Liver & Kidney Function Panel Most Popular

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Also known as: Chem 12, Chemistry Panel, Chemistry Screen, CMP, Complete Metabolic Panel, Comprehensive Metabolic Panel CMP, SMA 12, SMA 20


Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.

Albumin/Globulin Ratio

The ratio of albumin to globulin (A/G ratio) is calculated from measured albumin and calculated globulin (total protein - albumin). Normally, there is a little more albumin than globulins, giving a normal A/G ratio of slightly over 1. Because disease states affect the relative amounts of albumin and globulin, the A/G ratio may provide a clue as to the cause of the change in protein levels. A low A/G ratio may reflect overproduction of globulins, such as seen in multiple myeloma or autoimmune diseases, or underproduction of albumin, such as may occur with cirrhosis, or selective loss of albumin from the circulation, as may occur with kidney disease (nephrotic syndrome). A high A/G ratio suggests underproduction of immunoglobulins as may be seen in some genetic deficiencies and in some leukemias. More specific tests, such as liver enzyme tests and serum protein electrophoresis, must be performed to make an accurate diagnosis. With a low total protein that is due to plasma expansion (dilution of the blood), the A/G ratio will typically be normal because both albumin and globulin will be diluted to the same extent.

Alkaline Phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with higher amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.


Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in release of the substance into the blood.


AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in high amounts in liver, heart, and muscle cells. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.

Bilirubin, Total

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.

Bun/Creatinine Ratio

A ratio between a person’s BUN and blood creatinine to help determine what is causing these concentrations to be higher than normal. The ratio of BUN to creatinine is usually between 10:1 and 20:1. An increased ratio may be due to a condition that causes a decrease in the flow of blood to the kidneys, such as congestive heart failure or dehydration. It may also be seen with increased protein, from gastrointestinal bleeding, or increased protein in the diet. The ratio may be decreased with liver disease (due to decrease in the formation of urea) and malnutrition.


You have more calcium in your body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells. Your body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system.

Carbon Dioxide

CO2 is carbon dioxide. Measures the amount of carbon dioxide in the liquid part of your blood, called the serum. In the body, most of the CO2 is in the form of a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate level.


Chloride is a type of electrolyte. It works with other electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These substances help keep the proper balance of body fluids and maintain the body's acid-base balance. This is a measure of the amount of chloride in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood.


The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work.

Egfr African American

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are the tiny filters in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood.

Egfr Non-Afr. American

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are the tiny filters in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood.




Globulins is the collective term for most blood proteins other than albumin. Identifying the types of globulins can help diagnose certain disorders. Globulins are roughly divided into three groups: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Gamma globulines include various types of antibodies such as immunoglobulins (Ig) M, G, and A.


A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including those in the brain. The hormones insulin and glucagon help control blood glucose levels.


Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. It helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects on blood pressure.

Protein, Total

The total protein is the total amount of two classes of proteins, albumin and globulin that are found in the fluid portion of your blood. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. Your albumin helps prevent fluid from leaking out of blood vessels and your globulins are an important part of your immune system.


Sodium is a substance that the body needs to work properly it is vital to normal body processes, including nerve and muscle function

Urea Nitrogen (Bun)

BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down. BUN measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood.
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The Liver & Kidney Function Panel test contains 1 test with 21 biomarkers.

Brief Description: The Liver & Kidney Function Panel is a comprehensive set of tests that assesses the health and functionality of two crucial organs: the liver and kidneys. These organs play vital roles in filtering toxins, metabolizing drugs, and maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. The panel measures various biomarkers in the blood that provide insight into how well these organs are functioning and whether there might be any underlying issues or damage.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting is preferred

When and Why the Liver & Kidney Function Panel May Be Ordered

Healthcare professionals might order the Liver & Kidney Function Panel:

  1. Routine Health Check-up: As part of a regular health examination to ensure that the liver and kidneys are functioning correctly.

