Urinalysis, Macroscopic

The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.

Also known as: UA, Macroscopic, Urinalysisn UA Macroscopic, Urine Analysis, Macroscopic



Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid made by the liver. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. Bilirubin is left after these older blood cells are removed. The liver helps break down bilirubin so that it can be removed from the body in the stool.



A blood glucose test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including those in the brain. The hormones insulin and glucagon help control blood glucose levels.


Ketones are substances produced in the liver when fat cells break down in the blood. A serum ketone test is a measurement of how many ketones are in the blood.

Leukocyte Esterase

Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection.


Occult Blood

The test looks for hidden (occult) blood in a specimen sample. It can find blood even if you cannot see it yourself.


Level of acid


Body fluids contain many different proteins that serve diverse functions such as transport of nutrients, removal of toxins, control of metabolic processes, and defense against invaders. Protein electrophoresis is a method for separating these proteins based on their size and electrical charge. When body fluids are separated by electrophoresis, they form a characteristic pattern of bands of different widths and intensities, reflecting the mixture of proteins present. This pattern is divided into five fractions, called albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma. In some cases, the beta fraction is further divided into beta 1 and beta 2. Albumin, which is produced in the liver, accounts for about 60% of the protein in the blood. "Globulins" is a collective term used to refer to proteins other than albumin. With the exception of the immunoglobulins and some complement proteins, most of the globulins are also produced in the liver. Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) is a method used to identify abnormal bands seen on serum, urine, or CSF protein electrophoresis, as to which type of antibody (immunoglobulin) is present.

Reducing Substances

Specific Gravity

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The Urinalysis, Macroscopic test contains 1 test with 12 biomarkers.

Brief Description: A Urinalysis Macroscopic test is a component of a comprehensive urinalysis that involves the visual examination of the urine sample. It assesses the physical characteristics of urine, such as color, clarity, and Ph level, to provide valuable insights into the overall health of the urinary system.

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

Also Known As: Urine Test, Urine Analysis Test, Urinalysis Test, UA test, urine macroscopic examination Test, Macroscopic Urinalysis Test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Macroscopic Urinalysis test ordered?

A Urinalysis Macroscopic test may be ordered for various reasons, including:

  1. Routine Health Checkup: It is often included as part of a routine medical examination to assess overall health and detect any potential urinary tract abnormalities.

  2. Investigation of Urinary Symptoms: If a patient experiences symptoms such as frequent urination, urgency, pain, or changes in urine color or odor, a Urinalysis Macroscopic test can help identify possible causes.

  3. Monitoring Treatment: Individuals with known urinary conditions, such as kidney stones or urinary tract infections (UTIs), may undergo regular urinalysis to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and ensure resolution of the condition.

What does a Urinalysis Macroscopic urine test check for?

A urinalysis is a series of examinations done on urine that are physical, chemical, and microscopic. The tests identify and/or measure a number of elements in the urine, including cells, cellular fragments, and microbes. These elements include byproducts of healthy and unhealthy metabolism.

Urine is produced by the kidneys, two fist-sized organs located on either side of the spine near the base of the rib cage. The kidneys help the body regulate its water balance, filter wastes from the blood, and store proteins, electrolytes, and other molecules for later use. To get rid of everything unnecessary, urine travels from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder, and urethra before exiting the body. The color, amount, concentration, and content of urine will change slightly every time a person urinates due to the varied elements in urine, despite the fact that pee is normally yellow and clear.

By screening for components in the urine that aren't typically present and/or monitoring aberrant levels of specific substances, many illnesses can be caught early on. Examples include glucose, protein, bilirubin, red and white blood cells, crystals, and pathogens. The following explanations for their presence include:

  • There is a problem with the kidneys.
  • As with bacteria and white blood cells, there is a urinary tract infection present.

Three separate testing steps make up a full urinalysis:

  • The color and clarity of the urine are assessed using a visual examination.
  • Chemical examination, which determines the concentration of urine and tests for roughly 9 chemicals that provide useful information about health and disease.

When there is an abnormal finding on the visual or chemical test, or if a healthcare practitioner explicitly demands it, a microscopic investigation is usually done.

If the results of a urinalysis are abnormal, it may be necessary to repeat the test to see if the results are still abnormal, and/or further urine and blood tests to help establish a diagnosis.

