Nutrition Health Screenings - [SAVE 15% to 40%]



Do you have a Nutrient Deficiency?

Not all foods provide all the nutrients your body needs. You may think you're getting all the nutrients your body needs from your food, but that's not always the case.

Nutrition Health Awareness

1 out of 3 people have or are at risk for one or more nutritional deficiencies. Nutrient deficiencies can hide without showing any symptoms and can have a serious impact on your health, especially if they continue for years. Your body may not be absorbing certain nutrients the way it should, so you can be deficient even if you eat more than enough of a particular nutrient. The only reliable way to know about your nutrient levels is to get a blood test.

Save 15% to 40% on lab tests that help identify your nutritional wellbeing, including malnutrition and malabsorption.

 


  • Promotion Code:
  • ULTAA080

The Nutrition and Wellness #1 Baseline Blood and Urine Test Panel contains the following tests:

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Lipid Panel
  • Urinalysis (UA), Complete
  • Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy, Total, Immunoassay
  • VLDL Cholesterol

Are you looking for a way to get your health back on track?

The Nutrition and Wellness #1 Baseline Blood and Urine Test Panel includes a Complete Blood Count (CBC), Lipid Panel, Complete Metabolic Panel (CMP-14), Urinalysis with Complete Microscopic Examination, Iron w/TIBC, Vitamin D 25-hydroxy. This panel is designed to provide you with baseline information about your current health status. It will help you determine what nutritional supplements or dietary changes may be needed to improve your overall well-being. You'll also be able to tell if any of your symptoms are related to specific nutrient deficiencies that can affect how you feel every day.


The Nutrition and Wellness #2 Essential Blood and Urine Test Panel contains the following tests:

  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Lipid Panel
  • Prealbumin
  • Urinalysis (UA), Complete
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate, Serum
  • Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy, Total, Immunoassay
  • VLDL Cholesterol

 

Do you want to know what is going on inside your body?

The Nutrition and Wellness #2 Essential Blood and Urine Test Panel is the perfect way to get a snapshot of your health. You'll be able to see how well your liver, kidneys, thyroid, pancreas, electrolytes are functioning as well as how much iron is in your blood. This panel also includes tests for Vitamin D levels and Prealbumin levels, which can help determine if you have anemia or malnutrition issues. This panel provides an easy way for you to get a quick overview of how well these important systems are working in your body.

This test panel is like having a personal trainer who gives you feedback about how well you are doing. You can use this information to make changes in your diet or lifestyle so that you feel better than ever before.
With this test panel, you will be able to monitor any changes that occur with your health so that you can take action before it becomes serious. This test panel gives insight into many aspects of wellness, including cholesterol levels, kidney function, vitamin deficiencies, and more!

We're here for all stages of wellness, from prevention to treatment. So let us help you keep track of where things stand with your overall health today! It's time for change – we can help!


The Nutrition and Wellness #3 Extreme Blood and Urine Test Panel contains the following tests:

  • Beta Carotene
  • CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Lipid Panel
  • Prealbumin
  • Urinalysis (UA), Complete
  • Vitamin A (Retinol)
  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), LC/MS/MS
  • Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) and Folate Panel, Serum
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal Phosphate )
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy, Total, Immunoassay
  • Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
  • VLDL Cholesterol
     

 Do you want to know if your body is healthy?

The Nutrition and Wellness #3 Extreme Blood and Urine Test Panel includes a Complete Blood Count (CBC), Lipid Panel, Complete Metabolic Panel (CMP-14), Urinalysis with Complete Microscopic Examination, Iron w/TIBC, Vitamin D 25-hydroxy, Prealbumin, Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin B12, Folate (Folic Acid), Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Beta Carotene, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C. 

This test panel will help you determine if any deficiencies in your blood or urine could be causing health problems. This is an excellent way to monitor your health regularly. You can also use this as a baseline before starting any new supplements or medications. We offer fast, affordable testing that will give you peace of mind knowing what’s going on inside your body at any given time.










Albumin (ALB) Most Popular

Description: An Albumin test is a blood test used to screen for a diagnose kidney disease, liver disorders, and evaluate a patient’s nutritional status.

Also Known As: ALB Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Albumin test ordered?

A panel of tests is commonly ordered as part of a health check, including an albumin test.

If a person exhibits any of the following signs of a liver problem, an albumin test may be requested along with other tests:

  • skin or eyes turning yellow
  • weakness, exhaustion
  • Unaccounted-for weight loss
  • reduced appetite
  • edema and/or pain in the abdomen
  • Dark feces and pale urine
  • Itching

When someone exhibits the following nephrotic syndrome symptoms, for example:

  • Swelling or puffiness, especially in the face, wrists, abdomen, thighs, or ankles, or around the eyes
  • Foamy, bloody, or coffee-colored urine
  • a reduction in the urine's volume
  • problems urinating, such as a burning sensation or an unusual discharge, or a change in frequency, particularly at night
  • discomfort in the middle of the back, below the ribs, and next to the kidneys
  • elevated blood pressure

An albumin test may also be requested by a medical professional to assess or track a patient's nutritional condition. A reduction in albumin, however, needs to be carefully examined because, in addition to starvation, albumin concentrations respond to a number of other diseases.

What does an Albumin blood test check for?

The liver produces a protein called albumin. It has numerous roles and makes up roughly 60% of the blood's overall protein content. The amount of albumin in the blood is determined by this test.

Albumin nourishes tissues, transports hormones, vitamins, medicines, and chemicals like calcium throughout the body, and prevents fluid from seeping out of blood vessels. When factors affect the liver's ability to produce albumin, increase protein breakdown, increase protein loss through the kidneys, and/or increase plasma volume, albumin levels may decline to a greater or lower extent.

Low blood albumin can result from two key factors, including:

  • Severe liver disease: Since the liver produces albumin, its level may drop with loss of liver function; however, this is usually only the case in cases of severe liver illness.
  • Kidney disease: One of the kidneys' numerous jobs is to preserve plasma proteins like albumin so that they don't pass through the urine production process with other waste materials. High levels of albumin are found in the blood, and when the kidneys are working well, very little albumin is excreted in the urine. However, the ability to preserve albumin and other proteins starts to deteriorate if a person's kidneys become harmed or ill. Chronic disorders like diabetes and hypertension are prone to this. Extremely large amounts of albumin are lost through the kidneys in nephrotic syndrome.

Lab tests often ordered with an Albumin test:

  • Hepatic Function Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Urine Albumin
  • Urinalysis
  • Total Protein
  • Creatinine
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
  • Renal Panel

Conditions where an Albumin test is recommended:

  • Liver Disease
  • Kidney Disease
  • Malnutrition
  • Proteinuria

How does my health care provider use an Albumin test?

An albumin test is widely used to assess a person's general health state since it is typically included in the panels of tests run as part of a health check, such as a thorough metabolic panel.

Albumin may also be used in a variety of situations to aid in the diagnosis of disease, to track changes in health status due to therapy or disease progression, and as a screen that may suggest the need for other types of testing because it can be low in a range of diseases and disorders.

The liver produces albumin, a protein that nourishes cells, prevents fluid from seeping out of blood vessels, carries hormones, vitamins, medications, and other chemicals like calcium throughout the body.

A creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, or renal panel may be ordered in addition to an albumin test to assess liver function or in conjunction with one of these tests to assess kidney function. Additionally, albumin can be requested to assess a person's nutritional status.

What do my Albumin test results mean?

The results of an albumin test are assessed in conjunction with those from other tests carried out concurrently, such as those in a comprehensive metabolic panel or during follow-up.

A low albumin level could be a red flag and a sign that more research may be necessary. A low albumin level could indicate a short-term issue that will go away on its own or it could indicate an acute or chronic disease that calls for medical attention.

When conditions affect albumin production, increase protein breakdown, increase protein loss, and/or expand plasma volume, albumin levels may decline to a greater or lower extent. Additional testing may be carried out to look into a low result, depending on the patient's medical history, signs and symptoms, and physical examination.

Low albumin levels may signal liver illness. To pinpoint precisely which sort of liver illness may be present, liver enzyme tests or a liver panel may be prescribed. However, until the disease has progressed to an advanced degree, a person with liver disease may have normal or nearly normal albumin levels. For instance, albumin is frequently low in cirrhotic individuals while albumin is typically normal in most chronic liver illnesses that have not progressed to cirrhosis.

