The Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.
Brief Description: The Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test, also known as Anti-HBs titer or HBsAb titer, is a laboratory test that measures the level of antibodies against the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the blood. This test is used to assess a person's immune response to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or to determine the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination.
Also Known As: Hep B Test, Hep B Surface Antibody Test, Hep B Antibody Test, Hepatitis B Antibody Test, Hep B Surface Ab Test, HBV Antibody Test, HBV Surface Antibody Test
Collection Method: Blood Draw
Specimen Type: Serum
Test Preparation: No preparation required
When is a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test ordered:
A Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test may be ordered in the following situations:
Hepatitis B Immunity: It is commonly ordered to determine if an individual has developed immunity to HBV after receiving the hepatitis B vaccine or recovering from a previous HBV infection. Healthcare workers, individuals at risk of exposure to HBV, and those planning to travel to areas with high hepatitis B prevalence may undergo this test to assess their immunity status.
Vaccine Response: The test helps evaluate the response to the hepatitis B vaccine, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems or those who may not mount a sufficient immune response to the standard vaccine series. This is important in determining if additional vaccine doses or alternative vaccination strategies are needed.
What does a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative blood test check for?
Antibodies to the hepatitis B virus are detected in hepatitis B antibody tests, which indicate a past infection or immunization against the virus.
Hepatitis is a liver infection that causes inflammation and enlargement. It can be caused by a number of factors, one of which is virus infection. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" known to primarily infect the liver that have been found thus far. Hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E are the other four.
HBV is disseminated through coming into touch with an infected person's blood or other bodily fluids. For example, exposure can occur through the sharing of IV drug needles or through unprotected intercourse. People who reside in or travel to places of the world where hepatitis B is common are more vulnerable. Mothers can spread the virus to their newborns on a rare occasion, generally during or after delivery. The virus is not spread through simple hand-to-hand contact, coughing, or sneezing. The virus, however, can survive for up to seven days outside the body, including in dried blood, and can be spread by sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected individual.
Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the United States since 1981, and health care providers began immunizing infants at birth in 1991. Despite this, the CDC believes that between 804,000 and 1.4 million persons in the United States are infected with the virus, the majority of whom are unaware of their infection.
HBV infections can range in severity from a mild infection that lasts a few weeks to a more dangerous chronic infection that lasts years. Chronic HBV can sometimes lead to significant problems including cirrhosis or liver cancer.
The great majority of people who have chronic infections don't show any signs or symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections are remarkably similar to other types of acute hepatitis. Fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice are some of the symptoms. The liver is damaged and unable to function normally in acute hepatitis. It may not be able to remove toxins or waste products like bilirubin from the body. Bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may rise as the disease progresses. While tests like bilirubin and a liver panel can tell a doctor if someone has hepatitis, they can't tell them what's causing it. Tests for hepatitis virus infection may aid in determining the cause.
Lab tests often ordered with a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test:
When this test is ordered, it's often part of a broader evaluation of hepatitis B status or overall liver health. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg):
- Purpose: To detect the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV).
- Why Is It Ordered: To determine if an active HBV infection is present. The presence of HBsAg indicates that the person is infectious.
Hepatitis B Core Antibody (Anti-HBc):
- Purpose: To detect previous exposure to HBV.
- Why Is It Ordered: It can identify individuals who have been infected in the past, even if they have cleared the virus.
Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg) and Antibody (Anti-HBe):
- Purpose: To assess the infectivity and stage of HBV infection.
- Why Is It Ordered: HBeAg is a marker of high infectivity, while Anti-HBe can indicate a lower level of virus and reduced infectivity.
Liver Function Test:
- Purpose: To assess liver health.
- Why Is It Ordered: Hepatitis B can cause liver inflammation and damage. These tests help monitor liver function and detect signs of hepatitis or cirrhosis.
Complete Blood Count (CBC):
- Purpose: Provides a broad picture of overall blood health.
- Why Is It Ordered: To assess general health status and detect conditions like anemia, which can occur in chronic liver disease.
Prothrombin Time (PT/INR):
- Purpose: To assess blood clotting.
- Why Is It Ordered: Liver damage can affect the production of clotting factors, making this an important test for evaluating liver function.
- Purpose: To screen for liver cancer.
- Why Is It Ordered: Chronic hepatitis B infection increases the risk of developing liver cancer, and AFP is a tumor marker used in screening.
These tests, when ordered alongside a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test, provide a comprehensive view of hepatitis B status and liver health. They are crucial for diagnosing, monitoring, and managing hepatitis B infection and its complications. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual's risk factors, vaccination status, and potential exposure to hepatitis B.
Conditions where a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test is recommended:
A Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test may be required in the following conditions or situations:
Hepatitis B Vaccination: To evaluate the immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine and confirm the development of protective antibodies.
Monitoring Immunity: Individuals at risk of HBV exposure, such as healthcare workers or those planning travel to high-risk areas, may undergo the test to assess their immune status and need for additional precautions.
How does my health care provider use a Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody test?
Health care providers use the results of a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test in the following ways:
Assessing Immunity: A positive result with sufficient antibody levels indicates immunity to HBV, reducing the risk of acquiring HBV infection.
Vaccine Response Evaluation: The test helps determine if an individual has developed a protective immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine. If the antibody levels are inadequate, additional vaccination may be recommended.
