Travelers' Diseases

Are You a Traveler?

Find and get the correct lab tests for travelers disease, including traveler's diarrhea and various infections that occur within ten days of travel to an area with poor public hygiene. Ulta Lab Tests provides reliable blood work and secure testing, so order today! 

Travelers disease can be a serious condition that often occurs within ten days of travel to an area with poor public hygiene. Travelers' diseases are caused by infectious organisms transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected insect, ingestion of contaminated food or water, contact with an animal host, or direct contact with their bodily fluids. These diseases may also be acquired through sexual transmission. Symptoms vary depending on the type and severity of infection but often include fever, headache, fatigue, rash, and muscle aches. Some travelers' diseases cause relatively mild symptoms that may resolve without treatment.

In some cases, no symptoms develop until after a traveler returns home. At this point, they may grow worse, linger for months or years before resolving themselves, or disappear and reappear in cycles over many years. A few travelers' diseases can cause permanent severe complications without treatment, including organ failure, blindness coma death.

If you want to learn more about traveler disease and lab testing that can help you, click on the title of the article below.

Travelers are at risk for contracting many different diseases while abroad. Our lab tests can help determine if your symptoms are due to an illness or not, even if they belong to one of the many different categories of traveler's diseases. 

We offer infectious disease lab tests designed for travelers and provide accurate results in 24 -48 hours for most tests. We provide lab tests that can screen you for all common travel-related infections so you can identify these potentially dangerous illnesses and seek the appropriate treatment.

Order your infectious disease blood tests from the selection below today and take charge of your health!

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Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by infection with M. tuberculosis complex. Infection results in either acute disease or Latent TB Infection (LTBI), a non-communicable asymptomatic condition. The main purpose of diagnosing the latent stage is to consider medical treatment for preventing overt disease. Until recently, the tuberculin skin test was the only available method for diagnosing LTBI.

QuantiFERON®-TB gold eliminates false positive skin test due to BCG vaccination and most Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and is an objective, reproducible qualitative test. There are no side effects or adverse reactions due to patient hypersensitivity, and no "booster effect", whereby the first test induces a false positive response on re-testing. There is no need for follow-up patient visits to obtain test results.

The TB blood test has several advantages over a skin test.  Blood testing requires only one visit to the lab while skin testing requires multiple visits to a doctor's office.  Blood testing for Tuberculosis is typically more accurate than a skin test.  Skin testing has a higher likelihood of false positive results, especially if a person has been previously vaccinated for TB. 


Dengue Fever Antibodies (IgG, IgM)

Dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue shock syndrome are caused by infection of the RNA flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito vector. Paired acute and convalescent specimens that exhibit a significant change in titer are useful to confirm clinical diagnosis of infection.

Reference Range(s)

  • Dengue Fever Antibody (IgG)<0.80
  • Dengue Fever Antibody (IgM)≤1.65


Dengue Fever Antibodies (IgG, IgM) and NS1 Antigen Panel

Clinical Significance

NS1 antigen detection can serve as an effective bridge between dengue RNA detection (usually negative by day 5) and dengue IgM detection (may not be positive until day 6) for identifying acute dengue virus infection.

Reference Range(s)

  • NS1 Antigen Index<1.00
  • Dengue Fever Antibody (IgG)<0.80
  • Dengue Fever Antibody (IgM)≤1.65


Dengue Fever Antibody (IgG)

Clinical Significance

Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever result from infection by any of four serotypes of dengue viruses. Transmission occurs through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitos. In most patients, Dengue Virus antibodies are detectable after the sixth day following the onset of symptoms. Strong cross-reactivity is seen with other group B arboviruses (flavivirus), including St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese B encephalitis, Rio Bravo, Powassan, and Yellow Fever viruses.

Reference Range(s)

  • <0.80

Dengue Fever Antibody (IgM)

Clinical Significance

Dengue hemorrhagic fever and Dengue shock syndrome are caused by infection of the RNA flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito vector. Paired acute and convalescent specimens that exhibit a significant change in titer are useful to confirm clinical diagnosis of infection.

Reference Range(s)

  • ≤1.65

Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen

Clinical Significance

Dengue NS1 antigen is found in serum during the acute phase of dengue virus infection, typically during days 1-9 after onset of symptoms. NS1 antigen may be positive when RNA and/or IgM detection assays are negative.

NS1 Antigen Index<1.00

Dengue Virus RNA, Qualitative, Real-Time PCR


Clinical Significance

PCR is used to diagnose Dengue fever infection during the initial stage of infection, days 1-5 after onset of symptoms. The assay has been designed to detect dengue virus subgroups 1 and 3 (DV1/3 probe), as well as subgroups 2 and 4 (DV2/4 probe).


Reference Range(s)

  • Dengue Virus 1 or 3 RNANot detected
  • Dengue Virus 2 or 4 RNANot detected

Measles, also known as Rubeola, causes fever, irritability, respiratory illness, and the characteristic skin rash. Immunization has greatly diminished the incidence of measles. The presence of IgG is consistent with immunity or prior exposure. IgM is consistent with current or recent infection. IgM tests can generate false positive results and low levels of IgM can persist for longer than 12 months.