Low albumin levels can be a sign of illnesses where the kidneys are unable to stop albumin from leaking into the urine and being lost. In this situation, tests for creatinine, BUN, or a renal panel may be requested, along with measurements of the albumin or protein levels in the urine.

Inflammation, shock, and starvation are among conditions that can cause low albumin levels. They may exhibit symptoms of diseases like Crohn's disease or celiac disease, which affect how well the body absorbs and digests protein, as well as circumstances where significant amounts of protein are wasted from the intestines.

A low albumin level can also occur in a number of different illnesses, including:

  • Infections
  • Burns
  • Surgery
  • chronic disease
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Hypothyroidism
  • the cancer syndrome
  • Plasma volume enlargement brought on by congestive heart failure and occasionally pregnancy
  • Dehydration can cause high albumin levels, albeit this condition is not routinely tracked or detected by the test.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Calcium Most Popular

Description: A Calcium test is a blood test that is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a wide range of medical conditions.

Also Known As: Ca Test, Serum Calcium Test, Calcium Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Calcium test ordered?

A blood calcium test is frequently requested during a general medical evaluation. It's usually part of the comprehensive metabolic panel or the basic metabolic panel, two sets of tests that can be done during an initial evaluation or as part of a routine medical checks.

Many people do not experience symptoms of high or low calcium until their levels are dangerously high or low.

When a person has certain types of cancer, kidney illness, or has had a kidney transplant, calcium monitoring may be required. When someone is being treated for abnormal calcium levels, monitoring may be required to determine the effectiveness of medications such as calcium or vitamin D supplements.

What does a Calcium blood test check for?

Calcium is one of the most plentiful and vital minerals in the human body. It is required for cell signaling as well as the proper operation of muscles, nerves, and the heart. Calcium is essential for blood clotting as well as bone growth, density, and maintenance. This test determines how much calcium is present in the blood.

Calcium is found complexed in the bones for 99 percent of the time, while the remaining 1% circulates in the blood. Calcium levels are closely monitored; if too little is absorbed or consumed, or if too much is lost through the kidney or stomach, calcium is removed from bone to keep blood concentrations stable. Approximately half of the calcium in the blood is metabolically active and "free." The other half is "bound" to albumin, with a minor proportion complexed to anions like phosphate, and both of these forms are metabolically inactive.

Blood calcium can be measured using two different tests. The free and bound forms of calcium are measured in the total calcium test. Only the free, physiologically active form of calcium is measured in the ionized calcium test.

Lab tests often ordered with a Calcium test:

  • Phosphorus
  • Vitamin D
  • Magnesium
  • PTH
  • Albumin
  • Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

Conditions where a Calcium test is recommended:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Thyroid Disease
  • Alcoholism
  • Malnutrition
  • Parathyroid Diseases
  • Breast Cancer
  • Multiple Myeloma

How does my health care provider use a Calcium test?

A blood calcium test is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of bone, heart, nerve, kidney, and tooth disorders. If a person has signs of a parathyroid disease, malabsorption, or an overactive thyroid, the test may be ordered.

A total calcium level is frequently checked as part of a standard health check. It's part of the comprehensive metabolic panel and the basic metabolic panel, which are both collections of tests used to diagnose or monitor a range of ailments.

When a total calcium result is abnormal, it is interpreted as a sign of an underlying disease. Additional tests to assess ionized calcium, urine calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and PTH-related peptide are frequently performed to assist determine the underlying problem. PTH and vitamin D are in charge of keeping calcium levels in the blood within a narrow range of values.

Measuring calcium and PTH combined can assist identify whether the parathyroid glands are functioning normally if the calcium is abnormal. Testing for vitamin D, phosphorus, and/or magnesium can assist evaluate whether the kidneys are excreting the right amount of calcium, and measuring urine calcium can help detect whether additional deficits or excesses exist. The balance of these many compounds is frequently just as critical as their concentrations.

The total calcium test is the most common test used to determine calcium status. Because the balance between free and bound calcium is usually constant and predictable, it is a reliable reflection of the quantity of free calcium present in the blood in most cases. However, the balance between bound and free calcium is altered in some persons, and total calcium is not a good indicator of calcium status. Ionized calcium measurement may be required in certain cases. Critically sick patients, those receiving blood transfusions or intravenous fluids, patients undergoing major surgery, and persons with blood protein disorders such low albumin are all candidates for ionized calcium testing.

What do my Calcium test results mean?

The amount of calcium circulating in the blood is not the same as the amount of calcium in the bones.

A feedback loop including PTH and vitamin D regulates and stabilizes calcium uptake, utilization, and excretion. Conditions and disorders that disturb calcium control can induce abnormal acute or chronic calcium elevations or declines, resulting in hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia symptoms.

Total calcium is usually tested instead of ionized calcium since it is easier to do and requires no additional treatment of the blood sample. Because the free and bound forms of calcium make up about half of the total, total calcium is usually a decent depiction of free calcium. Because nearly half of the calcium in blood is bonded to protein, high or low protein levels might alter total calcium test findings. In these circumstances, an ionized calcium test is more appropriate for measuring free calcium.

A normal total or ionized calcium test, when combined with other normal laboratory findings, indicates that a person's calcium metabolism is normal and blood levels are properly managed.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A CBC or Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets test is a blood test that measures many important features of your blood’s red and white blood cells and platelets. A Complete Blood Count can be used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide variety of conditions such as infection, anemia, and leukemia. It also looks at other important aspects of your blood health such as hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. 

Also Known As: CBC test, Complete Blood Count Test, Total Blood Count Test, CBC with Differential and Platelets test, Hemogram test  

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Whole Blood 

Test Preparation: No preparation required 

When is a Complete Blood Count test ordered?  

The complete blood count (CBC) is an extremely common test. When people go to the doctor for a standard checkup or blood work, they often get a CBC. Suppose a person is healthy and their results are within normal ranges. In that case, they may not need another CBC unless their health condition changes, or their healthcare professional believes it is necessary. 

When a person exhibits a variety of signs and symptoms that could be connected to blood cell abnormalities, a CBC may be done. A health practitioner may request a CBC to help diagnose and determine the severity of lethargy or weakness, as well as infection, inflammation, bruises, or bleeding. 

When a person is diagnosed with a disease that affects blood cells, a CBC is frequently done regularly to keep track of their progress. Similarly, if someone is being treated for a blood condition, a CBC may be performed on a regular basis to see if the treatment is working. 

Chemotherapy, for example, can influence the generation of cells in the bone marrow. Some drugs can lower WBC counts in the long run. To monitor various medication regimens, a CBC may be required on a regular basis. 

What does a Complete Blood Count test check for? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that determines the number of cells in circulation. White blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), and platelets (PLTs) are three types of cells suspended in a fluid called plasma. They are largely created and matured in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when needed under normal circumstances. 

A CBC is mainly performed with an automated machine that measures a variety of factors, including the number of cells present in a person's blood sample. The findings of a CBC can reveal not only the quantity of different cell types but also the physical properties of some of the cells. 

Significant differences in one or more blood cell populations may suggest the presence of one or more diseases. Other tests are frequently performed to assist in determining the reason for aberrant results. This frequently necessitates visual confirmation via a microscope examination of a blood smear. A skilled laboratory technician can assess the appearance and physical features of blood cells, such as size, shape, and color, and note any anomalies. Any extra information is taken note of and communicated to the healthcare provider. This information provides the health care provider with further information about the cause of abnormal CBC results. 

The CBC focuses on three different types of cells: 

WBCs (White Blood Cells) 

The body uses five different types of WBCs, also known as leukocytes, to keep itself healthy and battle infections and other types of harm. The five different leukocytes are eosinophiles, lymphocytes, neutrophiles, basophils, and monocytes. They are found in relatively steady numbers in the blood. Depending on what is going on in the body, these values may momentarily rise or fall. An infection, for example, can cause the body to manufacture more neutrophils in order to combat bacterial infection. The amount of eosinophils in the body may increase as a result of allergies. A viral infection may cause an increase in lymphocyte production. Abnormal (immature or mature) white cells multiply fast in certain illness situations, such as leukemia, raising the WBC count. 

RBCs (Red Blood Cells) 

The bone marrow produces red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, which are transferred into the bloodstream after maturing. Hemoglobin, a protein that distributes oxygen throughout the body, is found in these cells. Because RBCs have a 120-day lifespan, the bone marrow must constantly manufacture new RBCs to replace those that have aged and disintegrated or have been lost due to hemorrhage. A variety of diseases, including those that cause severe bleeding, can alter the creation of new RBCs and their longevity. 