  2. Monitoring Chronic Conditions: For patients with known liver or kidney diseases, to monitor the progression or management of the disease.

  3. Medication Monitoring: Certain medications can have side effects impacting liver or kidney function. This panel helps monitor these effects.

  4. Symptom Analysis: If a patient presents with symptoms indicative of liver or kidney dysfunction, such as jaundice, abdominal pain, swelling, fatigue, or changes in urine output.

  5. Exposure to Toxins: In cases where a person might have been exposed to harmful substances or overdoses which can affect liver or kidney health.

What the Liver & Kidney Function Panel Checks For

  • Albumin and Globulin: These are proteins produced by the liver, and their levels can indicate liver function and nutritional status.

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: This ratio can provide insights into liver function and potential diseases.

  • ALP, ALT, and AST: These are enzymes found in the liver. Elevated levels might indicate liver damage or inflammation.

  • Bilirubin, Total: A substance produced by the liver and an indicator of its function. Elevated bilirubin levels can lead to jaundice.

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio, Creatinine, and Urea Nitrogen (BUN): These markers evaluate kidney function. Abnormal levels can indicate kidney disease or damage.

  • Egfr African American and Egfr Non-African American: These estimate the rate of blood flow through the kidneys and are used to assess kidney function, taking into account racial differences.

  • Electrolytes: Vital for maintaining fluid balance, muscle function, and other physiological processes. Their levels can be affected by kidney function.

  • Protein, Total: A combined measure of albumin and globulin, indicating overall protein status and liver function.

Lab Tests Often Ordered Alongside the Liverand Kidney Functional Panel:

When this panel is ordered, it's often part of a broader evaluation of overall health or specific organ-related symptoms. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:

  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC):

    • Purpose: To evaluate overall blood health, including red and white blood cells, and platelets.
    • Why Is It Ordered: A CBC can indicate anemia, infection, or other conditions that may affect or be affected by liver and kidney function.
  2. Prothrombin Time (PT)/International Normalized Ratio (INR):

    • Purpose: To assess blood clotting time.
    • Why Is It Ordered: The liver produces clotting factors, so prolonged PT/INR can indicate liver dysfunction.
  3. Urine Analysis:

    • Purpose: To analyze components of the urine.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To check for abnormalities such as protein, blood, glucose, or signs of infection, which can be indicators of kidney disease.
  4. Bilirubin (Total and Direct):

    • Purpose: To measure the levels of bilirubin in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Elevated bilirubin can indicate liver disease or bile duct obstruction.
  5. Lipid Profile:

    • Purpose: To measure cholesterol and triglycerides.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Liver diseases can affect lipid metabolism. Additionally, some kidney diseases are associated with high lipid levels.
  6. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP):

    • Purpose: In certain contexts, to measure AFP, a tumor marker.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Mainly in patients with chronic liver disease, to screen for liver cancer.

These tests, when ordered alongside a Liver & Kidney Function Panel, provide a comprehensive evaluation of the health and functioning of these vital organs. They are crucial for diagnosing and managing liver and kidney diseases, monitoring the progression of known conditions, and guiding treatment decisions. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual’s symptoms, clinical history, and initial test results.

Conditions or Diseases the Liver & Kidney Function Panel Can Check For

The Liver & Kidney Function Panel can help diagnose or monitor:

  • Liver Diseases: Such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or liver tumors.
  • Kidney Diseases: Including chronic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, or polycystic kidney disease.
  • Dehydration or Overhydration: Abnormal electrolyte levels can indicate these conditions.
  • Damage from Medications: Some drugs can be harmful to the liver or kidneys.

In conclusion, the Liver & Kidney Function Panel is an invaluable diagnostic tool that provides a comprehensive look into the health and functioning of the liver and kidneys. Regular monitoring through this panel can aid in early detection of potential issues, ensuring timely intervention and better health outcomes.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

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