications or supplements you're taking. Understanding your overall health context can help your healthcare provider interpret your test results accurately.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.