The CBC measures the number of RBCs and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as the proportion of RBCs in the blood (hematocrit), and if the RBC population appears to be normal. RBCs are generally homogeneous in size and shape, with only minor differences; however, considerable variances can arise in illnesses including vitamin B12 and folate inadequacy, iron deficiency, and a range of other ailments. Anemia occurs when the concentration of red blood cells and/or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood falls below normal, resulting in symptoms such as weariness and weakness. In a far smaller percentage of cases, there may be an excess of RBCs in the blood (erythrocytosis or polycythemia). This might obstruct the flow of blood through the tiny veins and arteries in extreme circumstances. 

Platelets 

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small cell fragments that aid in the regular clotting of blood. A person with insufficient platelets is more likely to experience excessive bleeding and bruises. Excess platelets can induce excessive clotting or excessive bleeding if the platelets are not operating properly. The platelet count and size are determined by the CBC. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Complete Blood Count test: 

  • Reticulocytes
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Basic Metabolic Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Von Willebrand Factor Antigen

Conditions where a Complete Blood Count test is recommended: 

  • Anemia
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Heart Disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Leukemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Mononucleosis

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Complete Blood Count test? 

The complete blood count (CBC) is a common, comprehensive screening test used to measure a person's overall health status.  

What do my Complete Blood Count results mean? 

A low Red Blood Cell Count, also known as anemia, could be due many different causes such as chronic bleeding, a bone marrow disorder, and nutritional deficiency just to name a few. A high Red Blood Cell Count, also known as polycythemia, could be due to several conditions including lung disease, dehydration, and smoking. Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit tend to reflect Red Blood Cell Count results, so if your Red Blood Cell Count is low, your Hematocrit and Hemoglobin will likely also be low. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Differential results mean? 

A low White Blood Cell count or low WBC count, also known as leukopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, severe infection, and lymphoma. A high White Blood Cell count, or high WBC count, also known as leukocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including infection, leukemia, and inflammation. Abnormal levels in your White Blood Cell Count will be reflected in one or more of your different white blood cells. Knowing which white blood cell types are affected will help your healthcare provider narrow down the issue. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

What do my Platelet results mean? 

A low Platelet Count, also known as thrombocytopenia, could be due to a number of different disorders including autoimmune issues, viral infection, and leukemia. A high Platelet Count, also known as Thrombocytosis, can also be due to many different disorders including cancer, iron deficiency, and rheumatoid arthritis. Results should be discussed with your health care provider who can provide interpretation of your results and determine the appropriate next steps or lab tests to further investigate your health. 

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported. Certain biomarkers do not appear in healthy individuals. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Reflex Parameters for Manual Slide Review
  Less than  Greater Than 
WBC  1.5 x 10^3  30.0 x 10^3 
Hemoglobin  7.0 g/dL  19.0 g/dL 
Hematocrit  None  75%
Platelet  100 x 10^3  800 x 10^3 
MCV  70 fL  115 fL 
MCH  22 pg  37 pg 
MCHC  29 g/dL  36.5 g/dL 
RBC  None  8.00 x 10^6 
RDW  None  21.5
Relative Neutrophil %  1% or ABNC <500  None 
Relative Lymphocyte %  1% 70%
Relative Monocyte %  None  25%
Eosinophil  None  35%
Basophil  None  3.50%
     
Platelet  <75 with no flags,
>100 and <130 with platelet clump flag present,
>1000 
Instrument Flags Variant lymphs, blasts,
immature neutrophils,  nRBC’s, abnormal platelets,
giant platelets, potential interference
     
The automated differential averages 6000 cells. If none of the above parameters are met, the results are released without manual review.
CBC Reflex Pathway

Step 1 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes:

  • Confirmation of differential percentages
  • WBC and platelet estimates, when needed
  • Full review of RBC morphology
  • Comments for toxic changes, RBC inclusions, abnormal lymphs, and other
  • significant findings
  • If the differential percentages agree with the automated counts and no abnormal cells are seen, the automated differential is reported with appropriate comments

Step 2 - The slide review is performed by qualified Laboratory staff and includes: If any of the following are seen on the slide review, Laboratory staff will perform a manual differential:

  • Immature, abnormal, or toxic cells
  • nRBC’s
  • Disagreement with automated differential
  • Atypical/abnormal RBC morphology
  • Any RBC inclusions

Step 3 If any of the following are seen on the manual differential, a Pathologist will review the slide:

  • WBC<1,500 with abnormal cells noted
  • Blasts/immature cells, hairy cell lymphs, or megakaryocytes
  • New abnormal lymphocytes or monocytes
  • Variant or atypical lymphs >15%
  • Blood parasites
  • RBC morphology with 3 spherocytes, RBC inclusions, suspect Hgb-C,
  • crystals, Pappenheimer bodies or bizarre morphology
  • nRBC’s

Description: A Comprehensive Metabolic Panel or CMP is a blood test that is a combination of a Basic Metabolic Panel, a Liver Panel, and electrolyte panel, and is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases such as liver disease, diabetes, and kidney disease. 

Also Known As: CMP, Chem, Chem-14, Chem-12, Chem-21, Chemistry Panel, Chem Panel, Chem Screen, Chemistry Screen, SMA 12, SMA 20, SMA 21, SMAC, Chem test

Collection Method: 

Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: 

Serum 

Test Preparation: 

9-12 hours fasting is preferred. 

When is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test ordered:  

A CMP is frequently requested as part of a lab test for a medical evaluation or yearly physical. A CMP test consists of many different tests that give healthcare providers a range of information about your health, including liver and kidney function, electrolyte balance, and blood sugar levels. To confirm or rule out a suspected diagnosis, abnormal test results are frequently followed up with other tests that provide a more in depth or targeted analysis of key areas that need investigating. 

What does a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel blood test check for? 

The complete metabolic panel (CMP) is a set of 20 tests that provides critical information to a healthcare professional about a person's current metabolic status, check for liver or kidney disease, electrolyte and acid/base balance, and blood glucose and blood protein levels. Abnormal results, particularly when they are combined, can suggest a problem that needs to be addressed. 

The following tests are included in the CMP: 

  • Albumin: this is a measure of Albumin levels in your blood. Albumin is a protein made by the liver that is responsible for many vital roles including transporting nutrients throughout the body and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. 

  • Albumin/Globulin Ratio: this is a ratio between your total Albumin and Globulin  

  • Alkaline Phosphatase: this is a measure of Alkaline phosphatase or ALP in your blood. Alkaline phosphatase is a protein found in all body tissues, however the ALP found in blood comes from the liver and bones. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage, gallbladder disease, or bone disorder. 

  • Alt: this is a measure of Alanine transaminase or ALT in your blood. Alanine Aminotransferase is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver with small amounts in the heart and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • AST: this is a measure of Aspartate Aminotransferase or AST. Aspartate Aminotransferase is an enzyme found mostly in the heart and liver, with smaller amounts in the kidney and muscles. Elevated levels are often associated with liver damage. 

  • Bilirubin, Total: this is a measure of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is an orange-yellowish waste product produced from the breakdown of heme which is a component of hemoglobin found in red blood cells. The liver is responsible for removal of bilirubin from the body. 

  • Bun/Creatinine Ratio: this is a ratio between your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and Creatinine result.  

  • Calcium: this is a measurement of calcium in your blood. Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body as it essential for proper nerve, muscle, and heart function. 

  • Calcium: is used for blood clot formation and the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. 

  • Carbon Dioxide: this is a measure of carbon dioxide in your blood. Carbon dioxide is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as chloride, potassium, and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels.  

  • Chloride: this is a measure of Chloride in your blood. Chloride is a negatively charged electrolyte that works with other electrolytes such as potassium and sodium to regulate the body’s acid-base balance and fluid levels. 

  • Creatinine: this is a measure of Creatinine levels in your blood. Creatinine is created from the breakdown of creatine in your muscles and is removed from your body by the kidneys. Elevated creatinine levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

  • Egfr African American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Egfr Non-Afr. American: this is a measure of how well your kidneys are functioning. Glomeruli are tiny filters in your kidneys that filter out waste products from your blood for removal while retaining important substances such as nutrients and blood cells. 

  • Globulin: this is a measure of all blood proteins in your blood that are not albumin. 

  • Glucose: this is a measure of glucose in your blood. Glucose is created from the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and is the body’s primary source of energy. 

