All Exposure Tests

Exposure Testing and health information

Find the right exposure tests to check for toxins, lead, heavy metals, and chemicals with Ulta Lab Tests and know your health.


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Individuals undergoing hemodialysis are at risk for aluminum toxicity. Prolonged accumulation may cause encephalkopathy, and vitamin d-resistant osteomalacia. Also workers exposed to high levels or to long-term low levels of aluminum dust are at increased risk of toxicity.

Arsenic is widely distributed in the earth's crust. Arsenic is used in some pesticides and industrial applications. Arsenic toxicity can cause skin change, respiratory illness, nausea and vomiting, and other effects.

This assay is used to monitor exposure to arsenic, wellness, and therapy during treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia.

Clinical Significance
Micronutrient, Arsenic, Blood - This assay is used to monitor exposure to arsenic, wellness, and therapy during treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia

Patients must be 18 years of age or greater.

Patient Preparation
Avoid seafood consumption for 48 hours prior to sample collection

Reference Range(s)
≥18 years    <23 mcg/L
Reference range not available for individuals <18 years for this micronutrient test.


Arsenic is widely distributed in the earth's crust. Arsenic is used in some pesticides and industrial applications. Arsenic toxicity can cause skin changes, respiratory illness, nausea and vomiting, and other effects

Description: The Beta 2 Microglobulin test is a blood test used to detect the protein Beta-2 Microglobulin in your blood’s serum, and is used in the examination of multiple myeloma and lymphoma.

Also Known As: B2M Test, β2-Microglobulin Test, Thymotaxin Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Beta-2 Microglobulin test ordered?

This test may be requested during the initial examination of a patient with multiple myeloma in order to stage the condition as well as on an ongoing basis to assess disease activity and track the efficacy of treatment. When a person has myeloma or lymphoma, it may occasionally be requested to help evaluate their prognosis.

What does a Beta-2 Microglobulin test check for?

Almost every cell in the body has beta-2 microglobulin on its surface. Cells, notably B lymphocytes and tumor cells, release this protein into the blood. It is found in the majority of bodily fluids, and when the immune system is stimulated or when cell creation and/or destruction are increased, its level rises.

With tumors like multiple myeloma and lymphoma, as well as with inflammatory conditions and infections, B2M is typically high in the blood. B2M may be useful as a tumor marker because it is elevated in blood cell malignancies. This page concentrates on its usage as a tumor marker, despite the fact that it can be used to evaluate kidney function.

Blood cell malignancies that have migrated to the brain, such lymphoma, as well as some chronic diseases like multiple sclerosis and viral infections like HIV can cause a rise in the B2M level in the CSF of affected individuals.

Lab tests often ordered with a Beta-2 Microglobulin test:

  • Albumin
  • Tumor Markers

Conditions where a Beta-2 Microglobulin test is recommended:

  • Cancer
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Lymphoma

How does my health care provider use a Beta-2 Microglobulin test?

On the surface of almost every cell in the body is beta-2 microglobulin. This protein is released into the blood by cells, particularly B lymphocytes and tumor cells. The majority of body fluids contain it, and its level increases when the immune system is activated or when cell formation and/or destruction are elevated.

B2M is generally elevated in the blood with cancers such multiple myeloma and lymphoma, as well as with inflammatory diseases and infections. Due to the fact that B2M is raised in blood cell malignancies, it may be useful as a tumor marker. Despite the fact that it can be used to assess kidney function, this page focuses on its use as a tumor marker.

A spike in the B2M level in the CSF of affected people can be brought on by blood cell malignancies that have spread to the brain, including lymphoma, as well as some chronic conditions like multiple sclerosis and viral infections like HIV.

What do my Beta-2 Microglobulin test results mean?

Increased levels of B2M in the blood and/or urine point to a problem but do not serve as a diagnosis for any particular illness or condition. They do, however, represent the level of cancer present and the severity of the disease. If the B2M level is highly raised, someone who has been diagnosed with multiple myeloma or lymphoma is likely to have a worse prognosis.

When multiple myeloma is being treated, a patient's levels should gradually decline over time to show whether the patient is improving. Levels that are stable or rising suggest that the subject is not responding.

Increases in the CSF in a person with an illness like HIV/AIDS suggest that the central nervous system is probably involved.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Boron, Urine

Clinical Significance

Boron is used in cleaning agents, preservatives, and fungicides. Boron may cause dermatitis, cough, and shortness of breath. Most is excreted by the kidney.

 

Patient Preparation

Avoid exposure to gadolinium based contrast media for 48 hours prior to sample collection

 


Cadmium is a naturally occurring element that is mined and used in industrial production because of its durability. Excessive cadmium exposure can damage lungs, kidneys, and the digestive tract.

Cadmium is a naturally occurring element that is mined and used in industrial production because of its durability. Excessive cadmium exposure can damage lungs, kidneys, and the digestive tract.

