The following is a list of what is included in the item above. Click the test(s) below to view what biomarkers are measured along with an explanation of what the biomarker is measuring.


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The Fructosamine test contains 1 test with 1 biomarker.

Brief Description: The fructosamine test is a blood test that measures the level of fructosamine in the blood. Fructosamine is formed when glucose in the blood binds with proteins. This test provides valuable information about average blood glucose levels over the past two to three weeks, offering a snapshot of a person's short-term glycemic control. Unlike HbA1c, which reflects long-term glucose control over three months, fructosamine gives a more immediate picture of glucose management.

Also Known As: Glycated Serum Protein Test, GSP Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Fructosamine test ordered?

The fructosamine test, albeit not extensively utilized, can be ordered if a health care provider wants to track a person's average glucose levels over the previous two to three weeks. It's usually requested when a diabetes treatment plan is being begun or altered in order to track the impact of dietary, exercise, or medication changes.

Fructosamine levels may also be ordered on a regular basis if a diabetic woman is pregnant or if a person has an illness that alters their glucose and insulin needs for a period of time. When monitoring is needed but an A1c test isn't reliable, such as when a person's RBC life span is shortened or when the individual being examined has an abnormal hemoglobin, the fructosamine test may be utilized.

What does a Fructosamine blood test check for?

When glucose reacts with protein, a substance called fructosamine is generated. The total amount of fructosamine in the blood is determined by this test.

Glycation is a process in which glucose molecules permanently bind with proteins in the blood. Albumin, the main protein in the fluid portion of blood, as well as other serum proteins and hemoglobin, the key protein found inside red blood cells, are all affected proteins. The amount of glycated proteins generated is proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood. These mixed molecules remain in the circulation for as long as the protein or RBC is present, providing a record of the average quantity of glucose present in the blood throughout time.

Glycated hemoglobin is a measurement of the average blood glucose level during the previous 2 to 3 months, because RBCs have a lifespan of around 120 days. Because serum proteins only stay in the blood for 14 to 21 days, glycated proteins and the fructosamine test indicate average glucose levels over a two- to three-week period.

Keeping blood glucose levels as near to normal as possible helps diabetics avoid many of the difficulties and long-term harm that come with high glucose levels. In insulin-treated diabetics, good glycemic control is established and maintained through daily self-monitoring of glucose levels and occasional monitoring of treatment effectiveness with either a fructosamine or A1c test.

Lab tests often ordered with a Fructosamine test:

When a Fructosamine test is ordered, it's often part of a broader evaluation of diabetes management and blood glucose control. Here are some tests commonly ordered alongside it:

  1. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c):

    • Purpose: To measure the average blood glucose levels over the past two to three months.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To provide a longer-term view of blood glucose control. It's a standard test for monitoring diabetes management.
  2. Fasting Blood Glucose:

    • Purpose: To measure blood glucose levels after a period of fasting (usually overnight).
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess blood glucose control and diagnose diabetes. It's often part of routine diabetes screening and monitoring.
  3. Postprandial (after meal) Blood Glucose:

    • Purpose: To measure blood glucose levels at any time or specifically after meals.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate how well diabetes is controlled and how blood glucose levels respond to meals.
  4. C-Peptide Test:

    • Purpose: To measure the level of C-peptide, a substance made by the pancreas that reflects insulin production.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To assess insulin production by the pancreas, especially in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
  5. Insulin Levels:

    • Purpose: To measure the amount of insulin in the blood.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To evaluate insulin production and insulin resistance, particularly in type 2 diabetes or in cases of hypoglycemia.
  6. Lipid Profile:

    • Purpose: To measure levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, including LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol.
    • Why Is It Ordered: People with diabetes are at increased risk for lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular disease, so lipid monitoring is important.
  7. Kidney Function Test:

    • Purpose: To evaluate kidney function.
    • Why Is It Ordered: Diabetes can lead to kidney damage over time, so regular monitoring of kidney function is important for people with diabetes.
  8. Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio:

    • Purpose: To check for protein (albumin) in the urine.
    • Why Is It Ordered: To screen for early kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy) in people with diabetes.

These tests, when ordered alongside a Fructosamine test, provide a comprehensive view of an individual’s glucose control, diabetes management, and overall health. They are crucial for diagnosing diabetes, monitoring its treatment, and detecting and managing complications associated with diabetes. The specific combination of tests will depend on the individual’s diabetes status, treatment regimen, and any other health concerns.