  • Potassium: this is a measure of Potassium in your blood. Potassium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in cell metabolism, nerve and muscle function, and transport of nutrients into cells and removal of wastes products out of cells. 

  • Protein, Total: this is a measure of total protein levels in your blood. 
    Sodium: this is a measure of Sodium in your blood. Sodium is an electrolyte that plays a vital role in nerve and muscle function. 

  • Sodium: this is a measure of sodium in your blood's serum. Sodium is a vital mineral for nerve and muscle cell function.

  • Urea Nitrogen (Bun): this is a measure of Urea Nitrogen in your blood, also known as Blood UreaNitrogen (BUN). Urea is a waste product created in the liver when proteins are broken down into amino acids. Elevated levels are often associated with kidney damage. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test: 

  • Complete Blood Count with Differential and Platelets
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Lipid Panel
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Prothrombin with INR and Partial Thromboplastin Times
  • Sed Rate (ESR)
  • C-Reactive Protein

Conditions where a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test is recommended: 

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test? 

The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a broad screening tool for assessing organ function and detecting diseases like diabetes, liver disease, and kidney disease. The CMP test may also be requested to monitor known disorders such as hypertension and to check for any renal or liver-related side effects in persons taking specific drugs. If a health practitioner wants to follow two or more separate CMP components, the full CMP might be ordered because it contains more information. 

What do my Comprehensive Metabolic Panel test results mean? 

The results of the tests included in the CMP are usually analyzed together to look for patterns. A single abnormal test result may indicate something different than a series of abnormal test findings. A high result on one of the liver enzyme tests, for example, is not the same as a high result on several liver enzyme tests. 

Several sets of CMPs, frequently performed on various days, may be examined to gain insights into the underlying disease and response to treatment, especially in hospitalized patients. 

Out-of-range findings for any of the CMP tests can be caused by a variety of illnesses, including kidney failure, breathing issues, and diabetes-related complications, to name a few. If any of the results are abnormal, one or more follow-up tests are usually ordered to help determine the reason and/or establish a diagnosis. 

Is there anything else I should know? 

A wide range of prescription and over-the-counter medications can have an impact on the results of the CMP's components. Any medications you're taking should be disclosed to your healthcare professional. Similarly, it is critical to provide a thorough history because many other circumstances can influence how your results are interpreted. 

What's the difference between the CMP and the BMP tests, and why would my doctor choose one over the other? 

The CMP consists of 14 tests, while the basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a subset of those with eight tests. The liver (ALP, ALT, AST, and bilirubin) and protein (albumin and total protein) tests are not included. If a healthcare provider wants a more thorough picture of a person's organ function or to check for specific illnesses like diabetes or liver or kidney disease, he or she may prescribe a CMP rather than a BMP. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.

Please note the following regarding BUN/Creatinine ratio: 

The lab does not report the calculation for the BUN/Creatinine Ratio unless one or both biomarkers’ results fall out of the published range. 

If you still wish to see the value, it's easy to calculate. Simply take your Urea Nitrogen (BUN) result and divide it by your Creatinine result.  

As an example, if your Urea Nitrogen result is 11 and your Creatinine result is 0.86, then you would divide 11 by 0.86 and get a BUN/Creatinine Ratio result of 12.79. 


Copper Most Popular

Description: Copper is a blood test that measures the amount of copper in the blood's plasma. Copper levels in the blood can help to diagnose Wilson's Disease.

Also Known As: Cu Test, Blood Copper Test, Free Copper Test, Hepatic Copper Test, Copper Serum Test, Copper Plasma Test, Copper Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Plasma or Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Copper test ordered?

When a health practitioner suspects Wilson disease, excess copper storage, or copper poisoning, one or more copper tests are requested along with ceruloplasmin.

When copper and ceruloplasmin results are abnormal or inconclusive, a hepatic copper test may be conducted to further evaluate copper storage.

What does a Copper blood test check for?

Copper is an important mineral that the body uses to make enzymes. These enzymes are involved in the regulation of iron metabolism, the development of connective tissue, cellular energy production, the production of melanin, and nervous system function. This test determines how much copper is present in the blood, urine, or liver.

Nuts, chocolate, mushrooms, seafood, whole grains, dried fruits, and liver are all high in copper. Copper may be absorbed into drinking water as it passes through copper pipes, and copper may be absorbed into food as it is cooked or served on copper dishes. Copper is absorbed from food or liquids in the intestines, converted to a non-toxic form by binding it to a protein, and transported to the liver in normal circumstances. To make the enzyme ceruloplasmin, the liver saves some copper and binds the remainder to another protein called apoceruloplasmin. Ceruloplasmin binds about 95 percent of the copper in the blood, with the rest attached to other proteins like albumin. In a free condition, only a little amount is present in the blood. Excess copper is excreted by the liver in the bile, which is then excreted by the body in the feces. Copper is also excreted in the urine in small amounts.

Copper excess and deficiency are uncommon. Wilson disease is a rare genetic ailment that causes the liver, brain, and other organs to store too much copper. Excess copper can arise when a person is exposed to and absorbs high amounts of copper in a short period of time or little amounts over a long period of time.

Copper deficiency can arise in patients with severe malabsorption diseases such cystic fibrosis and celiac disease, as well as infants who are exclusively fed cow-milk formulas.

Menkes kinky hair syndrome is a rare X-linked hereditary disorder that causes copper shortage in the brain and liver of affected babies. Seizures, delayed development, aberrant artery growth in the brain, and unique gray brittle kinky hair are all symptoms of the condition, which mostly affects men.

Lab tests often ordered with a Copper test:

  • Ceruloplasmin
  • Heavy Metals
  • ACTH
  • Aldosterone
  • 17-Hydroprogesterone
  • Growth Hormone

Conditions where a Copper test is recommended:

  • Wilson Disease
  • Malnutrition

How does my health care provider use a Copper test?

Copper testing is largely used to detect Wilson disease, a rare genetic ailment in which the liver, brain, and other organs accumulate an excessive amount of copper. A copper test is less usually used to detect copper excess caused by another ailment, to diagnose a copper deficit, or to track treatment for one of these conditions.

Copper is a necessary mineral, but too much of it can be harmful. The majority of it is bound to the enzyme ceruloplasmin in the blood, leaving only a little quantity "free" or unbound.

A whole blood copper test is usually ordered in conjunction with a ceruloplasmin level. If the findings of these tests are abnormal or ambiguous, a 24-hour urine copper test to monitor copper elimination and/or a copper test on a liver biopsy to check copper storage in the liver may be conducted.

A free blood copper test is sometimes ordered as well. If Wilson disease is suspected, genetic testing for mutations in the ATP7B gene may be undertaken. However, these tests are only available in a restricted number of locations and are usually carried out in specialized reference or research laboratories.

A copper test may be used to identify Menkes kinky hair syndrome, a rare inherited copper transport failure condition.

What do my Copper test results mean?

Copper test findings are frequently linked to ceruloplasmin levels and considered in context. Copper results that are abnormal are not indicative of a specific illness; rather, they signal that more research is needed. Because ceruloplasmin is an acute phase reactant, it might be raised if inflammation or severe infections are present, making interpretation difficult. Ceruloplasmin and copper levels rise during pregnancy, as well as with the use of estrogen and oral contraceptives.

Wilson disease is characterized by low blood copper concentrations, elevated urine copper levels, low ceruloplasmin levels, and increased liver copper.

Elevated copper concentrations in the blood and urine, as well as normal or increased ceruloplasmin levels, may suggest excessive copper exposure or be linked to disorders that reduce copper excretion, such as chronic liver disease, or release copper from tissues, such as acute hepatitis. Chronic diseases can cause an increase in hepatic copper levels.

Copper deficiency is indicated by lower copper concentrations in the blood and urine, as well as lower ceruloplasmin levels.

A normal hepatic copper test could mean that copper metabolism is normal, or that the distribution of copper in the liver is uneven, and that the sample isn't reflective of the person's health.

If a person is being treated for Wilson disease or copper toxicity with copper-binding medicines, their 24-hour urine copper levels may be high until their body copper stores are depleted. Copper concentrations in the blood and urine should return to normal over time.

If a person is being treated for a copper deficient disorder and their ceruloplasmin and total copper levels start to rise, the condition is likely responding to the treatment.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


This test will identify approximately 90% of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) mutations in the Caucasian population, and 97% in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. For prenatal specimens, use test code 10226.