Clinical Significance
Micronutrient, Cadmium, Blood - Cadmium is a naturally occurring element that is mined and used in industrial production because of its durability. Excessive cadmium exposure can damage lungs, kidneys, and the digestive tract.

Patients must be 18 years of age or greater.

Reference Range(s)

Adults, Non-Smokers 1.7 mcg/L or less
Adults, Smokers 5.0 mcg/L or less
OSHA Reference Range 5.0 mcg/L
Toxic Concentration Early signs of toxicity have been observed at 30 mcg/L 

Reference range not available for individuals <18 years for this micronutrient test.


Cadmium is a naturally occurring element that is mined and used in industrial production because of its durability. Excessive cadmium exposure can damage lungs, kidneys, and the digestive tract.

Approximately 1 in every 2500 individuals has inherited a defective enzyme or a deficiency of the enzyme (Pseudocholinesterase) that metabolizes succinylcholine (an anesthetic agent). With a "normal" dosage, these individuals have prolonged apnea. Such individuals are responsive at much smaller concentrations of this anesthetic agent than the general population. Low concentrations of Pseudocholinesterase are observed in individuals exposed to organophosphorous insecticides and in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

Brief Description: The test is used to measure levels of cholinesterase in your blood’s serum, plasma, and red blood cells.

Also Known As: CHS Test, CHS Serum Test, CHS Plasma Test, CHS RBC Test, CHS Blood Test, AChE Test, AChE Serum Test, AChE RBC Test, AChE Plasma Test, AChE Blood Test, Serum Cholinesterase, RBC Cholinesterase, Plasma Cholinesterase, Red Cell Cholinesterase, Acetylcholinesterase test, butyrylcholinesterase test, BChE Test, BChE Serum Test, BChE RBC Test, BChE Plasma Test, BChE Blood Test, Pseudocholinesterase Test, PCHE Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood, Plasma, and Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Cholinesterase test ordered?

Once baseline levels have been established, those who deal with organophosphate substances in the farming or chemical industries may undergo routine monitoring to evaluate any detrimental exposure. Testing for cholinesterase can be performed to determine any acute exposure to these substances, which can harm the neuromuscular system. Rapid absorption of the substance in the lungs, skin, or digestive system may be followed by toxicity. Depending on the substance, its dose, and the exposure site, poisoning symptoms can vary. Early signs could include:

  • headache and vertigo
  • Nausea
  • excessive sweating, salivation, and/or eye tears

As the poisoning's effects grow, more symptoms could develop, including:

  • nausea, diarrhea
  • vision that is dim or fuzzy because of restricted pupils
  • twitching, jerking, and lack of coordination in the muscles
  • slowed breathing that causes respiratory failure and calls for ventilator support to survive
  • In severe situations, coma, death, and convulsions may occur.

If a person or a close relative has experienced extended paralysis and apnea following the administration of succinylcholine for anesthesia during an operation, pre-operative screening for pseudocholinesterase activity is indicated.

What does a Cholinesterase blood test check for?

Enzymes called cholinesterase play a role in the healthy operation of the nervous system. The body contains two different cholinesterase enzymes: pseudocholinesterase, which is found in the serum as well as the liver, muscle, pancreas, heart, and white matter of the brain, and acetylcholinesterase, which is found in red blood cells as well as the lungs, spleen, nerve endings, and gray matter of the brain. The activity of these enzymes is measured by cholinesterase testing.

By degrading acetylcholine, a substance that aids in signal transmission across nerve ends, acetylcholinesterase contributes to the transmission of nerve impulses. Acetylcholine is produced in excess at nerve endings when the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase declines. Overstimulation of nerves in human tissues and organs may result from this. Processing and metabolizing medicines involves the enzyme pseudocysteinesterase.

The following are the top two justifications for analyzing blood activity levels:

  • exposure to organophosphate pesticides. The activity of cholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase can be inhibited by insecticides containing organophosphates. When these pesticides are exposed acutely, symptoms may be severe, while persistent exposure may cause symptoms to develop more gradually. Ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact are all possible methods of absorption. To identify acute poisoning or to keep track of people who are exposed to these chemicals on the job, such as agricultural laborers or people who work with industrial chemicals, tests for red blood cell acetylcholinesterase and serum pseudocholinesterase may be performed.
  • Pseudocholinesterase deficit that is inherited. Some people have a genetic variation of the pseudocholinesterase enzyme that results in an inherited deficit. The body uses this enzyme to render succinylcholine, a popular anesthetic muscle relaxant, inactive. A prolonged muscle paralysis and apnea after anesthesia are possible side effects of the medication in people who have low levels or faulty pseudocholinesterase. Additionally, individuals who are homozygous for genetic polymorphisms may be more susceptible to negative consequences than individuals who are heterozygous. Before surgery, patients with a family history of prolonged apnea following succinylcholine use can have pseudocholinesterase testing to see if they are at risk of problems from the medication.

Lab tests often ordered with a Cholinesterase test:

  • Hepatic Function Panel

How does my health care provider use a Cholinesterase test?