Conditions where a Fructosamine test is recommended:

The fructosamine test is primarily used in individuals with diabetes to monitor their short-term glycemic control. It is especially valuable for those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes.

How does my health care provider use a Fructosamine test?

Fructosamine testing can assist a diabetic in monitoring and controlling his or her blood glucose level. Fructosamine levels in the blood are a reflection of glucose levels over the previous two to three weeks.

Both the fructosamine and A1c tests are largely used as monitoring tools to assist diabetics in controlling their blood sugar levels. The A1c test, on the other hand, is far more well-known and widely recognized since there is solid evidence that a chronically elevated A1c result indicates an increased risk of diabetic complications such as eye difficulties that could lead to blindness, kidney illness, and nerve damage.

The American Diabetes Association acknowledges the value of both tests and suggests that fructosamine could be used as a replacement in cases where A1c cannot be determined consistently. Fructosamine may be a better monitoring option than A1c in the following situations:

  • Fructosamine provides for rapid changes in diabetes management, allowing the effectiveness of dietary or pharmacological changes to be assessed after a few weeks rather than months.
  • Diabetic pregnancy – Good glycemic control is essential in diabetic women who are pregnant, and the mother's needs frequently change during pregnancy; fructosamine measurements may be ordered alongside glucose levels to help monitor and facilitate shifting insulin, glucose, or other medication requirements.
  • When a person has a disorder that affects the typical lifespan of red blood cells, such as hemolytic anemia or blood loss, an A1c test will be inaccurate. The A1c result is deceptively low when the lifespan of RBCs in circulation is limited, and it is an inconsistent indicator of a person's average glucose over time.
  • Hemoglobin variants - The existence of some hemoglobin variants, such as hemoglobin S in sickle cell anemia, may alter A1c measurement methodologies. Fructosamine can be used to check glucose management in these situations.

What do my Fructosamine test results mean?

A high fructosamine level indicates that a diabetic's average glucose level has been increased for the past two to three weeks. The higher the level of fructosamine, the higher the average blood glucose level. It's possible that tracking the trend of values is more significant than tracking a single high value. A rise in fructosamine levels from normal to high may suggest that a person's glycemic management is inadequate. This, however, does not identify the source of the problem. To assist get the person's glucose under control, a review and change to the person's diet and/or medication may be required. Acute illness and considerable stress can boost blood glucose levels briefly, thus these factors should be considered when interpreting data.

A normal fructosamine level may signal that a diabetic is in good control of their diabetes and that their present treatment strategy is working for them. A shift from high to normal fructosamine levels, on the other hand, may suggest that a person's treatment plan has been effective.

The effects of fructosamine must be considered in the context of a person's overall clinical findings. Reduced blood total protein and/or albumin levels, diseases linked with greater protein loss in the urine or gastrointestinal system, or changes in the type of protein produced by the body can all cause falsely low fructosamine levels. In this instance, there may be a disagreement between the findings of daily glucose monitoring and fructosamine testing. Also, someone with fluctuating glucose levels (high to low) may have normal or near-normal fructosamine and A1c values but yet have a disease that necessitates frequent monitoring. However, the majority of persons with such poor diabetes management have high fructosamine and A1c levels.

Most Common Questions About the Fructosamine test:

Understanding the Fructosamine Test

What is the Fructosamine test?

The Fructosamine test is a blood test used to measure the total amount of glycated protein in the blood. It provides information about a person's average blood sugar level over the past 2-3 weeks.

Why would a healthcare provider order the Fructosamine test?

A healthcare provider may order a Fructosamine test if they want to monitor a person's blood glucose levels over the past few weeks, particularly in situations where the HbA1c test might not be as useful or accurate, such as in cases of pregnancy, rapid changes in diabetes treatment, or presence of certain hemoglobin variants.

How does the Fructosamine test contribute to understanding my overall health?

The Fructosamine test offers insight into how well diabetes is being managed in the short term. This can be important for assessing the effectiveness of medication adjustments or changes in lifestyle habits.

Interpreting Fructosamine Test Results

What does a high level of Fructosamine mean in the Fructosamine test?

A high level of Fructosamine suggests that blood glucose levels have been elevated on average over the past 2-3 weeks, indicating poor glycemic control in individuals with diabetes.

Can a low Fructosamine level be a concern in the Fructosamine test?