Ferritin Most Popular

Description: A Ferritin test is a blood test that measures Ferritin levels in your blood’s serum to evaluate the level of iron stored in your body.

Also Known As: Ferritin Serum Test, Ferritin Test, Ferritin Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Ferritin test ordered?

When a CBC test’s implies iron deficiency anemia due to small red blood cells or low hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, the ferritin test, and other iron tests, may be requested, even if other clinical symptoms have not yet arisen.

There are frequently no physical symptoms in the early stages of iron insufficiency. Symptoms rarely develop before hemoglobin falls below dangerous levels. However, when the iron deficit continues, symptoms emerge, prompting a doctor to order ferritin and other iron-related testing. The following are the most prevalent symptoms of iron deficiency anemia:

  • Chronic tiredness/fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Skin that is pale

Shortness of breath, ringing in the ears, sleepiness, and irritability may occur as iron levels are reduced. Chest pain, headaches, limb pains, shock, and even heart failure may occur as the anemia worsens. Learning impairments can occur in children. There are some symptoms that are specific to iron deficiency, in addition to the usual signs of anemia. Pica, a burning feeling in the tongue or a smooth tongue, ulcers at the corners of the mouth, and spoon-shaped finger- and toe-nails are only a few of the symptoms.

When iron overload is suspected, a ferritin level may be requested. Iron overload symptoms differ from person to person and tend to worsen over time. They are caused by an excess of iron in the blood and tissues. Among the signs and symptoms are:

  • Joint discomfort
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Loss of weight
  • Energy deficiency
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Suffering from a lack of sexual desire
  • Hair loss on the body
  • Congestive heart failure is an example of a cardiac issue

Other iron tests including a genetic test for hereditary hemochromatosis may be conducted to confirm the existence of iron excess.

What does a Ferritin blood test check for?

Ferritin is an iron-containing protein that stores iron in cells in its most basic form. The amount of total iron stored in the body is reflected in the little amount of ferritin released into the blood. This test determines how much ferritin is present in the blood.

About 70% of the iron consumed by the body is integrated into the hemoglobin of red blood cells in healthy humans. The remaining 30% is stored primarily as ferritin or hemosiderin, which is a combination of iron, proteins, and other elements. Hemosiderin and ferritin are typically found in the liver, although they can also be found in the bone marrow, spleen, and skeletal muscles.

Iron stores are depleted and ferritin levels fall when available iron is insufficient to meet the body's needs. This can happen owing to a lack of iron, poor absorption, or an increased need for iron, such as during pregnancy or if you have a condition that causes persistent blood loss. Before any indicators of iron shortage appear, significant loss of iron reserves may occur.

When the body absorbs more iron than it needs, iron storage and ferritin levels rise. Chronic iron absorption causes a gradual buildup of iron compounds in organs, which can eventually lead to organ malfunction and failure. Even on a typical diet, this happens in hemochromatosis, a hereditary disorder in which the body absorbs too much iron.

Lab tests often ordered with a Ferritin test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Transferrin
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Zinc Protoporphyrin

Conditions where a Ferritin test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Lead poisoning
  • Pregnancy
  • Restless Leg Syndrome

How does my health care provider use a Ferritin test?

The ferritin test is used to determine the amount of iron a person has in their body. To determine the existence and severity of iron shortage or iron overload, the test is sometimes ordered in conjunction with an iron test and a TIBC test.

One source of iron overload can be the use of iron supplements.

What does my ferritin lab test result mean?

Ferritin levels are frequently measured alongside other iron tests.

Ferritin levels are low in iron deficient people and high in people who have hemochromatosis or have had several blood transfusions.

Ferritin is an acute phase reactant that can be elevated in persons who have inflammation, liver illness, chronic infection, autoimmune disorders, or cancer. Ferritin isn't commonly utilized to detect or monitor these problems.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Folate, Serum Most Popular

Description: A Folate test measures the levels of folic acid in the blood. These results can be used to determine a folate deficiency and evaluate a person's nutritional status. Anemia and Neuropathy can also be evaluated using the results from this test.

Also Known As: Folate Serum Test, Folic Acid Test, Vitamin B9 Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Folate test ordered?

When a complete blood count and/or blood smear, performed as part of a health checkup or anemia evaluation, reveal a low red blood cell count with the presence of big RBCs, B12 and folate levels may be ordered. A high mean corpuscular volume, in particular, implies that the RBCs are enlarged.

When a person exhibits the following signs and symptoms of a deficit, testing for folate levels may be necessary.

  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Muscle weakness, fatigue
  • Appetite loss.
  • Skin that is pale
  • Irregular heartbeats, rapid heart rate
  • Breathing problems
  • Tongue and mouth ache
  • In the feet, hands, arms, and legs, there is tingling, numbness, and/or burning 
  • Confusion or obliviousness
  • Paranoia

When a person is at risk of deficiency, such as those with a history of malnutrition or a condition associated to malabsorption, folate testing may be ordered.

Individuals being treated for malnutrition or a folate deficit may have these tests done on a frequent basis to see how effective their treatments are. This could be part of a long-term therapy plan for people who have a disease that causes chronic deficiency.

What does a Folate blood test check for?

The B complex of vitamins includes vitamins including vitamin B12 and folate. They are required for the creation of normal red blood cells, tissue and cell repair, and the synthesis of DNA, the genetic material in cells. Both are nutrients that the body cannot make and must be obtained from the diet.

Vitamin B9 tests, also known as folate tests, diagnose vitamin deficiencies by measuring vitamin levels in the liquid section of the blood. The amount of folate in red blood cells is sometimes tested as well.

Folate is a naturally occurring form of the vitamin, whereas folic acid is a supplement that can be added to foods and beverages. Leafy green vegetables, dry beans and peas, citrus fruits, yeast, and liver all contain it. Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, can be found in animal-based foods such red meat, fish, poultry, milk, yogurt, and eggs. Fortified cereals, breads, and other grain products have become key sources of B12 and folate in recent years

A lack of folate can cause macrocytic anemia, a condition in which red blood cells are bigger than normal. Megaloblastic anemia is a kind of macrocytic anemia marked by the generation of fewer but larger RBCs known as macrocytes, as well as cellular abnormalities in the bone marrow. Reduced white blood cell and platelet counts are two more test results linked to megaloblastic anemia.

Folate is required for cell division, which occurs in the developing fetus. In a growing fetus, a lack of folate during early pregnancy can raise the chance of neural tube abnormalities such spina bifida.

Folate deficiency is most commonly caused by inadequate intake of the vitamin through diet or supplements, poor absorption, or increased bodily requirement, as observed during pregnancy:

  • Dietary deficiencies are uncommon in the United States since many meals and beverages are fortified with vitamins that the body stores. Adults normally have around three months' worth of folate stored in their liver. Dietary deficiencies normally do not manifest symptoms until the body's vitamin supplies have been exhausted.
  • Increased demand—this can occur as a result of a range of diseases and disorders. When a woman is pregnant or nursing, in early childhood, with malignancies, or with chronic hemolytic anemias, there is an increased demand for folate.

Lab tests often ordered with a Folate test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Methylmalonic Acid
  • Homocysteine
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin B3
  • Vitamin B5
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B7
  • Vitamin B12
  • Intrinsic Factor Antibody
  • Parietal Cell Antibody
  • Reticulocyte Count

Conditions where a Folate test is recommended:

  • Neural Tube Defects
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies
  • Anemia
  • Alcoholism
  • Malnutrition
  • Celiac Disease
  • Malabsorption
  • Neuropathy
  • Nervous System Disorders
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease

How does my health care provider use a Folate test?

Separate tests for vitamin B12 and folate are frequently used in conjunction to detect deficiencies and to aid in the diagnosis of anemias such as pernicious anemia, an inflammatory condition that inhibits B12 absorption.

B12 and folate are two vitamins that the body cannot generate and must be obtained from the diet. They're needed for red blood cell creation, tissue and cell repair, and DNA synthesis, which is the genetic material in cells. B12 is required for normal nerve function.

B12 and folate tests can also be used to assess someone who is experiencing mental or behavioral changes, especially in the elderly. A B12 test can be ordered with or without folate, as well as with other screening laboratory tests like a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, antinuclear antibody, C-reactive protein, and rheumatoid factor, to help determine why a person is exhibiting signs and symptoms of a nerve disorder.

B12 and folate tests can also be performed in conjunction with a variety of other tests to assess a person's overall health and nutritional status if they have signs and symptoms of substantial malnutrition or dietary malabsorption. People with alcoholism, liver disease, stomach cancer, or malabsorption diseases including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or cystic fibrosis may fall into this category.