Lab tests often ordered with a Urinalysis Macroscopic test:

When a Urinalysis Macroscopic test is ordered, it's frequently part of a broader assessment of urinary, renal, or metabolic conditions. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:

  1. Urinalysis Microscopic:

    • Purpose: Examines urine under a microscope to identify cells, crystals, bacteria, and other substances.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To complement the macroscopic analysis and provide a more detailed understanding of any abnormalities found, such as identifying the presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, or bacteria.
  2. Urine Culture:

    • Purpose: To identify any bacteria or fungi in the urine and determine the most effective antibiotics for treatment.
    • Why Is It Ordered: If a UTI is suspected, especially if the macroscopic urinalysis suggests the presence of infection.
  3. Complete Blood Count (CBC):

    • Purpose: Provides a broad picture of overall blood health.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To detect signs of infection or inflammation, which can accompany urinary tract disorders.
  4. Kidney Function Test:

    • Purpose: To evaluate how well the kidneys are functioning.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess the impact of urinary tract disorders on kidney function and to check for signs of kidney disease.
  5. Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c):

    • Purpose: Measures blood sugar control and risk of diabetes.
    • Why Is It Ordered: High levels of glucose in the urine can be a sign of diabetes.
  6. Electrolyte Panel:

    • Purpose: To measure key electrolytes in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate the body's electrolyte balance and kidney function, as electrolyte imbalances can occur with kidney disorders.
  7. Liver Function Test:

    • Purpose: To assess liver health.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Although primarily a test for liver health, abnormal liver function can sometimes influence kidney function and overall metabolism.

These tests, when ordered alongside a Urinalysis Macroscopic test, provide a comprehensive view of urinary tract health and can assist in diagnosing, monitoring, and managing conditions related to the urinary system, kidneys, and metabolic disorders. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual’s symptoms, medical history, and initial urinalysis results.

Conditions where a Urinalysis Macroscopic test is recommended:

A Urinalysis Macroscopic test is useful in the evaluation of various conditions and diseases affecting the urinary system, including:

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Changes in urine color, odor, or clarity may indicate the presence of a bacterial infection in the urinary tract.

  2. Kidney Stones: The presence of sediment or crystals in the urine may suggest the formation of kidney stones.

  3. Kidney Disease: Abnormalities in urine color, clarity, or protein levels can provide indications of underlying kidney problems or impaired kidney function.

  4. Diabetes: Changes in urine odor or clarity may be associated with certain metabolic conditions, including uncontrolled diabetes.

How does my healthcare provider use a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Health care providers use the results of a Urinalysis Macroscopic test to:

  1. Screen for Abnormalities: Abnormal findings in the color, clarity, or odor of urine may prompt further investigation or additional testing to diagnose specific conditions or diseases.

  2. Guide Treatment: The test results can help guide appropriate treatment decisions, such as the initiation or modification of antibiotics in the case of a urinary tract infection.

  3. Monitor Progress: Repeat urinalysis can track the progress of treatment or monitor the resolution of urinary tract issues, such as infection or the presence of kidney stones.

  4. Screen Overall Health: A normal urinalysis macroscopic examination provides reassurance about the health of the urinary system and indicates a lack of significant abnormalities.

It is important to note that the interpretation of urinalysis results should be done in conjunction with the patient's medical history, clinical presentation, and other relevant laboratory tests to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

What do my urinalysis test results mean?

Urinalysis results can be interpreted in a variety of ways. Irregular discoveries are a red flag that something isn't quite right and should be investigated further. Other focused tests, such as a comprehensive metabolic panel, complete blood count, or urine culture, must be used to link the urinalysis results with a person's symptoms and clinical findings, and to seek for the causes of abnormal findings.

The higher the concentration of the unusual component, such as significantly higher levels of glucose, protein, or red blood cells, the more probable there is an issue that needs to be addressed. The results, on the other hand, do not tell the healthcare provider what caused the finding or whether it is a temporary or persistent illness.

A normal urinalysis does not rule out the possibility of disease. Early in a disease process, some persons will not release elevated amounts of a drug, and others will release them irregularly throughout the day, which means they could be overlooked by a single urine sample. Small amounts of substances may be undetectable in very dilute urine.

Most Common Questions About the Urinalysis Macroscopic test:

Understanding the Urinalysis Macroscopic Test and Its Purpose

What is a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

The Urinalysis Macroscopic test is a simple examination of urine where the color, clarity, and concentration of urine are visually examined. It forms the first part of a full urinalysis.

Why is a Urinalysis Macroscopic test performed?

The test is usually part of a routine health assessment to screen for early signs of disease such as diabetes and kidney disease. It can also be used to diagnose urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney stones, and other conditions, or to monitor certain conditions and treatments.

Who should get a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Anyone experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, back pain, frequent or painful urination may require a Urinalysis Macroscopic test. It can also be part of routine health assessments or pregnancy check-ups.

Interpreting Test Results

What do the results of a Urinalysis Macroscopic test mean?

The macroscopic urinalysis assesses the physical characteristics of the urine, such as color and clarity. The urine's color can be an indicator of hydration status and can be impacted by certain medications or foods. Clarity pertains to how clear the urine is - cloudiness may indicate an infection or presence of crystals or casts.