A low Fructosamine level suggests that blood glucose levels have been lower than normal. This could occur if diabetes has been overmanaged, potentially leading to hypoglycemia, or if the person has a condition that shortens the lifespan of proteins in the blood.

Can the Fructosamine test help predict long-term complications of diabetes?

Fructosamine levels correspond to blood glucose control over a shorter period (2-3 weeks) compared to the HbA1c test (2-3 months). While it's helpful for short-term monitoring, it's not typically used to predict long-term complications of diabetes, which are more closely tied to long-term glucose control.

Fructosamine Test and Specific Health Conditions

How is the Fructosamine test used in managing diabetes?

The Fructosamine test provides information about blood glucose levels over the previous 2-3 weeks. This can help in assessing how recent changes in diet, exercise, or medication are impacting blood glucose control.

Can the Fructosamine test be used in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

Yes, the Fructosamine test can be used in the management of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

Is the Fructosamine test useful in gestational diabetes?

Yes, the Fructosamine test can be particularly useful in gestational diabetes because it provides information about recent glycemic control, and because the HbA1c test can be less accurate during pregnancy.

The Fructosamine Test and Lifestyle

How do lifestyle changes impact the Fructosamine test results?

Since the Fructosamine test reflects blood sugar control over the past 2-3 weeks, changes in diet, exercise, and medication adherence during this period can significantly affect the results.

Fructosamine Test and Other Diagnostic Tools

How does the Fructosamine test differ from the HbA1c test?

The HbA1c test measures the percentage of hemoglobin that is glycated and reflects average blood sugar levels over the past 2-3 months. The Fructosamine test measures glycated serum proteins, reflecting blood sugar levels over a shorter period (about 2-3 weeks).

Can the Fructosamine test replace other diabetes tests?

The Fructosamine test does not replace other diabetes tests such as the HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, or oral glucose tolerance test. Instead, it provides additional information about short-term blood glucose control.

Clinical Guidelines and Recommendations

What are the recommendations regarding the use of the Fructosamine test?

The Fructosamine test is generally recommended in situations where the HbA1c may not be accurate or sufficient. This includes during pregnancy, in people with certain types of anemia or hemoglobinopathies, or when there have been recent changes to diabetes treatment.

How often should the Fructosamine test be repeated?

The frequency of testing will depend on your specific health situation and your healthcare provider's recommendations. If your blood sugar levels have been changing rapidly, or if you've had recent changes to your diabetes management plan, more frequent testing may be needed.

Can the Fructosamine test be used in elderly patients?

Yes, the Fructosamine test can be used in elderly patients. As with all patients, its use should be based on the individual's health status and the healthcare provider's clinical judgment.

Can the Fructosamine test be used to assess the risk of developing diabetes in individuals with prediabetes?

While the Fructosamine test can provide information about blood glucose levels over the past 2-3 weeks, it's not typically used to predict the risk of developing diabetes. Tests such as HbA1c, fasting glucose, or an oral glucose tolerance test are more commonly used for this purpose.

Research and Future Directions

Are there new markers being considered for future versions of the Fructosamine test?

Research is always ongoing, but as of my knowledge cutoff in September 2021, the primary focus is on better understanding and utilizing the existing Fructosamine test rather than adding new markers.

How might emerging research on genetics and personalized medicine influence the use of the Fructosamine test?

As we gain a better understanding of how genetics influence diabetes and its management, tests like the Fructosamine test could potentially be used more effectively to tailor treatment strategies.

What is the role of the Fructosamine test in preventive medicine?

In preventive medicine, the goal is to identify and address health issues before they develop into more serious problems. By providing information about short-term glucose control, the Fructosamine test can help in fine-tuning diabetes management strategies to prevent complications.

How can the Fructosamine test contribute to population health management?

On a population level, data from Fructosamine tests can help identify trends in diabetes control. This could guide public health strategies and policy decisions to improve diabetes management on a larger scale.


Can the Fructosamine test be affected by other conditions?

Yes, conditions that affect the lifespan of proteins in the blood, such as liver or kidney disease, can affect Fructosamine levels.

Can the Fructosamine test be used to monitor individuals who are not diabetic?

Generally, the Fructosamine test is not used in individuals without diabetes, as it is specifically designed to monitor blood sugar levels over time in people with diabetes.

Can medications affect the Fructosamine test results?

Yes, medications that affect blood sugar levels can impact Fructosamine test results. Your healthcare provider should be aware of all medications you're taking so they can interpret your test results accurately.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

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