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Description: The hCG test is a blood test that measures the amount of hCG in the blood. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Qualitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Qualitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Qualitative, Pregnancy Test. hCG Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Total Qualitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Total Qualitative blood test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Total Qualitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Total Qualitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an hCG Total Qualitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hCG test is a urine test that measures the amount of hCG in the urine. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Qualitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Qualitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Qualitative, Pregnancy Test, Urine Pregnancy Test

Collection Method: Urine collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Qualitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Qualitative Urine test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Qualitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Qualitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an hCG Qualitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular

Description: ABO Group and Rh type is a blood test that is used to determine which blood group and Rh type you are.

Also Known As: Blood group test, blood type test, blood group and Rh type test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an ABO Group and Rh Type test ordered?

All donated blood undergoes ABO grouping and Rh typing. They're also used when someone needs a blood transfusion. The following conditions or circumstances may necessitate a transfusion:

  • Anemia that is severe, as well as anemia-causing illnesses such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia
  • During or after surgery when you have bleeding
  • Trauma or injury
  • Excessive blood loss 
  • Chemotherapy and  cancer
  • Hemophilia and similar bleeding disorders

When a woman becomes pregnant, she is tested to see if she is Rh negative or positive. Soon after birth, all newborn babies of Rh-negative mothers are tested for ABO and Rh to see if the mother need Rh immune globulin.

When an individual becomes a candidate to receive an organ, tissue, or bone marrow transplant, or when a person decides to become a donor, blood typing may be required. It's one of the first of several tests used to see if a possible donor and recipient are a good match.

Blood type is sometimes used as part of the process of determining whether or not someone is a blood relative.

What does an ABO Group and Rh Type blood test check for?

The markers or antigens on the surface of red blood cells are used to determine blood types. The A and B antigens are two primary antigens or surface identifiers on human RBCs. Rh is another essential surface antigen. Blood typing determines a person's ABO blood group and Rh type by detecting the presence or absence of these antigens.

Blood group A is made up of people who have A antigens in their red blood cells, blood group B is made up of people who have B antigens in their red blood cells, blood group AB is made up of people who have both A and B antigens in their red blood cells, and blood group O is made up of people who don't have either of these markers.

A person's blood type is Rh+ if the Rh protein is present on red blood cells; if it is not, the person's blood type is Rh-.

Our bodies develop antibodies against antigens A and B that aren't found on our red blood cells. Anti-B antibodies are directed against the B antigens on red blood cells in people with blood type A, while anti-A antibodies are directed against the A antigens in people with blood type B. People with type AB blood do not have either of these antibodies, whereas people with type O blood do.

These antibodies are helpful in detecting a person's blood type and determining which blood kinds he or she can safely receive. If a person with antibodies directed against the B antigen, for example, is transfused with type B blood, his or her own antibodies will attack and kill the transfused red blood cells, resulting in serious and perhaps fatal consequences. As a result, matching a person's blood type to the blood that will be transfused is crucial.

Antibodies to Rh are not created spontaneously, unlike antibodies to A and B antigens. That is, Rh antibodies form only when a person without Rh factor on their red blood cells is exposed to Rh positive red blood cells. When a Rh-negative mother is pregnant with a Rh-positive kid, or when a Rh-negative individual is transfused with Rh-positive blood, this might happen during pregnancy or birth. In either instance, the first encounter to the Rh antigen may not trigger a robust immune response to Rh positive cells, but subsequent exposures may result in severe reactions.

Lab tests often ordered with an ABO Group and Rh Type test:

  • Direct Antiglobulin Test
  • RBC Antibody Screen
  • HLA Testing
  • Compatibility Testing

Conditions where an ABO Group and Rh Type test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an ABO Group and Rh Type test?

Blood typing is used to determine a person's blood group, including whether they are blood group A, B, AB, or O, as well as whether they are Rh positive or negative.

Blood typing can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Ensure that the blood type of a person who needs a blood transfusion or blood components is compatible with the ABO and Rh types of the unit of blood that will be transfused. Blood typing is usually used in conjunction with other tests, such as an RBC antibody screen and a crossmatch, to determine what type of blood or blood components a person can safely receive. A potentially fatal transfusion reaction may occur if a unit of blood harboring an ABO antigen to which the blood recipient has an antibody is transfused to the recipient. Anti-A and anti-B antibodies, for instance, are present in the blood of people with blood group O. The antibodies in the recipient's blood will react with the red blood cells in this individual if they get a unit of blood from group A, B, or AB, destroying them and possibly having serious effects.
  • In the same way, if a Rh-negative person is transfused with Rh-positive blood, the person is likely to develop antibodies against Rh-positive blood. Although the recipient is unaffected by this scenario during the current transfusion, a future transfusion with Rh-positive blood could produce a significant transfusion reaction.
  • Determine the compatibility of a pregnant lady and her unborn child. Because a mother and her fetus may be incompatible, Rh type is especially significant during pregnancy. If the mother is Rh negative but the father is Rh positive, the fetus may test positive for the Rh antigen. As a result, the mother's body may produce antibodies against the Rh antigen. Hemolytic sickness of the fetus and infant could arise from the antibodies penetrating the placenta and destroying the baby's red blood cells. If the infant is Rh-positive, an injection of Rh immune globulin is given to the Rh-negative mother both during pregnancy and again after delivery to stop the production of Rh antibodies. The Rh immune globulin binds to and "masks" the fetus's Rh antigen during pregnancy and delivery to stop the mother from producing antibodies against it.
  • Determine the blood type of potential blood donors at a collection facility. Blood units from donors are blood typed and properly labeled so they can be utilized for patients who need a certain ABO group and Rh type.
  • The blood type of potential donors and recipients of organs, tissues, or bone marrow should be ascertained as part of the preparation for a transplant surgery. To identify and match organ and tissue donors with recipients who have the same or a sufficient number of matching HLA genes and antigens, ABO blood type is utilized in conjunction with HLA testing.

What do my ABO Group and Rh Type test results mean?

Blood typing determines if a person is type A, B, AB, or O, as well as whether he or she is Rh negative or positive. The results will inform the healthcare provider about whether blood or blood components are safe to provide to the patient.

The results of blood typing will reveal if a pregnant woman is Rh positive or negative. This information will help determine whether she is a candidate for Rh immune globulin, which prevents antibodies from forming against her fetus' blood cells.

Donated blood typing is significant because it allows health care providers to determine whether patients are compatible with the blood and may safely receive it.

When a donated organ, tissue, or bone marrow is compatible with the intended recipient, it is less likely to be rejected immediately after transplantation.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

The Different Blood Types

There are four major blood groups and eight different blood types. Doctors call this the ABO Blood Group System.

The groups are based on whether or not you have two specific antigens -- A and B:

  • Group A has the A antigen and B antibody.
  • Group B has the B antigen and the A antibody.
  • Group AB has A and B antigens but neither A nor B antibodies.
  • Group O doesn’t have A or B antigens but has both A and B antibodies.

There’s also a third kind of antigen called the Rh factor. You either have this antigen (meaning your blood type is “Rh+” or “positive”), or you don’t (meaning your blood type is “Rh-” or “negative”). So, from the four blood groups, there are eight blood types:

  • A positive or A negative
  • B positive or B negative
  • AB positive or AB negative
  • O positive or O negative

hCG may reach detectable limits within 7-10 days of conception. hCG is produced by the placenta and reaches a peak between the 7th and 10th week of gestation. hCG is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta and secreted during normal pregnancy and with pathologic conditions such as hydatidiform mole, choriocarcinoma and testicular neoplasm. Order hCG, Total, Qualitative, Urine if hCG serum result is inconsistent with clinical presentation.

Description: The hCG test is a urine test that measures the amount of hCG in the urine. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Qualitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Qualitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Qualitative, Pregnancy Test, Urine Pregnancy Test

Collection Method: Urine collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Qualitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Qualitative Urine test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Qualitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Qualitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an hCG Qualitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hCG test is a blood test that measures the amount of hCG in the blood. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Qualitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Qualitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Qualitative, Pregnancy Test. hCG Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Total Qualitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Total Qualitative blood test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Total Qualitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Total Qualitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy

How does my health care provider use an hCG Total Qualitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The hCG test is a blood test that measures the amount of hCG in the blood. It is used to confirm pregnancy or to help identify an ectopic pregnancy. It can also be used to confirm that there is not a pregnancy before a medical treatment.

Also Known As: Beta hCG Test, Chorionic Gonadotropin Test, hCG Total Quantitative Test, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg), Quantitative Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Total, Quantitative, Pregnancy Test, hCG Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an hCG Total Quantitative test ordered?

The timing of pregnancy testing is determined by a woman's accuracy in predicting the day of her menstrual period, as well as the technique of testing employed. Blood tests are more sensitive than urine tests and can be performed two days before a woman's period is expected to begin. By 10 days after a missed menstrual cycle, a urine or blood hCG test can be done with confidence. A woman may be able to ascertain whether she is pregnant the day she misses her period with a urine test, but the result may be mistakenly negative. If the first test is negative but pregnancy is suspected, the test may be repeated at a later date.

When a doctor wants to diagnose or rule out an ectopic pregnancy or monitor a woman after a loss, he or she may perform quantitative blood hCG testing over several days. A woman may first have the standard signs and symptoms of pregnancy, but subsequently develop others that signal the pregnancy is not proceeding as planned.

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramps on one side of the pelvis

If left untreated, the following signs and symptoms may worsen:

  • Weakness, dizziness
  • Fainting or feeling faint
  • Blood pressure that is too low
  • Suffering from shoulder pain
  • In the pelvic area, there is a sudden, severe ache.
  • Flu-like symptoms and a fever
  • Vomiting

If left untreated, the region around an ectopic pregnancy might burst and hemorrhage, resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Prior to a medical operation or therapy that could be detrimental during pregnancy, an hCG test may be recommended.

What does an hCG Total Quantitative blood test check for?

Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced by a pregnant woman's placenta. The level of hCG in the blood rises early in pregnancy and is excreted in the urine. A pregnancy test detects human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine and confirms or disproves pregnancy.

During the first few weeks of pregnancy, hCG is crucial for sustaining the corpus luteum's function. During the first trimester of a typical pregnancy, hCG production rises steadily, culminating around the 10th week after the last menstrual cycle. During the duration of the pregnancy, levels gradually decrease. Within a few weeks of birth, hCG is no longer detectable.

The level of hCG in the blood increases at a slower rate when a pregnancy develops outside of the uterus. When an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, monitoring the level of hCG in the blood over time may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

Similarly, when a developing baby has a chromosomal problem such as Down syndrome, the hCG blood level may be abnormal. As part of the usual screening for fetal anomalies, an hCG test is utilized in conjunction with a few additional assays.

Lab tests often ordered with an hCG Total Quantitative test:

  • Progesterone
  • First Trimester Screening
  • Second Trimester Screening

Conditions where an hCG Total Quantitative test is recommended:

  • Pregnancy
  • Cancer

How does my health care provider use an hCG Total Quantitative test?

The presence of hCG is detected by qualitative hCG testing, which is commonly used to screen for pregnancy. A test strip is dipped into a collected cup of urine or exposed to a woman's urine stream, depending on the method. Within the time provided by the instructions, generally approximately 5 minutes, a colored line appears. It is critical to properly follow the test recommendations in order to obtain reliable test results. If the test comes out negative, it's usually repeated a few days later. Because hCG levels grow quickly, a previously negative test can become positive in a short period of time.

Quantitative hCG testing, also known as beta hCG testing, determines the amount of hCG in the blood. It's possible that it'll be utilized to confirm a pregnancy. It can also be used in conjunction with a progesterone test to help diagnosis an ectopic pregnancy, diagnose and monitor a failing pregnancy, and/or monitor a woman following a miscarriage.

hCG blood levels, along with a few other tests, can also be used to screen for fetal abnormalities. See First Trimester Down Syndrome Screen or Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening for further information on this application.

If a woman is about to undergo medical treatment, be put on certain drugs, or have other testing, such as x-rays, that could harm the developing baby, an hCG test may be done to check for pregnancy. This is normally done to make sure the woman isn't expecting. Before any medical intervention, such as an operation, that could potentially harm a fetus, most institutions now screen all female patients for pregnancy using a urine or blood hCG test.

What do my hCG test results mean?

A negative hCG result indicates that a woman is unlikely to be pregnant. However, tests conducted too early in a pregnancy, before a sufficient hCG level has been reached, may result in false-negative results. If there is a strong likelihood of pregnancy, the test may be repeated a few days later.

A positive hCG test indicates that a lady is pregnant.

The level of hcG in a woman's blood rises at a slower rate than normal in an ectopic pregnancy. For the first four weeks of a typical pregnancy, hCG levels double about every two days, then slow to every 3 1/2 and half days by six weeks. Those who had failed pregnancies often have a lengthier doubling time early on, and their hCG concentrations may even fall during the doubling stage. Following a miscarriage, hCG levels will drop rapidly. If hCG levels do not drop to undetectable levels, it could mean that there is still hCG-producing tissue that needs to be removed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Includes

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Antibody Screen, RBC with Reflex to Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing 
  • ABO Group and Rh Type
  • RPR (Diagnosis) with Reflex to Titer and Confirmatory Testing
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex Confirmation*
  • Rubella Antibody (IgG), Immune Status
  •  
  • If Antibody Screen is positive, Antibody Identification, Titer, and Antigen Typing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86870, 86886, 86905).
  • If RPR screen is reactive, RPR Titer and FTA Confirmatory testing will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86593, 86780).
  • If Hepatitis B Surface Antigen is positive, confirmatory testing based on the manufacturer's FDA approved recommendations will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87341).
  •  

DC - Comprehensive Obstetric - Prenatal Panel

Description: 17-hydroxyprogesterone is a test that is measuring the levels of 17-OHP in the blood. 17-OHP is used to detect and monitor the treatment processes for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Also Known As: 17-OHP Test, 17-OH Progesterone Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test ordered?

The 17-OHP test is regularly ordered as part of a newborn screening and may be repeated if the screening test results are elevated to confirm the initial findings.

When an infant or young kid exhibits signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency or CAH, a 17-OHP test may be administered.

When the milder type of CAH is suspected, this test may be ordered in older children or adults. When a girl or woman is having symptoms that could be caused by CAH or another illness, such as PCOS, the 17-OHP test can be used.

Boys and men may be tested if they are experiencing early puberty or infertility.

When a person is diagnosed with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a 17-OHP test may be ordered on a regular basis to assess treatment effectiveness.

What does a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone blood test check for?

17-hydroxyprogesterone is a steroid hormone that is created during the cortisol production process. This test detects and/or evaluates congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a hereditary disorder characterized by decreased adrenal cortisol and aldosterone production and increased male sex hormone production.

Cholesterol is the source of 17-OHP. It is a precursor of active steroid hormones, rather than an active steroid hormone.

Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that aids in the breakdown of protein, carbohydrates, and fats, regulates the immune system, and maintains blood pressure. Other steroid hormones produced by the adrenal glands include aldosterone, which helps regulate salt levels and blood pressure, and androgens, which, like testosterone, cause male sexual characteristics and other consequences.

The processes in the synthesis of cortisol necessitate the use of several enzymes. Inadequate levels of cortisol are produced when one or more of these enzymes are insufficient or malfunctioning, as is the case with CAH. CAH is caused by a partial or total loss of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase, which accounts for around 90% of cases.

The adrenal gland grows in size because a low level of cortisol induces an increase in the level of a specific pituitary hormone that drives adrenal growth and hormone production. The increased size and activity, however, are insufficient to overcome the cortisol production bottleneck. Other chemicals that do not require the faulty enzyme, such as 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androgens, are created in excess. This is why 17-OHP testing can aid in the detection of CAH.

CAH is a set of hereditary illnesses characterized by cortisol-related enzyme deficits and caused by particular gene mutations. A mutation in the 21-hydroxylase gene causes around 90% of CAH cases, which can be diagnosed by an increase in 17-OHP in the blood. When both genes, one from each parent, contain mutations that reduce or cease the activity of the enzyme for which the gene codes, the disease is caused. Parents could be carriers, and carriers could not show any symptoms.

CAH with 21-hydroxylase deficiency can be inherited in two forms: severe and mild.

Severe forms can result in kids being born with severe aldosterone and cortisol deficits, necessitating medical treatment. This severe variant is most commonly found in infancy or early childhood through regular newborn screening. It may manifest in early childhood with signs and symptoms such as vomiting, listlessness, lack of energy, not eating properly, failure to thrive, dehydration, and low blood pressure if it is not found through screening, especially with severe sickness.

Excess male sex hormones can cause the development of male characteristics in females. Female babies' sex organs may not be obviously male or female, making it difficult to tell their gender at first. During childhood and adolescence, females may have excessive hair development on the face and body, as well as other male secondary sexual traits such as irregular menstruation. Men with this disorder may not appear different at birth, but they might develop sexual traits early in life, putting them at risk for fertility problems later in life.

Only partial lack of the enzyme may be present in the milder, though more prevalent type of CAH caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. This kind of CAH, also known as late-onset or non-classical CAH, can manifest symptoms at any age during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Symptoms might be nonspecific, develop slowly over time, and differ from one person to the next. Though this type of CAH is rarely life-threatening, it can cause growth, development, and puberty issues in children, as well as infertility in adults.

Lab tests often ordered with a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test:

  • Cortisol
  • ACTH
  • Testosterone
  • Androstenedione
  • Pregnenolone

Conditions where a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test is recommended:

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Infertility

How does my health care provider use a 17-Hydroxyprogesterone test?

The 17-hydroxyprogesterone test is used to detect congenital adrenal hyperplasia and can be used in the conjunction with other tests to diagnose and track CAH.

In the United States, the 17-OHP test is frequently ordered as part of newborn screening to detect CAH caused by a lack of 21-hydroxylase.

The 17-OHP test can be used to screen for CAH in older children and adults before symptoms develop, or to confirm a CAH diagnosis in persons who are already experiencing symptoms.

Diagnosis

The presence of 17-OHP in the blood can help doctors diagnose CAH in older children and people who have a milder, "late-onset" variant of the disease.

A 17-OHP test, along with plasma renin activity, androstenedione, and testosterone assays, may be used to evaluate the success of treatment if someone is diagnosed with 21-hydroxylase insufficiency.

In women with symptoms such as abundant face and body hair and irregular periods, a 17-OHP test, along with other hormone testing, may be done to help rule out CAH. Women with probable polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility, as well as those with suspected adrenal or ovarian malignancies, fall under this category.

False-positive results have been reported with 17-OHP testing, particularly the newborn screening test. Other tests may be performed if the level is higher but not to the point where it is indicative of CAH.

As a follow-up test, an ACTH test may be ordered. ACTH stimulation causes a significant increase in 17-OHP levels in CAH.

CYP21A2 gene mutations that cause the disorder may be detected by genetic testing.

A karyotype test may be ordered as a follow-up test to discover chromosome problems and to assist in determining the gender of a newborn.

Electrolytes may be ordered to determine the sodium and potassium levels of a person.

What do my 17 Hydroxyprogesterone test results mean?

If a newborn or infant has highly elevated 17-OHP levels, he or she is most likely suffering from CAH. If a person's levels are somewhat elevated, he or she may have a milder case of CAH or an 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

The absence of CAH due to a 21-hydroxylase deficit is most often shown by normal 17-OHP findings.

In a person with CAH, low or declining amounts suggest a positive response to treatment. High or rising levels may suggest that treatment has to be changed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: ACTH is a blood test that measures the amount of the adrenocorticotropic hormone in the body’s system. The results can be used to help diagnose or monitor a hormone imbalance or a specific condition or disease related to the pituitary gland.

Also Known As: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Test, Corticotropin Test, Cosyntropin Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma

Test Preparation: Collect specimen between 7 a.m. and 10 a.m. If drawn at any other time, the reference ranges do not apply

When is an ACTH test ordered?

When a cortisol test reveals aberrant results or when someone has indications or symptoms of excess or inadequate cortisol, an ACTH test may be recommended.

Cortisol excess can induce the following symptoms:

  • Obesity
  • Fat between the shoulders
  • Red, rounded face
  • Skin that is fragile and thin
  • Purple lines on the abdomen
  • Muscle loss
  • Acne
  • Skin problems
  • Excessive body hair
  • Fatigue

High blood pressure, low potassium, high bicarbonate, high glucose levels, and occasionally diabetes are all common with these symptoms.

People with low cortisol levels may have symptoms such as:

  • Muscle wasting
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of weight
  • Skin pigmentation increases, even in places not exposed to the sun
  • Appetite loss
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Cravings for salt

Low blood pressure, low blood glucose, low sodium, high potassium, and high calcium are frequently found in conjunction with these symptoms.

Several of the following symptoms are commonly associated with hypopituitarism:

  • Appetite loss
  • Fatigue
  • Menstrual cycle irregularity
  • Sexual organ dysfunction
  • Reduced sexual desire
  • Urination during the night
  • Unprecedented weight loss
  • Hot flashes
  • sensitivity to cold

When a pituitary tumor causes symptoms, the affected person may also experience symptoms related to the compression of adjacent cells and nerves. The tumor, for example, can modify the pattern of headaches. It can also impair the nerves that control vision, creating symptoms like "tunnel vision," localized visual loss, or "double vision."

What does an ACTH blood test check for?

Adrenocorticotropic hormone is a hormone that promotes cortisol production. Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that regulates glucose, protein, and lipid metabolism, suppresses the immune system's reaction, and aids in blood pressure regulation. This test determines how much ACTH is present in the blood.

The pituitary gland is responsible for producing ACTH. The pituitary gland is a network of glands that work together to create hormones that operate on organs, tissues, and other glands to govern systems throughout the body. It is located below the brain in the center of the head.

ACTH levels rise when cortisol levels are low and fall when cortisol levels are high. The hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone in response to a drop in blood cortisol levels. This causes the pituitary gland to produce ACTH, which in turn stimulates the adrenal glands, which are small organs at the top of each kidney, to produce cortisol. The brain, pituitary, and adrenal glands must all be operating properly in order to produce enough levels of cortisol.

Conditions affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenal glands can disrupt the regulation of ACTH and cortisol production, causing the glands to generate more or less of the hormones. This can result in signs and symptoms linked with cortisol excess or insufficiency. Cushing disease, Addison disease, and hypopituitarism are all conditions that impact ACTH. Some tumors outside of the pituitary, such as those in the lungs, can also produce ACTH, which raises cortisol levels.

Lab tests often ordered with an ACTH test:

  • Cortisol
  • Cortrosyn Stimulation test
  • Dexamethasone Suppression Test
  • Androstenedione

Conditions where an ACTH test is recommended:

  • Addison Disease
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Cushing Syndrome
  • Endocrine Syndromes

How does my health care provider use an ACTH test?

ACTH blood tests are used to detect, diagnose, and monitor problems related with excessive or deficient cortisol in the body, usually in conjunction with cortisol tests. These circumstances include:

  • Cushing disease is characterized by high cortisol levels caused by an ACTH-producing tumor in the pituitary gland.
  • Cushing syndrome refers to the symptoms and signs of high cortisol levels; it can be caused by an adrenal tumor, adrenal hyperplasia, steroid use, or an ACTH-producing tumor outside the pituitary, such as in the lungs.
  • Cortisol production is reduced in Addison disease due to adrenal gland injury.
  • Secondary adrenal insufficiency: pituitary dysfunction causes decreased cortisol production.
  • Hypopituitarism is pituitary dysfunction or injury that causes the pituitary to produce less hormones, notably ACTH.

Because the level of ACTH generally varies in the opposite direction of the level of cortisol, measuring both can assist distinguish between some of these diseases.

If abnormal levels are found, a healthcare professional will do additional testing to confirm the results and discover the cause.

What do my ACTH test results mean?

The interpretation of the results can be difficult in many circumstances. ACTH and cortisol levels fluctuate throughout the day. ACTH levels are normally highest in the morning and lowest at night. It will increase cortisol production, which will follow the same daily rhythm as ACTH but rise later in the day and fall later in the evening. This diurnal rhythm is frequently disrupted by conditions that influence ACTH and cortisol synthesis.

ACTH and cortisol patterns associated with various illnesses of the adrenal and pituitary glands.

An adrenal tumor, steroid treatment, or hypopituitarism can all cause a reduction in ACTH.

Cushing disease and ectopic ACTH cannot be reliably distinguished from cortisol and ACTH measurements alone. Other tests are also performed to aid healthcare providers in determining this distinction. When some medications are given to promote or repress hormone synthesis, testing the change in cortisol levels might assist the healthcare practitioner establish the correct diagnosis.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Determination of aldosterone is useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of primary aldosteronism, selective hypoaldosteronism, edematous states, and other conditions of electrolyte imbalance

Most Popular

Description: Aldosterone is a blood test often ordered to test patients with low potassium or high blood pressure.

Also Known As: Aldosterone Plasma Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Aldosterone test ordered?

When someone has high blood pressure, a blood aldosterone test is generally requested, especially if the person also has low potassium. Even if potassium levels are within normal limits, testing may be necessary if hypertension develops at a young age or if standard drugs fail to control high blood pressure. Because primary aldosteronism is a potentially curable form of hypertension, it’s critical to catch it early and effectively treat it.

When a healthcare practitioner suspects adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease, aldosterone levels, along with additional testing, are occasionally recommended.

What does an Aldosterone blood test check for?

Aldosterone is a hormone that helps to maintain proper sodium and potassium levels in the circulation as well as regulate blood volume and blood pressure.

The adrenal glands, which are positioned on the top and outside portions of each kidney, create aldosterone. Aldosterone increases sodium retention and potassium elimination via the kidneys.

Aldosterone overproduction or underproduction can be caused by a number of factors. Because renin and aldosterone are so closely associated, they’re frequently examined jointly to figure out what’s causing an aberrant aldosterone level.

Lab tests often ordered with an Aldosterone test:

  • Electrolytes
  • Potassium
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Plasma Renin Activity

Conditions where an Aldosterone test is recommended:

  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Conn Syndrome

How does my health care provider use an Aldosterone test?

Aldosterone and renin tests are performed to determine whether the adrenal glands are producing enough aldosterone and to differentiate between potential causes of excess or insufficiency. Aldosterone can be detected in the blood or in a 24-hour urine sample, which determines how much aldosterone is excreted in the urine over the course of a day.

Primary aldosteronism, commonly known as Conn syndrome, is a condition that produces high blood pressure and can be detected with these tests. If the test is positive, stimulation and suppression testing can be used to further examine aldosterone production.

The highest levels of aldosterone are in the morning, and they fluctuate throughout the day. The position of the body, stress, and a number of prescribed medications all have an impact on them.

What do my aldosterone test results mean?

Conn syndrome is characterized by the adrenal glands overproducing aldosterone, which is usually caused by a benign tumor in one of the glands. A high aldosterone level causes increased salt reabsorption and potassium loss by the kidneys, resulting in an electrolyte imbalance. High blood pressure, headaches, and muscle weakness are signs and symptoms, especially if potassium levels are very low.

When someone has hypertension and their blood potassium is lower than usual, it's time to look for aldosteronism. Blood is drawn from both of the adrenal veins and tested to see whether there is a difference in the amount of aldosterone produced by both of the adrenal glands to establish whether only one or both are impacted.

Secondary aldosteronism, which is more prevalent than primary aldosteronism, is caused by anything other than an adrenal gland condition that causes excess aldosterone. Any disorder that restricts blood flow to the kidneys, lowers blood pressure, or lowers sodium levels could cause aldosteronism. Congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, kidney illness, and pregnancy toxemia can all cause secondary aldosteronism. It's also typical when you're dehydrated. The cause of aldosteronism is usually clear in these circumstances.

The most common cause of secondary aldosteronism is renal artery stenosis, which is a constriction of the blood arteries that supply the kidney. High aldosterone levels produce high blood pressure, which can be treated with surgery or angioplasty. A catheter is introduced via the groin and blood is collected straight from the veins draining the kidney to see if only one kidney is damaged. If one side's result is much higher than the other, this suggests that the artery is narrowed.

Adrenal insufficiency is the most common cause of low aldosterone. Dehydration, low blood pressure, a low salt level in the blood, and a high potassium level are all symptoms. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder in which babies lack an enzyme needed to create cortisol, can reduce aldosterone production in some circumstances.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Aldosterone and Renin tests are blood tests often ordered together to test patients with low potassium or high blood pressure.

Also Known As: Aldosterone Test, Renin Test, Aldosterone and Renin Ratio Test, Aldosterone and Renin Activity Test, PRA Test, Plasma Renin Activity Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test ordered?

When someone has high blood pressure, a blood aldosterone test and a renin test are generally requested together, especially if the person also has low potassium. Even if potassium levels are within normal limits, testing may be necessary if standard drugs fail to control high blood pressure or if hypertension develops at a young age. Because primary aldosteronism is a potentially curable form of hypertension, it’s critical to catch it early and effectively treat it.

When a healthcare practitioner suspects adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease, aldosterone levels, along with additional testing, are occasionally recommended. The aldosterone stimulation test, also known as ACTH stimulation, measures aldosterone and cortisol levels to identify whether a person has Addison disease, reduced pituitary function, or a pituitary tumor. After ACTH stimulation, a natural outcome is an increase in cortisol and an increase in aldosterone.

What does an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity blood test check for?

Aldosterone is a hormone that helps to maintain proper sodium and potassium levels in the circulation as well as regulate blood volume and blood pressure. Renin is an enzyme that regulates the production of aldosterone. The levels of aldosterone and renin in the blood and/or the amount of aldosterone in the urine are measured in these tests.

The adrenal glands, which are positioned on the top and outside portions of each kidney, create aldosterone. Aldosterone increases sodium retention and potassium elimination via the kidneys. Renin is a protein generated by the kidneys that regulates the activity of the hormone angiotensin, which stimulates the production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands.

Renin is released by the kidneys when blood pressure drops or the sodium chloride concentration in the tubules of the kidney decreases. Renin breaks down the blood protein angiotensinogen to produce angiotensin I, which is then transformed to angiotensin II by a second enzyme. Angiotensin II constricts blood vessels and increases the synthesis of aldosterone. Overall, this boosts blood pressure while maintaining appropriate salt and potassium levels.

Aldosterone overproduction or underproduction can be caused by a number of factors. Because renin and aldosterone are so closely associated, they’re frequently examined jointly to figure out what’s causing an aberrant aldosterone level.

Lab tests often ordered with an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test:

  • Electrolytes
  • Potassium
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Plasma Renin Activity

Conditions where an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test is recommended:

  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Conn Syndrome

How does my health care provider use an Aldosterone and Plasma Renin Activity test?

Aldosterone and renin tests are performed to determine whether the adrenal glands are producing enough aldosterone and to differentiate between potential causes of excess or insufficiency. Aldosterone can be detected in the blood or in a 24-hour urine sample, which determines how much aldosterone is excreted in the urine over the course of a day. Renin is always counted in milligrams per milliliter of blood.

Primary aldosteronism, commonly known as Conn syndrome, is a condition that produces high blood pressure and can be detected with these tests. If the test is positive, stimulation and suppression testing can be used to further examine aldosterone production.

The highest levels of aldosterone and renin are in the morning, and they fluctuate throughout the day. The position of the body, stress, and a number of prescribed medications all have an impact on them.

What do my aldosterone and plasma renin activity test results mean?

Conn syndrome is characterized by the adrenal glands overproducing aldosterone, which is usually caused by a benign tumor in one of the glands. A high aldosterone level causes increased salt reabsorption and potassium loss by the kidneys, resulting in an electrolyte imbalance. High blood pressure, headaches, and muscle weakness are signs and symptoms, especially if potassium levels are very low.

When someone has hypertension and their blood potassium is lower than usual, it's time to look for aldosteronism. Blood is drawn from both of the adrenal veins and tested to see whether there is a difference in the amount of aldosterone produced by both of the adrenal glands to establish whether only one or both are impacted.

Secondary aldosteronism, which is more prevalent than primary aldosteronism, is caused by anything other than an adrenal gland condition that causes excess aldosterone. Any disorder that reduces blood flow to the kidneys, lowers blood pressure, or lowers sodium levels could cause it. Congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, kidney illness, and pregnancy toxemia can all cause secondary aldosteronism. It's also typical when you're dehydrated. The cause of aldosteronism is usually clear in these circumstances.

The most common cause of secondary aldosteronism is renal artery stenosis, which is a constriction of the blood arteries that supply the kidney. High renin and aldosterone levels produce high blood pressure, which can be treated with surgery or angioplasty. A catheter is introduced via the groin and blood is collected straight from the veins draining the kidney to see if only one kidney is damaged. If one side's result is much higher than the other, this suggests that the artery is narrowed.

Adrenal insufficiency is the most common cause of low aldosterone. Dehydration, low blood pressure, a low salt level in the blood, and a high potassium level are all symptoms. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder in which babies lack an enzyme needed to create cortisol, can reduce aldosterone production in some circumstances.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

 


Description: The Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Markers test is a blood test used to detect the protein alpha-fetoprotein which is produced by the liver.

Also Known As: Alpha-Fetoprotein Test, AFP Test, AFP Tumor Marker Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Alpha-Fetoprotein test ordered?

An AFP blood test may be ordered by a healthcare provider:

  • When lumps are felt in the abdomen area during a physical exam or imaging tests discover probable tumors, it is likely that someone has liver cancer or certain malignancies of the testicles or ovaries.
  • When someone has been diagnosed with and treated for cancer of the liver, testicles, or ovaries, the success of treatment is being assessed.
  • When someone is being watched for a recurrence of cancer

What does an Alpha-Fetoprotein blood test check for?

Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein produced predominantly by the liver of a developing baby (fetus) and the yolk cavity of a developing embryo. When a baby is born, AFP levels are usually high and then rapidly drop. Liver injury and certain malignancies can drastically raise AFP levels. This test determines the amount of AFP in your blood.

When the liver cells regenerate, AFP is generated. AFP can be continuously high in chronic liver illnesses such hepatitis and cirrhosis. Certain cancers can produce extremely high quantities of AFP. Because of this, the AFP test can be used as a tumor marker. Many persons with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma, a kind of liver cancer that affects babies, have elevated levels of AFP. They're also discovered in certain persons who have testicular or ovarian cancer.

There are various different types of AFP. The normal AFP test measures total AFP, which includes all of the AFP variations. In the United States, this is the most common AFP test.

Lab tests often ordered with an Alpha-Fetoprotein test:

  • CEA
  • CA-125
  • hCG Tumor Marker
  • DCP

Conditions where an Alpha-Fetoprotein test is recommended:

  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

How does my health care provider use an Alpha-Fetoprotein test?

The tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein is used to detect and diagnose malignancies of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. Despite the fact that the test is frequently done to monitor persons with chronic liver illnesses including cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B, or hepatitis C who have an elevated lifetime risk of developing liver cancer, most current guidelines do not advocate it. An AFP test, together with imaging studies, may be ordered by a healthcare provider to try to diagnose liver cancer in its earliest and most treatable stages.

If a person has been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma or another type of AFP-producing cancer, an AFP test may be done on a regular basis to assess treatment response and disease recurrence.

What do my Alpha-fetoprotein test results mean?