In summary, the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test measures the level of antibodies against the hepatitis B surface antigen in the blood. It is used to assess immunity to HBV, evaluate vaccine response, and determine the need for further vaccination or protective measures. The results of this test, combined with other hepatitis B-related tests, assist health care providers in making informed decisions regarding patient management, vaccination strategies, and assessing the risk of HBV infection.
What do my Hepatitis B antibody test results mean?
If antibodies are not detected, it indicates that a person has not developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.
If antibodies are detected, it indicates that a person has developed antibodies to the Hepatitis B Virus.
Most Common Questions About the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test:
Understanding the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative Test
What is the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test?
The Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test is a blood test that measures the amount of antibodies against the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in your body. The presence of these antibodies usually indicates that you've either recovered from a past Hepatitis B infection or successfully responded to the Hepatitis B vaccine.
Why would a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be ordered?
This test is usually ordered to confirm whether a person is immune to Hepatitis B, either from vaccination or from a past infection. It may also be used to verify the need for vaccination or revaccination.
Interpreting Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative Test Results
What does a positive Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test result mean?
A positive test result generally indicates that you have immunity to Hepatitis B, either from vaccination or from recovering from a past infection. The body has produced sufficient antibodies to fight off the virus.
What does a negative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test result mean?
A negative test result means that you're not immune to Hepatitis B, either because you've never been exposed to the virus or the vaccine, or because your level of immunity has decreased over time.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be used to monitor treatment of Hepatitis B?
No, this test is not used to monitor treatment response in chronic Hepatitis B. Other tests, such as Hepatitis B viral load or liver function tests, are used for this purpose.
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative Test and Medical Conditions
How is the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test used in diagnosing Hepatitis B?
This test is not used to diagnose acute or chronic Hepatitis B infection. Instead, it's used to determine immunity status. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test or Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) test are used for diagnosis.
How can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test confirm the effectiveness of Hepatitis B vaccination?
Following vaccination, this test is used to confirm if the body has produced sufficient antibodies to protect against the virus. If the antibody level is above a certain threshold, it generally means the vaccine has successfully induced immunity.
General Queries about the Test
Can I take medications before a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test?
There are no specific medications that need to be avoided before this test. However, always inform your healthcare provider of any medications you're taking as certain drugs may interfere with the test results.
Does the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test differ from the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen test?
Yes, these two tests serve different purposes. The antibody test checks for immunity to the virus, either from past infection or vaccination. The antigen test checks for current infection with the Hepatitis B virus.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test determine the severity of a Hepatitis B infection?
No, this test does not indicate the severity of a Hepatitis B infection. Other tests such as liver function tests and Hepatitis B viral load can help determine the severity of the infection.
Why might a Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be repeated?
This test might be repeated in individuals who initially test negative to verify the need for Hepatitis B vaccination, or in vaccinated individuals to check for declining immunity over time.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be used to assess the risk of liver cancer?
While chronic Hepatitis B infection can increase the risk of liver cancer, this test itself does not assess that risk. It's used to determine immunity to Hepatitis B, not to assess liver cancer risk.
Does the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test help in diagnosing other liver diseases?
This test specifically checks for immunity to Hepatitis B. It doesn't diagnose other liver diseases. However, a person with another liver disease may be tested to determine their Hepatitis B immune status.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be used in neonatal screening?
No, this test is not used in neonatal screening. However, newborns are typically vaccinated against Hepatitis B soon after birth.
Does the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test have a role in pre-employment screening?
Some employers, especially healthcare facilities, require Hepatitis B immunity screening. This test can help determine if a person has immunity to Hepatitis B.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test help determine the need for post-exposure prophylaxis?
Yes, if a person is exposed to Hepatitis B (like a needlestick injury in healthcare settings), this test can help determine if they have immunity. If not, they might need post-exposure prophylaxis.
Does the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test have a role in transplantation?
Yes, transplant recipients are often tested for Hepatitis B immunity. A lack of immunity could put them at risk of infection, as they will be immunosuppressed to prevent organ rejection.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be used to confirm natural immunity following a Hepatitis B infection?
Yes, after a person recovers from Hepatitis B, this test can confirm if they have developed long-term immunity.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test diagnose Hepatitis B carrier status?
No, this test cannot diagnose a person as a Hepatitis B carrier. Other tests, like Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), need to be used for that purpose.
How does the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test relate to the Hepatitis B core antibody test?
Hepatitis B core antibody test detects antibodies to the Hepatitis B core antigen, indicating past or present infection. The surface antibody test, on the other hand, checks for immunity to Hepatitis B.
How often should the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be repeated in healthcare workers?
There's no set guideline, but it's generally recommended that healthcare workers should have their immunity status checked every 5 years or so, or if there's a potential exposure.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test be used in epidemiological studies?
Yes, this test can be used in epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence of immunity to Hepatitis B in a certain population.
Can a person test positive for both Hepatitis B surface antigen and surface antibody?
Yes, in some rare cases, a person may test positive for both, especially during the recovery phase of acute Hepatitis B infection.
Can the Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitative test determine the infectivity of a person with Hepatitis B?
No, the presence of surface antibodies typically indicates immunity, not infectivity. The Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test is used to determine if someone is infectious.
We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.