What does it mean if my urine is dark in the Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Dark urine can be a sign of dehydration but it could also be caused by certain foods, medications, or medical conditions such as liver disease.

Understanding the Implications and Health Impact

What health implications are associated with the results of a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Changes in the color, clarity, or concentration of urine can indicate various health issues such as dehydration, liver disease, or urinary tract infections. The test provides an initial screening step and further tests may be required for a definitive diagnosis.

Can a Urinalysis Macroscopic test detect drug use?

While a urinalysis can detect certain drugs or drug metabolites, the macroscopic examination specifically does not. Further specific drug tests would need to be ordered.

Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

Can certain conditions or lifestyle factors affect the results of a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Yes, conditions such as dehydration, liver disease, and urinary tract infections can affect the results. Certain foods, medications, or vitamin supplements can also change the color of your urine.

Can I do anything to improve my results for a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help improve your urinary health. This includes staying well hydrated, eating a balanced diet, avoiding excessive alcohol and caffeine, and treating any underlying conditions you may have.

The Urinalysis Macroscopic Test in Medical Practice

How does the Urinalysis Macroscopic test assist in diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs)?

In a Urinalysis Macroscopic test, if the urine appears cloudy, it may indicate the presence of white blood cells, bacteria, or cellular debris, which could suggest a UTI. However, confirmation requires a microscopic examination and a urine culture.

How frequently should I get a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

The frequency of testing depends on your health and specific circumstances. It's commonly performed during routine health assessments, during pregnancy, before surgery, or when monitoring certain medical conditions.

Does the Urinalysis Macroscopic test have any limitations?

While the Urinalysis Macroscopic test can provide valuable information about a person's health, it is not definitive. Abnormal results will often require follow-up with more specific tests.

Can the Urinalysis Macroscopic test be used for conditions other than UTIs?

Absolutely. In addition to UTIs, the test can help screen for a variety of conditions including kidney disease, diabetes, liver disease, and other metabolic conditions.

Can the Urinalysis Macroscopic test be used to determine the severity of a disease?

While it can't determine the severity of a disease, it can sometimes suggest the presence of a serious condition. For example, very dark urine could suggest severe dehydration or liver disease.

Further Insights into the Urinalysis Macroscopic Test

Why is the Urinalysis Macroscopic test one of the most common laboratory tests?

Urinalysis is a low-cost, non-invasive test that can provide a lot of information about a person's metabolic, kidney, and liver function, as well as indicate infection or other diseases. Therefore, it's often used as a first-line test for many medical conditions.

How does the Urinalysis Macroscopic test differ from a Microscopic Urinalysis or a Urine Culture?

While the macroscopic test looks at the physical appearance of the urine, a microscopic urinalysis examines the urine under a microscope to identify cells, crystals, bacteria, and other substances. A urine culture is used to identify and count the number of bacteria or yeast in the urine to confirm a UTI.

Can my diet influence the results of a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Yes, certain foods like beets or blackberries can cause your urine to be pink or red. Similarly, asparagus can make the urine appear greenish, and carrot intake can lead to orange urine. Always let your healthcare provider know about any recent dietary changes.

18. Can a Urinalysis Macroscopic test detect pregnancy? A Urinalysis Macroscopic test is not designed to detect pregnancy. While it may pick up on some changes associated with pregnancy, such as an increased number of white blood cells or proteins, a specific pregnancy test is required to confirm pregnancy.

Can medications affect the Urinalysis Macroscopic test results?

Yes, certain medications can change the color of your urine and potentially affect the results. Always inform your healthcare provider of any medications you are taking.

How are dehydration levels evaluated in a Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Urine color can be an indicator of hydration levels. Generally, the lighter the color, the more hydrated you are. Dark yellow to amber-colored urine can indicate dehydration.

Can a Urinalysis Macroscopic test help diagnose kidney stones?

While it can't definitively diagnose kidney stones, it can suggest the possibility if the urine is pink, red, or brown (indicating blood) and/or cloudy (indicating the presence of substances that might form stones).

What could cause my urine to be cloudy in the Urinalysis Macroscopic test?

Cloudy urine can be caused by several factors including a urinary tract infection, kidney stones, or certain metabolic disorders.

Can a Urinalysis Macroscopic test detect bladder cancer?

While it might indicate potential problems, the macroscopic urinalysis isn't designed to specifically identify bladder cancer. Further tests would be needed for a definitive diagnosis.

How can a Urinalysis Macroscopic test assist in diagnosing diabetes?

The macroscopic test isn't specifically designed to diagnose diabetes, but it could suggest potential problems if the urine appears unusually clear, indicating excessive water intake, which could be linked to diabetes. However, additional tests such as a glucose tolerance test would be required to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

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