There are two main purposes for cholinesterase testing:

  • It can be used to identify and treat exposure to or poisoning from organophosphate pesticides. As well as monitoring persons who are being treated for exposure to organophosphate chemicals, it may also be used to monitor those who may be at an elevated risk of exposure to these substances, such as those who work in the chemical and agricultural industries. Tests for serum pseudocholinesterase and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase are frequently used for this reason.
  • It can be used a few days before surgery to ascertain whether a patient is at danger of developing post-operative paralysis if succinylcholine, a common muscle relaxant used for anesthesia, is used during the operation. The test for pseudocholinesterase is typically used in these circumstances. To ascertain the degree to which the enzyme's activity has been diminished, a second test known as a dibucaine inhibition test may be carried out.

What do my Cholinesterase test results mean?

In assessing the exposure to pesticides at work

AChE and PChE activity can decrease after exposure to organophosphate substances to about 80% of normal before any symptoms show up and to 40% of normal before the symptoms worsen. By first establishing a baseline activity level for acetylcholinesterase or pseudocholinesterase, and then testing on a frequent basis to look for a noticeably decreased level of activity, those who are regularly exposed to these substances can be monitored for harmful exposure.

When assessing for acute pesticide toxicity or exposure

Significantly reduced levels of cholinesterase activity typically signify an increased uptake of organophosphate substances. After exposure, pseudocholinesterase and RBC acetylcholinesterase activity typically declines between minutes to hours. While acetylcholinesterase activity will remain low for up to three months, pseudocholinesterase activity can rebuild in a matter of days to weeks. Pesticide exposure quickly affects the plasma and RBC activity, although AChE and PChE regenerate at various rates after exposure is over because AChE is created in blood cells, which have a lifespan of 120 days, whilst PChE is formed in the liver, which has a half-life of roughly two weeks.

Succinylcholine sensitivity evaluations

About 3% of individuals have poor pseudocholinesterase activity because of a hereditary deficit, and these individuals will experience extended effects from the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Prior to surgery, total quantitative pseudocholinesterase levels will be assessed in individuals who have a personal or family history of prolonged apnea following use of this medication. Low pseudocholinesterase activity levels suggest that these individuals may be more susceptible to the long-lasting effects of the muscle relaxant. To determine how sensitive a person is to the medicine, a second test called the dibucaine inhibition test may also be carried out. The likelihood of developing medication sensitivity increases with a lower dibucaine inhibition test result.

Malnutrition and chronic liver disease are additional factors that might lead to decreased cholinesterase levels. Pregnancy, renal disease, shock, and various malignancies are just a few more circumstances that might cause a decrease in total cholinesterase activity.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Most Popular
This assay is useful to monitor exposure to chromium, progress of medical treatment or determine nutritional status.

Clinical Significance
Micronutrient, Chromium, Blood - This assay is useful to monitor exposure to chromium, progress of medical treatment or to determine nutritional status.

Patients must be 18 years of age or greater.

Patient Preparation
Patient should refrain from taking mineral supplements and multivitamin three days before specimen collection.

Reference Range(s)
≤18 years    ≤1.2 mcg/LReference range not available for individuals <18 years for this micronutrient test.
 


Occupational exposure and exposure to environmental contamination of chromium may lead to toxicity. The need for chromium supplements is unproven. Supplements taken in excess may also lead to chromium toxicity.

Chromium is used in the manufacturing of stainless steel and for plating other metals. It is also a component of cement. Chromic acid or its salts constitute an industrial hazard. They may lead to ulceration of the skin and respiratory passages. Ingestion can cause violent gastroenteritis.


Occupational exposure and exposure to environmental contamination of Chromium may lead to toxicity. The need for Chromium supplements is unproven. Supplements taken in excess may also lead to Chromium toxicity.


Cobalt is part of our diet. Approximately 85% of absorbed cobalt is excreted in the urine and the remainder eliminated in stool. Toxicity may occur in select industrial environments. Colbalt is not mined in the United States, so primary supplies are imported

Most Popular
Cobalt is part of our diet. Approximately 85% of absorbed cobalt is excreted in the urine and the remainder eliminated in stool. Toxicity may occur in select industrial

Clinical Significance
Micronutrient, Cobalt, Blood - Cobalt is part of our diet. Approximately 85% of absorbed cobalt is excreted in the urine and the remainder eliminated in stool. Toxicity may occur in select industrial environments. Cobalt is not mined in the United States so primary supplies are imported.

Patients must be 18 years of age or greater.

Patient Preparation
Patient should refrain from taking mineral supplements, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B complex three days before specimen collection.

Reference Range(s)
≥18 years    ≤1.8 mcg/L
Reference range not available for individuals <18 years for this micronutrient test.


Cobalt is part of our diet. Approximately 85% of absorbed cobalt is excreted in the urine and the remainder eliminated in stool. Toxicity may occur in select industrial environments. Cobalt is not mined in the United States so primary supplies are imported