Measles Antibody IgG - to establish whether you have immunity to measles due to a previous infection or to vaccination.

Measles, also known as rubeola, causes fever, irritability, respiratory illness, and the characteristic skin rash. Immunization has greatly diminished the incidence of measles. The presence of IgG is consistent with immunity or prior exposure. 

Alternate Test Name: Measles Immunity Test

MMR (IgG) Panel (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) Titers - Includes Measles Antibody (IgG), Mumps Antibody (IgG), Rubella Immune Status

This panel provides presumptive evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella for purposes of routine vaccination, for students at post-high school educational institutions, and for international travelers.


Mumps is an acute, usually self-limited systemic illness characterized by parotidites, high fever and fatigue. One third of infections are asymptomatic. A live attenuated vaccine is available. The mumps EIA IgG antibody test is sufficiently sensitive to establish immune status of the patient.

** This test is not available for California or Nevada patient testing

Clinical Significance

Most people with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic. Symptomatic individuals typically experience a mild illness characterized by fever, joint pain, rash, or conjunctivitis. Clinical illness is usually self-limited and lasts a week or less. Not all symptomatic patients report all of these clinical findings, and Zika manifestations overlap significantly with those seen in other viral infections. The incubation period is unclear, but likely to be several days. Symptoms generally resolve on their own within a week.

Pregnant women at risk for Zika virus in the U.S. and in endemic areas are of special concern due to the increased incidence of babies with microcephaly in infected mothers.

Infection with Zika during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects in babies as the Zika virus can sometimes be passed from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy. Zika virus can also sometimes be spread by a man to his sex partners and be spread before, during and after symptoms are present.

Zika virus RNA may be detected in serum for approximately 4-7 days following onset of symptoms; thus the optimum time to perform serum RNA testing is during the first week after the onset of clinical illness. For patients who are 2-12 weeks post-symptom onset, serologic testing should be considered. Test results should be used in conjunction with clinical signs and symptoms, epidemiological information and relevant travel history to diagnose Zika virus infection.

Zika infection shares epidemiologic and clinical features with Chikungunya, Dengue, and other infections. Molecular and/or serologic testing for Zika infection may be useful to diagnose the etiology of a given (usually travel-related) illness and guide further testing and management as needed.

About the Test
The Zika Virus RNA Qualitative Real-Time RT-PCR test is a Real-Time RT-PCR test intended for the qualitative detection of RNA from Zika virus in human serum specimens collected from individuals meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Zika virus clinical criteria (e.g., clinical signs and symptoms associated with Zika virus infection), and/or CDC Zika virus epidemiological criteria (e.g., history of residence in, or travel to a geographic region with active Zika transmission at the time of travel, or other epidemiologic criteria for which Zika virus testing may be indicated). Testing is limited to qualified laboratories designated by Focus Diagnostics, Inc.

Test results are for the identification of Zika viral RNA. Zika viral RNA is generally detectable in serum during the acute phase of infection (approximately 7 days following onset of symptoms, if present). Positive results are indicative of current infection. Laboratories are required to report all positive results to the appropriate public health authorities.

Negative results do not rule out Zika virus infection and should not be used as the sole basis for patient management decisions. Negative results must be combined with clinical observations, patient history, and epidemiological information.

The Zika Virus RNA Qualitative Real-Time RT-PCR test is intended for use by trained clinical laboratory personnel qualified by state and federal regulations who have received specific training on the use of the Zika Virus RNA Qualitative Real-Time RT-PCR test. The test is only for use under the Food and Drug Administration's Emergency Use Authorization.

• This test has not been FDA cleared or approved;

• This test has been authorized by FDA under an EUA for use by authorized laboratories;

• This test has been authorized only for the detection of RNA from Zika virus and not for any other viruses or pathogens; and

The term “travelers’ diseases” is an inclusive category for any sort of infection or illness that one might acquire while traveling, particularly when going from a well-developed region into a less-developed one. There are specific health risks associated with any given travel destination. Whenever you plan a trip to a different country or region, take the time to learn about potential health issues related to the places you’ll be visiting.

You may want to meet with your healthcare provider to discuss any or all the following topics: 

  • Any diseases that are known to pose a threat at your destination(s) 
  • The length of time you plan to stay at your destination(s) 
  • The activities you plan on engaging in during your trip 

Most travelers’ diseases can be prevented with proper preparation and planning. Common precautions include: 

  • Taking appropriate precautions in areas with known disease-carrying insects or animals 
  • Verifying the safety of food and water 
  • Avoiding risky behaviors that may result in infections 
  • Getting vaccines and/or taking preventative treatments as recommended 

Various travelers’ diseases are found in every part of the world. Travelers’ diseases can, in some instances, cause permanent health problems. Childhood illnesses are especially troublesome without appropriate vaccinations. There are many nationwide vaccination programs designed to reduce the risk of contracting diseases like measles, mumps, polio, and rubella (German measles). These conditions may be greater threats in nations or regions where high vaccination rates have not been achieved. Without adequate local vaccination, such disease can be endemic or break out into epidemics. Such infections pose a serious threat to travelers who lack the appropriate vaccinations, children who have not completed their immunizations, and people with compromised immune systems. 