Increased AFP levels can suggest the presence of cancer, such as liver cancer, ovarian cancer, or testicular germ cell tumors. However, not all cancers of the liver, ovary, or testicles produce substantial amounts of AFP.

Other malignancies, such as stomach, colon, lung, breast, and lymphoma, might sometimes have elevated levels, but it is rarely ordered to check these illnesses. Cirrhosis and hepatitis are two disorders that can generate elevated levels.

When using AFP as a monitoring tool, lower levels suggest a therapeutic response. If concentrations do not considerably drop after cancer therapy, usually to normal or near-normal levels, some tumor tissue may still be present.

If AFP levels start to rise, the cancer is most likely to return. However, because AFP levels can be deceiving in hepatitis or cirrhosis, AFP levels can be misleading. If AFP levels are not raised prior to therapy, the test will not be useful in monitoring treatment effectiveness or detecting recurrence.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test is a blood test used to detect the protein alpha-fetoprotein which is produced by the liver.

Also Known As: AFP Test, Total AFP Test, AFP-L3 Test, Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Markers, Alpha-Fetoprotein Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test ordered?

An AFP blood test may be ordered by a healthcare provider:

  • When abdominal masses are felt during a medical examination or imaging testing reveal possible malignancies, it is likely that someone has liver cancer or certain malignancies of the testicles or ovaries.
  • When someone has been diagnosed with and treated for cancer of the liver, testicles, or ovaries, the success of treatment is being assessed.
  • When someone is being watched for a recurrence of cancer
  • Patients with persistent hepatitis or liver cirrhosis should be followed up on.
  • When a person has chronic liver illness, an AFP-L3 percent is occasionally ordered to help evaluate the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, test the efficiency of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment, or monitor for recurrence.

What does an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 blood test check for?

Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein produced predominantly by the liver of a developing baby and the yolk cavity of a developing embryo. When a baby is born, AFP levels are usually high and then rapidly drop. Liver injury and certain malignancies can drastically raise AFP levels. This test determines the amount of AFP in your blood.

When the liver cells regenerate, AFP is generated. AFP can be continuously high in chronic liver illnesses such hepatitis and cirrhosis. Certain cancers can produce extremely high quantities of AFP. Because of this, the AFP test can be used as a tumor marker. Many persons with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma, a kind of liver cancer that affects babies, have elevated levels of AFP. They're also discovered in certain persons who have testicular or ovarian cancer.

There are various different types of AFP. The normal AFP test measures total AFP, which includes all of the AFP variations. In the United States, this is the most common AFP test.

One of the AFP variations is known as L3 because of its propensity to attach to a protein called Lens culinaris agglutinin in the lab. The AFP-L3 percent test compares the quantity of AFP-L3 to the total amount of AFP and is a relatively recent test. Increased L3 levels are linked to a higher likelihood of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in the near future, as well as a worse prognosis, because L3-related malignancies are more aggressive.

AFP-L3 can be higher in people with hepatocellular carcinoma than in those with benign liver disorders who have low total AFP. In Japan, tumor markers such as total AFP and AFP-L3 are utilized in conjunction with ultrasound to monitor hepatocellular carcinoma. This procedure differs from that in the United States and Europe, but healthcare practitioners in the United States occasionally order the two tests.

Lab tests often ordered with an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test:

  • CEA
  • CA-125
  • hCG Tumor Marker
  • DCP

Conditions where an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test is recommended:

  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer

How does my health care provider use an Alpha-Fetoprotein and AFP-L3 test?

The tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein is used to detect and diagnose malignancies of the liver, testicles, and ovaries. Despite the fact that the test is frequently done to monitor persons with chronic liver illnesses including cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B, or hepatitis C who have an elevated lifetime risk of developing liver cancer, most current guidelines do not advocate it. An AFP test, together with imaging studies, may be ordered by a healthcare provider to try to diagnose liver cancer in its earliest and most treatable stages.

If a person has been diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma or another type of AFP-producing cancer, an AFP test may be done on a regular basis to assess treatment response and disease recurrence.

When comparing the amount of the AFP variation AFP-L3 to the total amount of AFP, an AFP-L3 percent is occasionally ordered. The AFP-L3 percent test is not extensively used in the United States, but it is becoming more popular in other nations, such as Japan. The test is used to assess the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly in people with chronic liver disease, as well as the response of the cancer to treatment.

What do my Alpha-fetoprotein test results mean?

Increased AFP levels can suggest the presence of cancer, such as liver cancer, ovarian cancer, or testicular germ cell tumors. However, not all cancers of the liver, ovary, or testicles produce substantial amounts of AFP.

Other malignancies, such as stomach, colon, lung, breast, and lymphoma, might sometimes have elevated levels, but it is rarely ordered to check these illnesses. Cirrhosis and hepatitis are two disorders that can generate elevated levels.

When using AFP as a monitoring tool, lower levels suggest a therapeutic response. If concentrations do not considerably drop after cancer therapy, usually to normal or near-normal levels, some tumor tissue may still be present.

If AFP levels start to rise, the cancer is most likely to return. However, because AFP levels can be deceiving in hepatitis or cirrhosis, AFP levels can be misleading. If AFP levels are not raised prior to therapy, the test will not be useful in monitoring treatment effectiveness or detecting recurrence.

People with chronic liver disease have a higher chance of getting liver cancer when their AFP levels rise from normal to moderately raised to significantly elevated. When total AFP and AFP-L3 percent are highly higher, the person is more likely to develop or have hepatocellular carcinoma in the next year or two. In persons with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, however, both AFP and AFP-L3 percent concentrations might be increased and fluctuate. In these circumstances, a significant increase in AFP is more essential than the test result's numerical value.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Elevated AFP concentrations in amniotic fluid provide laboratory support for the diagnosis of neural tube lesion in the fetus.

Additional test processing fees will be charged if initial results dictate Reflex (further) testing.


Clinical Significance

This test can be used to detect the presence or absence of large deletions in the HBA1 or HBA2 gene in patients or their family members suspected of having alpha thalassemia or who are carriers of alpha globin deletions. The assay can also be used in the prenatal diagnosis of alpha thalassemia. The assay does not determine the type or breakpoint of the rearrangement. This assay can be used instead of southern blot analysis to determine the total number of intact alpha globin genes.

Methodology

Capillary Electrophoresis • Multiplex PCR

Limitations

This test does not identify whether a two-gene deletion is in cis (on the same chromosome) or trans (on opposite chromosomes). In the absence of a coexisting deletion on the opposite chromosome, this test can identify the presence of an extra alpha globin gene (alpha triplication).

Alternative Name(s)

Hydrops Fetalis,Alpha-Globin Rare Deletion/Duplication,Hemoglobin Barts Hydrops Fetalis,Alpha-Globin Gene Triplication,Alpha-Globin Gene Number,Hemoglobin H Disease,Alpha-Thalassemia


Description: The androstenedione blood test is a test used to measure levels of the male sex hormone androstenedione in a patient’s blood’s serum. This test is often used to assess a patient’s testicular or ovarian function, but may also be ordered when children are displaying male characteristics.

Also Known As: AD Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Androstenedione test ordered?

When excessive androgen production is suspected or when a doctor wants to assess a patient's testicular, ovarian, or adrenal function, androstenedione may be prescribed along with or after other hormone tests.

It may be requested when a young girl acquires masculine physical characteristics that could be caused by CAH or another illness involving excess androgens, such as when a female infant has external sex organs that are not unmistakably male or female.

When young boys exhibit symptoms of premature puberty, such as the development of a larger penis, muscularity, pubic hair, and/or a deeper voice, long before the age of typical puberty, androstenedione may be measured. If puberty is delayed, it can also be ordered.

When a woman experiences infertility or symptoms that might range in intensity and might include:

  • A deeper voice
  • Acne
  • excessive body hair or facial hair
  • irregular or nonexistent menstruation
  • Male pattern baldness
  • Muscularity

For the purpose of monitoring glucocorticoid replacement therapy for CAH, androstenedione is routinely prescribed.

What does an Androstenedione blood test check for?

Androstenedione is one of several androgens, or "masculine" sex hormones, that cause secondary male physical traits such a deep voice and facial hair to develop as well as the beginning of sexual differentiation between males and girls. Although it is thought of as a "male" sex hormone, both men and women have it in their blood. It is a precursor that the body can turn into more potent androgens like testosterone or into the female hormone estrogen. The amount of androstenedione in the blood is determined by this test.

The ovaries in women, the testicles in men, and the adrenal glands in both produce androstenedione. The pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the release of androstenedione by the adrenal gland. A woman's menstrual cycle and the day will affect the level of androstenedione in her blood, which follows a "diurnal pattern." Androstenedione can be helpful as a marker of adrenal gland function, androgen production, as well as the function of the ovaries or testicles because of where it comes from. When the findings of other tests, like those for testosterone or 17-hydroxyprogesterone, are found to be abnormal, an androstenedione test is frequently carried out.

Children who have an excess of androstenedione and other androgens may have sex organs that are unclearly male or female, excessive body hair, irregular menstrual cycles in girls, and early puberty in boys.

Androstenedione can be produced in excess as a result of adrenal tumors, ACTH-producing tumors, and adrenal hyperplasia. While elevated levels may not be obvious in adult men, they can cause physical traits that are clearly masculine and prevent women from having monthly menstrual cycles.

Lab tests often ordered with an Androstenedione test:

  • DHEA-S
  • Testosterone
  • Estrogen
  • Estradiol
  • 17-Hydroxyprogesterone
  • Cortisol
  • ACTH
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Prolactin

Conditions where an Androstenedione test is recommended:

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Endocrine Syndromes
  • Infertility

How does my health care provider use an Androstenedione test?

Androstenedione is used to assess the synthesis of hormones linked to the growth of male sex organs and physical traits in males as well as the function of the adrenal gland, the ovaries, or the testicles. Along with a few other laboratory tests, it is most frequently used to identify the source of symptoms of excess androgens in a woman who has excessive testosterone levels.

One can utilize an androstenedione level to:

  • If findings of DHEAS and testosterone testing are abnormal, evaluate adrenal gland function and to distinguish between androgen-secreting problems that are caused by the adrenal glands from those that originate in the ovaries or testicles.
  • help distinguish these disorders from ovarian or testicular tumors and cancers and aid in the diagnosis of tumors in the outer layer of the adrenal gland or tumors outside the adrenal gland that release ACTH.
  • Tests for testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, as well as monitoring CAH treatment, can be used, for example, to identify congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • assist in making the diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome in women who have abnormal results from tests for DHEAS, testosterone, and other hormones like FSH, LH, prolactin, and estrogen, as well as in excluding other causes of infertility, irregular menstrual cycles, and excessive body and facial hair.
  • Look into and identify the causes of early puberty in young boys and young girls, as well as male physical traits in young girls.
  • Investigate any ovarian or testicular failure that may be the cause of delayed puberty and ascertain its cause.

What do my Androstenedione test results mean?

Along with other normal androgen levels and other normal adrenal tests, a normal androstenedione level may be a sign that the adrenal gland is operating normally. However, depending on the hormones an adrenal tumor or cancer is secreting, an androstenedione level may be normal or high when present. Androstenedione may be raised in polycystic ovarian syndrome, but it also may be normal because this condition is typically associated with ovarian androgen production.

Increased synthesis of adrenal, ovarian, or testicular hormones is indicated by raised levels of androstenedione. Small concentration variations are typically normal. A higher level could be a sign of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an adrenal tumor, an adrenal cancer, or an adrenal hyperplasia. Increased levels typically signal the need for additional testing to determine the root of the problem rather than being diagnostic of a specific condition.

Adrenal dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, ovarian or testicular failure, as well as adrenal dysfunction, can all contribute to low levels of androstenedione.

Normal levels of androstenedione seem to suggest that treatment is successful in reducing excessive androgen production in CAH patients receiving glucocorticoid steroids, but increased levels suggest the need for treatment modification.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The AMH test is a blood test that checks for Anti Mullerian Hormone in your blood’s serum.

Also Known As: AMH Test, AMH Hormone Test, Mullerian-inhibiting hormone Test, MIH Test, Mullerian Inhibiting Factor Test, MIF Test, Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Test, MUS Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test ordered?

When a woman's ovarian function, reproductive concerns, especially when considering assisted reproduction techniques like in vitro fertilization, or when a health practitioner wishes to evaluate her chances of entering menopause, an AMH test may be recommended.

When a woman shows indications and symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome, AMH may be ordered.

AMH may be ordered on a regular basis for a woman with AMH-producing ovarian cancer to check therapy effectiveness and recurrence.

When an infant's genitalia is ambiguous or when a male child's testicles have not descended properly, an AMH test may be ordered.

What does an Anti-Mullerian Hormone blood test check for?

Anti-Müllerian hormone is a hormone generated by male and female reproductive tissues, including the testicles and ovaries. The role of AMH, as well as the amount generally present, varies by gender and age. This test detects the presence of AMH in the blood.

AMH is produced by the testicles early in the development of a baby boy, limiting the development of female reproductive organs while boosting the development of other male reproductive organs. AMH levels in boys stay high until adolescence, when they begin to decline.

AMH levels are low in girls, allowing for the development of female reproductive structures. Young females' AMH levels remain low until adolescence, when the ovaries begin to manufacture it and levels rise. AMH will then gradually decrease in women during their reproductive years, eventually becoming undetectable after menopause.

AMH is essential for a woman during her reproductive years. A female contains roughly one million eggs at birth, which normally decline to about 500,000 during infancy. Only a small percentage of these leftover eggs will mature into follicles, one at a time throughout a woman's monthly menstrual cycle. During the process of egg maturation and release, AMH exerts a balancing influence on the monthly cyclical actions of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. This follicular expansion is reflected in the amount of AMH present.

The AMH level has been demonstrated in studies to be effective in assessing a woman's remaining egg maturation potential and her chances of conceiving. During the childbearing years, AMH decreases gradually, reduces considerably as menopause approaches, and is essentially undetectable after menopause. The level of AMH can be used to assess a woman's current reproductive status and anticipate the beginning of menopause.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, a disorder affecting the ovaries, has been linked to elevated AMH levels. This syndrome causes unusually excessive levels of AMH to be produced by the extra follicles.

In the fetus, AMH is also important for sexual distinction. A developing fetus might develop either male or female reproductive organs throughout the first several weeks of pregnancy. The two testicles present in a baby boy produce AMH and androgens, which limit the development of female reproductive organs while promoting the growth of other male reproductive organs. Both male and basic female organs may develop if a significant amount of AMH is not accessible or lacking during this process. A baby with ambiguous genitalia may not be recognized as male or female right away.

Some ovarian cancers have high levels of AMH. If the hormone is produced by a tumor, the AMH test can be used as a tumor marker to track therapy effectiveness and check for recurrence.

Lab tests often ordered with an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test:

  • FSH
  • LH
  • Estrogen
  • Estradiol
  • Testosterone Free and Total
  • Progesterone
  • Sex Hormone Binding Globulin

Conditions where an Anti-Mullerian Hormone test is recommended:

  • PCOS
  • Infertility
  • Menopause

How does my health care provider use an Anti-Mullerian test?

Anti-Müllerian hormone is not a commonly requested test, but it can be helpful in some situations.

AMH is a hormone made by the reproductive organs. Its function and the amount that is generally present varies by gender and age.

An AMH test, along with other hormone tests like estradiol and FSH, may be ordered for women of reproductive age to determine how much time they have left to conceive. These tests can also be used to assess ovarian function and possibly forecast when menopause will occur.

AMH may be ordered for a woman who will be having assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization; the amount of AMH present is linked to her potential treatment response. A low amount of AMH indicates a poor ovarian response, implying that fewer eggs will be recovered following ovarian stimulation. It's usually ordered in conjunction with additional hormone lab tests and a transvaginal ultrasound scan for this purpose.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome can be diagnosed with an AMH test. Because there are more follicles present, AMH may be raised.

AMH levels are elevated in several ovarian malignancies. If the hormone is initially increased, the test can be used as a tumor marker to assess therapy response and track recurrence.

An AMH test, together with chromosome testing, hormone testing, and sometimes imaging scans, may be requested to help establish the sex of an infant with external genitals that are not distinctly male or female.

What do my Anti Mullerian Hormone test results mean?

A low quantity and quality of eggs with diminishing fertility during a woman's reproductive years may suggest a poor number and quality of eggs, resulting in minimal or less responsiveness to IVF treatment. It could also mean that the ovaries aren't working properly.

A decrease in AMH level and/or a severe fall in AMH could indicate the start of menopause. AMH levels that are negative to low in a female are normal during childhood and after menopause.

Although an elevated level of AMH is frequently associated with PCOS, it is not diagnostic of the illness. Increased AMH may potentially signal a greater or even excessive reactivity to IVF, necessitating a modification of the treatment.

When AMH is used to track the progress of an AMH-producing ovarian cancer, a decrease in AMH suggests a positive response to treatment, whereas an increase could indicate cancer recurrence.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


IMPORTANT THIS IS A REFLUX TEST

Additional test processing fees will be charged if initial results dictate Reflex (further) testing.

REFLUX TESTS & CHARGES

  • ANTIBODY PANEL X 1 charge $89.00 
  • ANTIBODY TITER X 1 charge $29 
  • ANTIGEN TYPE X 1 charge $39 
  • ANTIBODY PANEL X 2 charge $ 179.00

This test is used to detect significant RBC antibodies.



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Measurement of the levels of bilirubin is used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver, hemolytic, hematologic, and metabolic disorders, including hepatitis and gall bladder obstruction. The assessment of direct bilirubin is helpful in the differentiation of hepatic disorders. The increase in total bilirubin associated with obstructive jaundice is primarily due to the direct (conjugated) fraction. Both direct and indirect bilirubin are increased in the serum with hepatitis.

Description: The CRP test is used to identify and/or monitor inflammation in patients.

Also Known As: CRP Test, Inflammation test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a C-Reactive Protein test ordered?

When a person's medical history and signs and symptoms indicate that they may have a significant bacterial infection, a CRP test may be recommended. When a newborn displays signs of infection or when a person has sepsis symptoms including fever, chills, and rapid breathing and heart rate, it may be ordered.

It's also commonly requested on a regular basis to check illnesses like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, and it's routinely repeated to see if medication is working. This is especially effective for inflammation issues because CRP levels decrease as inflammation decreases.

What does a C-Reactive Protein blood test check for?

C-reactive protein is a protein produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream within a few hours following tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory event. After trauma or a heart attack, with active or uncontrolled autoimmune illnesses, and with acute bacterial infections like sepsis, markedly higher levels are reported. CRP levels can rise by a thousand-fold in response to inflammatory diseases, and their elevation in the blood can occur before pain, fever, or other clinical signs. The test detects inflammation caused by acute situations or monitors disease activity in chronic diseases by measuring the level of CRP in the blood.

The CRP test is not a diagnostic tool, although it can tell a doctor if inflammation is occurring. This information can be combined with other indicators like signs and symptoms, a physical exam, and other tests to establish whether someone has an acute inflammatory disorder or is having a flare-up of a chronic inflammatory disease. The health care provider may next do additional tests and treatment.

This CRP test should not be confused with the hs-CRP test. These are two separate CRP tests, each of which measures a different range of CRP levels in the blood for different purposes.

Lab tests often ordered with a C-Reactive Protein test:

  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • Procalcitonin
  • ANA
  • Rheumatoid Factor
  • Complement

Conditions where a C-Reactive Protein test is recommended:

  • Arthritis
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Sepsis
  • Vasculitis
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Meningitis and Encephalitis

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a C-Reactive Protein test?

A health practitioner uses the C-reactive protein test to diagnose inflammation. CRP is an acute phase reactant, a protein produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream within a few hours following tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory event. The CRP test is not a diagnostic test for any ailment, but it can be used in conjunction with other tests to determine whether a person has an acute or chronic inflammatory disorder.

CRP, for example, can be used to detect or track substantial inflammation in someone who is suspected of having an acute ailment like:

  • Sepsis is a dangerous bacterial infection.
  • An infection caused by a fungus
  • Inflammation of the pelvis

People with chronic inflammatory diseases can use the CRP test to detect flare-ups and/or see if their medication is working. Here are a few examples:

  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Arthritis, which can take many forms.
  • Autoimmune disorders, examples include lupus and vasculitis

CRP is occasionally requested in conjunction with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate, another inflammatory test. While the CRP test is not specific enough to diagnose an illness, it does serve as a broad marker for infection and inflammation, alerting doctors to the need for more testing and treatment. A variety of additional tests may be used to determine the source of inflammation, depending on the probable cause.

What do my C-Reactive Protein test results mean?

CRP levels in the blood are usually low.

CRP levels in the blood that are high or rising indicate the existence of inflammation, but they don't tell you where it is or what's causing it. A high CRP level can establish the presence of a severe bacterial infection in people who are suspected of having one. High levels of CRP in persons with chronic inflammatory disorders indicate a flare-up or that treatment isn't working.

When the CRP level rises and then falls, it indicates that the inflammation or infection is diminishing and/or responding to treatment.

Is there anything else I should know about C-Reactive Protein?

CRP levels can rise during pregnancy, as well as with the use of birth control tablets or hormone replacement therapy. Obese people have also been found to have higher CRP levels.

In the presence of inflammation, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate test will also rise; however, CRP rises first and then falls faster than the ESR.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.