The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.
Cortisol, A.M. #4212 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Cortisol AM
A cortisol level is a blood test that measures the amount of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. The test is done to check for increased or decreased cortisol production. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to ACTH, a hormone from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body systems. It plays a role in: bone, circulatory system, immune system. metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein. ervous system and stress responses.
DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay #402 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, DHEA SO4, DHEA Sulfate Immunoassay, DHEAS, Transdehydroandrosterone
DHEA-sulfate test measures the amount of DHEA-sulfate in the blood. DHEA-sulfate is a weak male hormone (androgen) produced by the adrenal gland in both men and women.
Estradiol #4021 (1 Biomarkers)
Estradiol (estradiol-17 beta, E2) is part of an estrogen that is a group of steroids that regulate the menstrual cycle and function as the main female sex hormones. Estrogens are responsible for the development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics and are tied to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are considered the main sex hormones in women and are present in small quantities in men. Estradiol (E2) is the predominant form of estrogen and is produced primarily in the ovaries with additional amounts produced by the adrenal glands in women and in the testes and adrenal glands in men. Estradiol levels are used in evaluating ovarian function. Estradiol levels are increased in cases of early (precocious) puberty in girls and gynecomastia in men. Its main use has been in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhea – for example, to determine whether the cause is menopause, pregnancy, or a medical problem. In assisted reproductive technology (ART), serial measurements are used to monitor follicle development in the ovary in the days prior to in vitro fertilization. Estradiol is also sometimes used to monitor menopausal hormone replacement therapy.
FSH and LH #7137 (2 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone
Growth Hormone (GH) #521 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: GH, Growth Hormone GH, HGH, Human Growth Hormone (hGH), Somatotropin
Growth Hormone (Gh)
This test measures the amount of growth hormone (GH) in the blood. GH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. Growth hormone is essential for a child's normal growth and development and promotes proper linear bone growth from birth through puberty. Children with insufficient GH production grow more slowly and are smaller in size for their age. Excess GH is most often due to a GH-secreting pituitary tumor (usually benign). Too much GH can cause children's long bones to continue to grow beyond puberty, resulting in gigantism with heights of 7 or more feet tall. Those with excess GH may also have thickening of facial features, general weakness, delayed puberty, and headaches. Gigantism is an extremely rare condition. Although GH is not as active in adults, it does play a role in regulating bone density, muscle mass, and lipid metabolism. Deficiencies can lead to decreased bone densities, less muscle mass, and altered lipid levels. Excess GH in adults can lead to acromegaly, marked not by bone lengthening but by bone thickening.
IGF-I, LC/MS #16293 (2 Biomarkers)
Also known as: IGF-1, IGFI LCMS, Insulin-Like Growth Factor, Insulin-like Growth Factor - 1, Somatomedin C, Somatomedin-C
Igf I, LC/MS
The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) test is an indirect measure of the average amount of growth hormone (GH) being produced by the body. IGF-1 and GH are polypeptide hormones, small proteins that are vital for normal bone and tissue growth and development. GH is produced by the pituitary gland, a grape-sized gland located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of your nose. GH is secreted into the bloodstream in pulses throughout the day and night with peaks that occur mostly during the night. IGF-1 is produced by the liver and skeletal muscle as well as many other tissues in response to GH stimulation. IGF-1 mediates many of the actions of GH, stimulating the growth of bones and other tissues and promoting the production of lean muscle mass. IGF-1 mirrors GH excesses and deficiencies, but its level is stable throughout the day, making it a useful indicator of average GH levels.
Z Score (Female)
z Score. A z-score (aka, a standard score) indicates how many standard deviations an element is from the mean. A z-score can be calculated from the following formula. z = (X - µ) / s where z is the z-score, X is the value of the element, µ is the population mean, and s is the standard deviation.
Insulin #561 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Insulin (fasting)
Insulin is a hormone that is produced and stored in the beta cells of the pancreas. It is vital for the transportation and storage of glucose at the cellular level, helps regulate blood glucose levels, and has a role in lipid metabolism. When blood glucose levels rise after a meal, insulin is released to allow glucose to move into tissue cells, especially muscle and adipose (fat) cells, where is it is used for energy production. Insulin then prompts the liver to either store the remaining excess blood glucose as glycogen for short-term energy storage and/or to use it to produce fatty acids. The fatty acids are eventually used by adipose tissue to synthesize triglycerides to form the basis of a longer term, more concentrated form of energy storage. Without insulin, glucose cannot reach most of the body's cells. Without glucose, the cells starve and blood glucose levels rise to unhealthy levels. This can cause disturbances in normal metabolic processes that result in various disorders, including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and vision and neurological problems. Thus, diabetes, a disorder associated with decreased insulin effects, is eventually a life-threatening condition.
PSA Total #5363 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: PSA
PSA stands for prostate-specific antigen. It is a protein produced by prostate cells. The PSA test is done to help diagnose and follow prostate cancer in men.
T3, Free #34429 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Free T3, FT3, T3 Free
This test measures the amount of triiodothyronine, or T3, in the blood.
T4, Free #866 (1 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Free T4, FT4, T4 Free
The free T4 test is not affected by protein levels. Since free T4 is the active form of thyroxine, the free T4 test is may be a more accurate reflection of thyroid hormone function.
Testosterone, Total And Free And Sex Hormone Binding Globulin #37073 (3 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Testosterone Total And Free And Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
In many cases, measurement of total testosterone provides the doctor with adequate information. However, in certain cases, for example when the level of SHBG is abnormal, a test for free or bioavailable testosterone may be performed as it may more accurately reflect the presence of a medical condition.
Sex Hormone Binding
The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test measures the concentration of SHBG in the blood. SHBG is a protein that is produced by the liver and binds tightly to testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol (an estrogen). In this bound state, it transports them in the blood as an inactive form. The amount of SHBG in circulation is affected by age and sex, by decreased or increased testosterone or estrogen production and can be affected by certain diseases and conditions such as liver disease, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and obesity. Changes in SHBG levels can affect the amount of testosterone that is available to be used by the body's tissues.
A total testosterone test does not distinguish between bound and unbound testosterone but determines the overall quantity of testosterone. If a person's SHBG level is not normal, then the total testosterone may not be an accurate representation of the amount of testosterone that is available to the person's tissues.
A testosterone test measures the amount of the male hormone, testosterone, in the blood. Both men and women produce this hormone. In males, the testicles produce most of the testosterone in the body. Levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of low testosterone: In boys -- early or late puberty and in men -- impotence, low level of sexual interest, infertility, thinning of the bones
In females, the ovaries produce most of the testosterone and levels are most often checked to evaluate signs of higher testosterone levels, such as: decreased breast size, excess hair growth, increased size of the clitoris. irregular or absent menstrual periods and male-pattern baldness or hair thinning.
Thyroid Panel #7020 (3 Biomarkers)
Free T4 Index (T7)
FTI stands for the Free Thyroxine Index and is also sometimes referred to as T7. It is a calculated value determined from the T3 uptake test and total T4 test and provides an estimate of the level of free T4 in the blood.
T3 uptake is also known as T3 Resin Uptake (T3RU) or Thyroid Uptake. It estimates how much thyroid hormone-binding proteins are available in the blood through a calculation based on levels of T3 or T4 added to a person's blood specimen.
T4 (Thyroxine), Total
This test measures the amount of thyroxine, or T4, in the blood. T4 is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland. The total T4 test is used to help diagnose hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. It is a useful test but can be affected by the amount of protein available in the blood to bind to the hormone.
TSH #899 (2 Biomarkers)
Also known as: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Thyrotropin
A TSH test is a lab test that measures the amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland. It tells the thyroid gland to make and release thyroid hormones into the blood.