What Are the Common Causes of Travelers’ Diseases? 

The travelers’ diseases that are caused by infectious microbes (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) may become problems in many ways. Contact with contaminated food or water, soil, or animal droppings may transmit the microbes. Bites and stings from infected animals and insects can cause infection. Even animal hides may pose a risk. Insects that commonly carry travelers’ diseases include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and flies. Some travelers’ diseases are water-borne, posing a risk to individuals who swim in contaminated water or walk barefoot. There are also travelers’ diseases that can pass directly from person to person through blood or body fluid contact. 

Signs and Symptoms 

Some travelers’ diseases cause relatively mild symptoms that may resolve without treatment. In some cases, no symptoms may develop until after a traveler returns home, after which they may grow worse, linger, resolve themselves, or disappear and reappear. A few travelers’ diseases can cause serious, permanent complications without treatment, including organ failure, blindness, coma, and even death. Check yourself as thoroughly as possible for the development of new signs and symptoms during and after your trip.

You should speak to a healthcare practitioner if you experience any of the following symptoms: 

  • Fever or flu-like symptoms. If you develop a fever or flu-like symptoms within six months of traveling to a region with malaria, it is especially important to seek medical attention. 
  • Persistent (lasting two weeks or more) diarrhea or recurring diarrhea 
  • Persistent fatigue 
  • Inexplicable weight loss 
  • A yellow coloration on the skin or in the whites of your eyes (may indicate jaundice)  
  • Inexplicable rashes or sores on the skin 

World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations suggest that travelers should get a medical exam if they experience any symptoms within a few weeks of returning home. An exam is particularly important if a traveler has a fever after visiting a region where malaria is present. 

Travelers who have been abroad for more than three months, those that know they were exposed to an infectious disease, and those with chronic medical conditions should all have a medical exam after returning home, whether or not they experience any unusual symptoms. 

Testing for Travelers’ Diseases 

Identifying the cause of travelers’ diseases is very important both to treat the infected individual and to prevent transmission of the specific disease involved. Identifying the disease is also part of documenting the disease’s presence in both the traveler’s home country and the countries they visited. 

The specific tests used to diagnose travelers’ diseases will depend on the signs and symptoms the sufferer displays. Returning travelers who experience symptoms should consult with their regular healthcare provider; their case may be referred to or consulted on by a specialist in infectious and/or tropical diseases. 

Tests – Digestive Tract Symptoms 

Infections that commonly cause symptoms in the digestive tract (such as travelers’ diarrhea) may be tested for with (among others) the tests described below: 

  • Molecular Tests 

These tests seek out foreign genetic material (DNA & RNA) in the digestive tract to diagnose the presence of specific microbes. Molecular testing is growing more common, but it is not available everywhere. 

  • GI Pathogens Panel 

This battery of tests analyzes a stool sample for the presence of multiple disease-causing microbes. A pathogen panel can identify microbes that might be overlooked in less-comprehensive testing. A GI pathogen panel is also useful for identifying co-infections where a patient is infected with more than one microbe. 

  • Stool Culture 

This is a traditional test that is used less often but may still be helpful. It can identify bacterial infections causing diarrhea. 

  • O&P (Ova and Parasite) Stool Test 

This test identifies disease-causing parasites by finding the parasites or their eggs in a stool sample. Samples for an O&P test can be either fresh or preserved. 

There are disease-specific antigen tests available for some digestive parasites. These identify proteins associated with a given strain of the parasite. Examples include Cryptosporidium, Giardia intestinalis (lamblia), and Entamoeba histolytica. 

In cases where diarrhea is caused by a viral infection, identifying the virus responsible can be complicated. Identification is rarely undertaken except in situations where large numbers of people are infected by the same viral strain, such as a norovirus outbreak on a cruise ship. 

Tests for Insect-Born Infections 

  • Malaria 

Malaria is carried by the red blood cells in infected animals and humans. A blood sample can be prepared specifically for examination under a microscope where the responsible parasite can be seen. There is also a rapid antigen assay test that can detect malaria parasites without the need for microscopic examination. 

Testing for specific insect-borne viruses is performed based on where an individual has traveled. Viruses that may be checked for include: 

Tests for Respiratory Illness 

Testing for respiratory infection will be based on symptoms, travel history, and an individual’s vaccination history. Common examples include: 

A basic TB screening test can determine whether you were exposed to the disease. If an infection is suspected, further testing (AFB testing) will be done. 

Several infections are normally prevented by vaccination. If you present the appropriate signs and symptoms, and your immunity is in doubt, your healthcare provider may want to test for: