The Parietal Cell Antibody, ELISA test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.
Description: The parietal cell antibody blood test is a test ordered by physicians when they suspect a patient has pernicious anemia or a vitamin B12 deficiency.
Also Known As: Gastric Parietal Cell Antibody Test, Anti-Parietal Cell Antibody Test, Anti-GPA Test, AGPA Test, APCA Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When is a Parietal Cell Antibody test ordered?
Because the parietal cell antibody test is less accurate than the intrinsic factor antibody test, it is not usually requested. When a person exhibits symptoms that point to a vitamin B12 deficiency and when pernicious anemia is suspected, it may be prescribed.
Testing for vitamin B12, folate, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine are frequently prompted by results from parietal cell antibody tests.
When a person has a decreased vitamin B12 level and elevated levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, follow-up tests such as an intrinsic factor antibody test and a parietal cell antibody test may be prescribed.
What does a Parietal Cell Antibody test check for?
Autoantibodies, which are proteins created by the immune system and wrongly target a particular class of specialized cells that line the stomach wall, include parietal cell antibodies. This test finds these antibodies in the blood, which aids in the identification of pernicious anemia.
When the body's immune system attacks its own tissues and produces antibodies against the parietal cells and/or intrinsic factor, pernicious anemia can develop.
Parietal cells are specialized stomach cells that produce intrinsic factor and acid to aid in meal digestion.
Vitamin B12 must have intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed from diet.
Vitamin B12 is released from food during digestion by the stomach acids made by parietal cells, who then combine it with intrinsic factor to form a complex. This complex's production enables vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine. Vitamin B12 is crucial for the synthesis of red blood cells in addition to its responsibilities in the brain and nervous system.
When the immune system of the body mistakenly attacks its own tissues and produces antibodies against intrinsic factor and/or parietal cells, it can lead to inflammation and gradually harm parietal cells. The generation or operation of intrinsic factor may be interfered with by this autoimmune disease, known as autoimmune atrophic gastritis.
Vitamin B12 is generally not absorbed when there is insufficient intrinsic factor, which results in a vitamin B12 deficit. Megaloblastic anemia, which is characterized by the formation of fewer but larger red blood cells, can be brought on by vitamin B12 deficiency. Additionally, a lack of vitamin B12 can cause signs and symptoms of nerve damage, such as numbness and tingling that first appear in the hands and feet, muscle weakness, sluggish reflexes, loss of balance, and shaky gait. Megaloblastic anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency can be brought on by other conditions. Pernicious anemia is the name for the condition when it results from a deficiency of intrinsic factor. Neutrophils and platelets may be less plentiful, in addition to anemia.
In order to identify pernicious anemia, the tests for parietal cell and/or intrinsic factor antibodies may be combined with a number of other procedures, such as complete blood count and blood smear.
Lab tests often ordered with a Parietal Cell Antibody test:
- Intrinsic Factor Antibody
- Vitamin B12 and Folate
- Methylmalonic Acid
- Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Conditions where a Parietal Cell Antibody test is recommended:
- Vitamin B12 Deficiency
- Autoimmune Disorders
How does my health care provider use a Parietal Cell Antibody test?
To help identify the root cause of a vitamin B12 shortage and to support the diagnosis of pernicious anemia, a parietal cell antibody test may be utilized in conjunction with or after an intrinsic factor antibody test.
It is typically done as a follow-up test after other lab tests, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B12, or a complete blood count with a blood smear examination, identify a person as having a vitamin B12 deficiency and any accompanying megaloblastic anemia and/or neuropathy.
What do my Parietal Cell Antibody test results mean?
When making a diagnosis, the results of this test are frequently compared to those from other laboratory tests.
A person is more likely to have pernicious anemia if they have decreased vitamin B12 levels, elevated levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, and positive test results for intrinsic factor antibodies and/or parietal cell antibodies.
The absence of pernicious anemia is not always indicated by a negative test result. At least 10% of those affected won't have antibodies to parietal cells.
Antibodies against parietal cells are less focused than those against intrinsic factors. Parietal cell antibodies are present in about 90% of people who have pernicious anemia.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.