Testing may be performed to assess the success of treatment in patients with known B12 and folate deficits. This is especially true for people who cannot absorb B12 and/or folate effectively and must be treated for the rest of their lives.

Folate levels in the blood's liquid part might fluctuate depending on a person's recent diet. Because red blood cells contain 95 percent of circulating folate, a test to evaluate folate levels inside RBCs could be employed instead of or in addition to the serum test. Some doctors believe that the RBC folate test is a better predictor of long-term folate status and is more clinically useful than serum folate, however there is no consensus on this.

Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are two more laboratory tests that can be used to detect B12 and folate deficits. In B12 deficiency, both homocysteine and MMA are high, whereas in folate deficit, only homocysteine, not MMA, is elevated. This distinction is critical because treating anemia with folate treats the anemia but not the brain damage, which may be irreparable.

What do my Folate Serum test results mean?

Normal folate levels may indicate that a person does not suffer from a deficiency and that the signs and symptoms are caused by something else. Normal levels, on the other hand, may indicate that a person's stored folate has not yet been depleted.

A low folate level in a person with signs and symptoms implies a deficiency, although it does not always indicate the severity of the anemia or related neuropathy. Additional tests are frequently performed to determine the source of the deficit. Low folate levels can be caused by a variety of factors.

Dietary folate deficiency is uncommon in the United States. It can be evident in people who are malnourished in general and vegans who do not eat any animal products. Folate deficiency has become extremely rare since the development of fortified cereals, breads, and other grain products.

Folate deficits can be caused by diseases that prevent them from being absorbed in the small intestine. These may include the following:

  • Pernicious anemia.
  • Celiac disease
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
  • Bacterial overgrowth or the presence of parasites in the intestines, such as tapeworms
  • Long-term usage of antacids or H2 proton pump inhibitors reduces stomach acid production.
  • Absorption can be considerably reduced by surgery that removes part of the stomach or the intestines, such as gastric bypass.
  • Insufficiency of the pancreas
  • Chronic alcoholism or heavy drinking
  • Some treatments, such as metformin, omeprazole, methotrexate, or anti-seizure medications like phenytoin.
  • Increased requirement for healthy fetal development, all pregnant women require an increased amount of folate and are advised to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid every day. People who have cancer that has spread or who have chronic hemolytic anemia require more folate.
  • Smoking

If a person is taking supplements to treat a folate deficiency, normal or higher findings indicate that the treatment is working.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Iodine, Serum/Plasma Most Popular
Iodine is an essential element that is required for thyroid hormone production. The measurement of iodine serves as an index of adequate dietary intake.

Homocysteine Most Popular

Description: Homocysteine is an amino acid that is present in every cell. There is a small amount present as it is an amino acid that changes quickly into other needed products in the body.

Also Known As: Homocysteine Cardiac Risk Test, Homocysteine Blood Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for at least 8 hours is preferred

When is a Homocysteine test ordered?

When a doctor feels a person may be deficient in vitamin B12 or folate, he or she may request this test. At first, the signs and symptoms are vague and ambiguous. People who have an early deficit may be diagnosed before they show any visible symptoms. Other persons who are impacted may experience a range of moderate to severe symptoms, including:

  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Appetite loss
  • Paleness
  • Heart rate that is quite fast
  • Breathing problems
  • Tongue and mouth ache
  • In the feet, hands, arms, and legs, there is tingling, numbness, and/or burning

Depending on an individual's age and other risk factors, homocysteine may be requested as part of determining a person's risk of developing cardiovascular disease. It may also be ordered after a heart attack or stroke to aid in treatment planning.

When newborn screening identifies an increased level of methionine or if an infant or kid shows signs and symptoms of homocystinuria, this test may be ordered. Babies with this illness will appear normal at birth, but if left untreated, they will develop symptoms such as a displaced lens in the eye, a long slender build, long thin fingers, and skeletal abnormalities within a few years.

What does a Homocysteine blood test check for?

Homocysteine is an amino acid that is found in trace amounts in all of the body's cells. The body generally converts homocysteine to other compounds fast. Because vitamins B6, B12, and folate are required for homocysteine metabolism, elevated levels of the amino acid could indicate a vitamin deficit. The level of homocysteine in the blood is determined by this test.

Increased homocysteine levels have also been linked to an increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and artery hardening. Homocysteine has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk through a variety of processes, including damage to blood vessel walls and support for the production of abnormal blood clots, but no direct linkages have been established. Several studies have also found no benefit or reduction in CVD risk with folic acid and B vitamin supplementation. The American Heart Association does not believe it to be a significant risk factor for heart disease at this time.

Homocysteine levels in the blood can also be dramatically increased by a rare genetic disorder known as homocystinuria. In homocystinuria, one of multiple genes is mutated, resulting in a defective enzyme that prevents the normal breakdown of methionine, the precursor of homocysteine. Methionine is one of the eleven necessary amino acids that the body cannot make and must therefore be obtained from food.

Homocysteine and methionine build up in the body without the necessary enzyme to break them down. Babies born with this condition appear normal at birth, but develop symptoms such as a long slender build, a dislocated lens in the eye, long thin fingers, osteoporosis, skeletal abnormalities, and a significantly increased risk of thromboembolism and atherosclerosis, which can lead to premature CVD within a few years.

In addition to intellectual disability, mental illness, a little low IQ, behavioral issues, and seizures, artery blockages can induce intellectual disability, mental illness, and seizures. Some of them can be avoided if homocystinuria is diagnosed early, which is why all states screen neonates for the disease.

Lab tests often ordered with a Homocysteine test:

  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate
  • MTHFR Mutation
  • Intrinsic Factor Antibody

Conditions where a Homocysteine test is recommended:

  • Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency
  • Heart Attack
  • Heart Disease
  • Stroke

How does my health care provider use a Homocysteine test?

The homocysteine test can be used in a variety of ways, including:

A homocysteine test may be ordered by a doctor to see if a person is deficient in vitamin B12 or folate. Before B12 and folate tests are abnormal, the homocysteine level may be raised. Homocysteine testing may be recommended by some health professionals in malnourished people, the elderly, who absorb less vitamin B12 from their diet, and people who have poor nutrition, such as drug or alcohol addicts.

For those at high risk of a stroke or heart attack, homocysteine testing may be requested as part of a health screening. It could be beneficial for someone who has a family history of coronary artery disease but no other recognized risk factors like smoking, high blood pressure, or obesity. However, because the specific role of homocysteine in the course of cardiovascular disease is unknown, the screening test's efficacy continues to be questioned.

If a health professional believes that an infant or kid has homocystinuria, tests for both urine and blood homocysteine can be utilized to assist diagnose the genetic condition. As part of their newborn screening in the United States, all babies are regularly tested for excess methionine, a symptom of homocystinuria. If a baby's test results are positive, urine and blood homocysteine tests are frequently used to confirm the results.

What do my homocysteine test results mean?

Homocysteine levels may be high in cases of suspected malnutrition, vitamin B12, or folate insufficiency. If a person does not consume enough B vitamins and/or folate through diet or supplements, the body may be unable to convert homocysteine into forms that the body can use. The level of homocysteine in the blood may rise in this scenario.

According to studies conducted in the mid- to late-1990s, those with high homocysteine levels have a substantially higher risk of heart attack or stroke than those with normal levels. The study of the relationship between excessive homocysteine levels and heart disease is still ongoing. However, considering that multiple trials studying folic acid and B vitamin supplementation have found no benefit or reduction in CVD risk, the use of homocysteine levels for risk assessment of cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke is now questionable.

A 2012 research study using various datasets, including 50,000 persons with coronary heart disease, called into question the possibility of a cause-and-effect relationship between homocysteine levels and heart disease. Although the American Heart Association recognizes a link between homocysteine levels and heart attack/stroke survival rates, it does not consider high homocysteine to be a major CVD risk factor.

While the AHA does not advocate for widespread use of folic acid and B vitamins to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke, it does advocate for a balanced, nutritious diet and advises doctors to consider total risk factors as well as nutrition when treating cardiovascular disease.

Significantly elevated homocysteine concentrations in the urine and blood indicate that an infant is likely to have homocystinuria and need additional testing to confirm the reason of the increase.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity is a blood panel used to determine iron levels in your blood, your body’s ability to transport iron, and help diagnose iron-deficiency and iron overload.

Also Known As: Serum Iron Test, Serum Fe Test, Iron Binding Capacity Test, IBC Test, Serum Iron-Binding Capacity Siderophilin Test, TIBC Test, UIBC Test, Iron Lab Test, TIBC Blood test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test ordered?

When a doctor feels that a person's symptoms are caused by iron overload or poisoning, an iron and TIBC test, as well ferritin assays, may be done. These may include the following:

  • Joint discomfort
  • Weakness and exhaustion
  • Energy deficiency
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Suffering from a lack of sexual desire
  • Problems with the heart

When a child is suspected of ingesting too many iron tablets, a serum iron test is required to detect the poisoning and to determine its severity.

A doctor may also request iron and TIBC when the results of a standard CBC test are abnormal, such as a low hematocrit or hemoglobin, or when a doctor suspects iron deficiency based on signs and symptoms such as:

  • Chronic tiredness/fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Headaches
  • Skin that is pale

What does a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity blood test check for?

Iron is a necessary ingredient for survival. It is a vital component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that binds and releases oxygen in the lungs and throughout the body. It is required in small amounts to help form normal red blood cells and is a critical part of hemoglobin, the protein in RBCs that binds oxygen in the lungs and releases it as blood circulates to other parts of the body.

By detecting numerous components in the blood, iron tests are ordered to determine the quantity of iron in the body. These tests are frequently ordered at the same time, and the data are analyzed together to determine the diagnosis and/or monitor iron deficiency or overload.

The level of iron in the liquid component of the blood is measured by serum iron.

Total iron-binding capacity is a measurement of all the proteins in the blood that may bind to iron, including transferrin.

The percentage of transferrin that has not yet been saturated is measured by the UIBC. Transferrin levels are also reflected in the UIBC.

Low iron levels can cause anemia, resulting in a decrease in the production of microcytic and hypochromic RBCs. Large amounts of iron, on the other hand, might be hazardous to the body. When too much iron is absorbed over time, iron compounds build up in tissues, particularly the liver, heart, and pancreas.

Normally, iron is absorbed from food and distributed throughout the body by binding to transferrin, a liver protein. About 70% of the iron delivered is used in the synthesis of hemoglobin in red blood cells. The rest is stored as ferritin or hemosiderin in the tissues, with minor amounts being utilized to make other proteins like myoglobin and enzymes.

Insufficient intake, limited absorption, or increased dietary requirements, as observed during pregnancy or with acute or chronic blood loss, are all signs of iron deficiency. Excessive intake of iron pills can cause acute iron overload, especially in children. Excessive iron intake, genetic hemochromatosis, multiple blood transfusions, and a few other disorders can cause chronic iron overload.

Lab tests often ordered with a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Ferritin
  • Transferrin
  • Zinc Protoporphyrin

Conditions where a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test is recommended:

  • Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis

How does my health care provider use a Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity test?

The amount of circulating iron in the blood, the capacity of the blood to carry iron, and the amount of stored iron in tissues can all be determined by ordering one or more tests. Testing can also assist distinguish between different types of anemia

The level of iron in the blood is measured by serum iron.

Total iron-binding capacity is a measurement of all the proteins in the blood that may bind to iron, including transferrin. The TIBC test is a useful indirect assessment of transferrin because it is the predominant iron-binding protein. In response to the requirement for iron, the body generates transferrin. Transferrin levels rise when iron levels are low, and vice versa. About one-third of the binding sites on transferrin are used to transport iron in healthy humans.

The reserve capacity of transferrin, or the part of transferrin that has not yet been saturated, is measured by UIBC. Transferrin levels are also reflected in the UIBC.

The iron test result, as well as TIBC or UIBC, are used to calculate transferrin saturation. It represents the proportion of transferrin that is iron-saturated.

Ferritin is the major storage protein for iron inside cells, and serum ferritin represents the quantity of stored iron in the body.

These tests are frequently ordered together, and the results can assist the doctor figure out what's causing the iron deficit or overload.

Additional information about iron

A balance between the quantity of iron received into the body and the amount of iron lost is required to maintain normal iron levels. Because a tiny quantity of iron is lost each day, a deficiency will develop if too little iron is consumed. In healthy persons, there is usually enough iron to prevent iron deficiency and/or iron deficiency anemia, unless they eat a bad diet. There is a greater need for iron in some circumstances. People who have persistent gut bleeding or women who have heavy menstrual periods lose more iron than they should and can develop iron deficiency. Females who are pregnant or breastfeeding lose iron to their babies and may develop an iron shortage if they do not consume enough supplemental iron. Children may require additional iron, especially during periods of rapid growth, and may suffer iron shortage.

Low serum iron can also arise when the body is unable to adequately utilize iron. The body cannot correctly utilize iron to generate additional red cells in many chronic disorders, particularly malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and chronic infections. As a result, transferrin production slows, serum iron levels drop because little iron is absorbed from the stomach, and ferritin levels rise. Malabsorption illnesses like sprue syndrome can cause iron deficiency.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Lipid Panel is a blood test that measures your cholesterol levels to evaluate your risk of cardiovascular disease.

Also Known As: Lipid Profile Test, Lipid Test, Cholesterol Profile Test, Cholesterol Panel Test, Cholesterol Test, Coronary Risk Panel Test, lipid blood test, Lipid w/Ratios Test, Cholesterol Ratio test, blood cholesterol Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Patient should be fasting 9-12 hours prior to collection.

When is a Lipid Panel with Ratios test ordered?

A fasting lipid profile should be done about every five years in healthy persons who have no additional risk factors for heart disease. A single total cholesterol test, rather than a complete lipid profile, may be used for initial screening. If the screening cholesterol test result is high, a lipid profile will almost certainly be performed.

More regular testing with a full lipid profile is indicated if other risk factors are present or if earlier testing revealed a high cholesterol level.

Other risk factors, in addition to high LDL cholesterol, include:

  • Smoking
  • Obesity or being overweight
  • Unhealthy eating habits
  • Not getting enough exercise and being physically inactive
  • Older age
  • Having hypertension
  • Premature heart disease in the family
  • Having experienced a heart attack or having pre-existing heart disease

Diabetes or pre-diabetes is a condition in which a person has High HDL is a "negative risk factor," and its existence permits one risk factor to be removed from the total.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends routine lipid testing for children and young adults. Children and teenagers who are at a higher risk of developing heart disease as adults should be screened with a lipid profile earlier and more frequently. A family history of heart disease or health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or being overweight are some of the risk factors, which are comparable to those in adults. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, high-risk children should be examined with a fasting lipid profile between the ages of 2 and 8.

A lipid profile can also be done at regular intervals to assess the effectiveness of cholesterol-lowering lifestyle changes like diet and exercise, as well as pharmacological therapy like statins.

What does a Lipid Panel with Ratios blood test check for?

Lipids are a class of fats and fat-like compounds that are essential components of cells and energy sources. The level of certain lipids in the blood is measured by a lipid profile.

Lipoprotein particles transport two key lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, through the bloodstream. Protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules are all present in each particle. High-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and very low-density lipoproteins are the three types of particles assessed with a lipid profile.

It's critical to keep track of and maintain optimal levels of these lipids in order to stay healthy. While the body creates the cholesterol required for normal function, some cholesterol is obtained from the diet. A high amount of cholesterol in the blood can be caused by eating too many foods high in saturated fats and trans fats or having a hereditary tendency. The excess cholesterol may form plaques on the inside walls of blood vessels. Plaques can constrict or block blood channel openings, causing artery hardening and raising the risk of a variety of health problems, including heart disease and stroke. Although the explanation for this is unknown, a high level of triglycerides in the blood is linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

A lipid profile consists of the following elements:

  • Cholesterol total
  • HDL Cholesterol - commonly referred to as "good cholesterol" since it eliminates excess cholesterol from the body and transports it to the liver for elimination.
  • LDL Cholesterol - commonly referred to as "bad cholesterol" because it deposits excess cholesterol in the walls of blood arteries, contributing to atherosclerosis.
  • Triglycerides
  • Ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol

Lab tests often ordered with a Lipid Panel with Ratios test:

  • CBC (Blood Count Test) with Smear Review
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Direct LDL
  • VLDL
  • Lp-PLA2
  • Apolipoprotein A1
  • Apolipoprotein B
  • Lipoprotein (a)
  • Lipoprotein Fractionation Ion Mobility (LDL Particle Testing)

Conditions where a Lipid Panel with Ratios test is recommended:

  • Hypertension
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Disease
  • Stroke

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a Lipid Panel with Ratios test?

The lipid profile is used as part of a cardiac risk assessment to help determine an individual's risk of heart disease and, if there is a borderline or high risk, to help make treatment options.

Lipids are a class of fats and fat-like compounds that are essential components of cells and energy sources. It's critical to keep track of and maintain optimal levels of these lipids in order to stay healthy.

To design a therapy and follow-up strategy, the results of the lipid profile are combined with other recognized risk factors for heart disease. Treatment options may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as lipid-lowering drugs such as statins, depending on the results and other risk factors.

A normal lipid profile test measures the following elements:

  • Total cholesterol is a test that determines how much cholesterol is present in all lipoprotein particles.
  • HDL Cholesterol — measures hdl cholesterol in particles, sometimes referred to as "good cholesterol" since it eliminates excess cholesterol and transports it to the liver for elimination.
  • LDL Cholesterol – estimates the cholesterol in LDL particles; sometimes known as "bad cholesterol" since it deposits excess cholesterol in blood vessel walls, contributing to atherosclerosis. The amount of LDL Cholesterol is usually estimated using the total cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, and triglycerides readings.
  • Triglycerides – triglycerides are measured in all lipoprotein particles, with the highest concentration in very-low-density lipoproteins.
  • As part of the lipid profile, several extra information may be presented. The results of the above-mentioned tests are used to determine these parameters.
  • VLDL Cholesterol — derived using triglycerides/5; this calculation is based on the typical VLDL particle composition.
  • Non-HDL Cholesterol - the result of subtracting total cholesterol from HDL Cholesterol.
  • Cholesterol/HDL ratio — total cholesterol to HDL Cholesterol ratio computed.

An expanded profile may include the amount and concentration of low-density lipoprotein particles. Rather than assessing the amount of LDL cholesterol, this test counts the number of LDL particles. This figure is thought to more accurately reflect the risk of heart disease in some persons.

What do my Lipid Panel test results mean?

Healthy lipid levels, in general, aid in the maintenance of a healthy heart and reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke. A health practitioner would analyze the results of each component of a lipid profile, as well as other risk factors, to assess a person's total risk of coronary heart disease, if therapy is required, and, if so, which treatment will best serve to reduce the person's risk of heart disease.

The Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program published guidelines for measuring lipid levels and selecting treatment in 2002. The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association announced updated cholesterol therapy guidelines in 2013 to minimize the risk of cardiovascular disease in adults. These guidelines suggest a different treatment method than the NCEP guidelines. Cholesterol-lowering medications are now chosen based on the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other criteria, rather than on LDL-C or non-HDL-C objectives.

The revised guidelines include an evidence-based risk calculator for ASCVD that may be used to identify people who are most likely to benefit from treatment. It's for adults between the ages of 40 and 79 who don't have a heart condition. The computation takes into account a number of characteristics, including age, gender, race, total cholesterol, HDL-C, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking habits. The new guidelines also suggest comparing therapeutic response to LDL-C baseline readings, with decrease criteria varying depending on the degree of lipid-lowering medication therapy.

Unhealthy lipid levels, as well as the presence of additional risk factors like age, family history, cigarette smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure, may indicate that the person being examined needs to be treated.

The NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines specify target LDL cholesterol levels based on the findings of lipid testing and these other main risk factors. Individuals with LDL-C levels over the target limits will be treated, according to the guidelines.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, screening youths with risk factors for heart disease with a full, fasting lipid panel is advised. Fasting is not required prior to lipid screening in children who do not have any risk factors. For non-fasting lipid screening, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is the preferred test. Non-HDL-C is computed by subtracting total cholesterol and HDL-C from total cholesterol and HDL-C.

Is there anything else I should know?

The measurement of triglycerides in people who haven't fasted is gaining popularity. Because most of the day, blood lipid levels reflect post-meal levels rather than fasting levels, a non-fasting sample may be more representative of the "usual" circulating level of triglyceride. However, because it is still unclear how to interpret non-fasting levels for assessing risk, the current recommendations for fasting before lipid tests remain unchanged.

A fasting lipid profile is usually included in a routine cardiac risk assessment. In addition, research into the utility of additional non-traditional cardiac risk markers, such as Lp-PLA2, is ongoing. A health care provider may use one or more of these markers to help determine a person's risk, but there is no consensus on how to use them and they are not widely available.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Magnesium Most Popular

Description: A Magnesium test is a blood test that measures magnesium levels in your blood’s serum and is useful in determining the cause of abnormal levels of magnesium, calcium, and or potassium, and is useful in the evaluation of a wide variety of disorders such as diabetes, kidney disease, and malabsorption.

Also Known As: Magnesium Serum Test, Mg Test, Mag Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Magnesium test ordered?

Magnesium tests may be requested by health professionals as a follow-up to chronically low calcium and potassium levels in the blood. It may also be ordered if a person is experiencing muscle weakness, cramping, twitching, disorientation, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias, which could be caused by a magnesium deficit.

As part of an evaluation of malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea, or alcoholism, a health practitioner may prescribe a magnesium level to check for a deficit. Testing may also be done if someone is taking drugs that cause the kidneys to excrete magnesium. When magnesium and/or calcium supplementation is required, the level of magnesium in the blood can be measured at regular intervals to ensure that the medication is working.

A magnesium test, along with kidney function tests such as a BUN and creatinine, may be given on a regular basis when someone has a kidney problem or uncontrolled diabetes to help monitor renal function and ensure that the person is not excreting or retaining excessive quantities of magnesium.

What does a Magnesium Serum test check for?

The magnesium test measures the amount of magnesium in your blood’s serum. Magnesium is a mineral that supports healthy bones, neuron function, muscle contraction and energy production. It enters the body through the diet and is then processed by the small intestine and colon. Tissues, cells, and bones all contain the element magnesium. It is challenging to determine the total magnesium content from blood tests alone since only 1% of the magnesium present in the body is accessible in the blood. However, this test is still useful for figuring out a person's magnesium levels.

Small levels of magnesium can be found in a range of meals, including green vegetables like spinach, whole grains, and nuts. Magnesium is commonly found in foods that contain dietary fiber. The body regulates how much magnesium it receives and excretes or conserves in the kidneys to keep its magnesium level stable.

Magnesium deficiency can occur as a result of malnutrition, malabsorption-related disorders, or excessive magnesium loss via the kidneys. Magnesium overload can occur as a result of taking magnesium-containing antacids or a decrease in the kidneys' ability to eliminate magnesium.

There may be no or few nonspecific symptoms in someone with mild to severe magnesium insufficiency. Loss of appetite, nausea, muscle cramps, confusion, exhaustion, seizures, changes in heart rate, and tingling or numbness are all symptoms of persistent or severe deficits. They can also wreak havoc on calcium metabolism and worsen calcium deficiency. Muscle weakness, nausea, loss of hunger or cravings, and an erratic heart rate are some of the symptoms of excess magnesium, which are similar to those of deficiency.

Lab tests often ordered with a Magnesium test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Calcium
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Potassium
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Phosphorus
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D
  • Glucose

Conditions where a Magnesium test is recommended:

  • Hypomagnesemia
  • Hypermagnesemia
  • Kidney Disease
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Diabetes
  • Alcoholism
  • Malnutrition
  • Malabsorption
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Parathyroid Diseases
  • Addison Disease
  • Adrenal Insufficiency

How does my health care provider use a Magnesium test?

Magnesium levels in the blood are measured with a magnesium test. Atypical magnesium levels are most frequently found in conditions or illnesses that result in insufficient or excessive renal excretion of magnesium or impaired intestinal absorption of magnesium. Magnesium levels can be measured to determine the severity of kidney issues, uncontrolled diabetes, as well as to diagnose gastrointestinal diseases.

Because a low magnesium blood level can lead to chronically low calcium and potassium levels over time, it may be tested to help diagnose calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and/or parathyroid hormone – another component of calcium regulation – problems.

Magnesium levels can be checked on a regular basis to monitor the response to oral or intravenous magnesium supplements, and calcium supplementation can be monitored using calcium and phosphorus tests.

What does my Magnesium test result mean?

Low magnesium levels in the blood can suggest that a person isn't getting enough magnesium or is excreting too much. Deficiencies are most commonly encountered in:

  • Low nutritional intake 
  • Gastrointestinal conditions
  • Diabetes that is uncontrolled
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Use of a diuretic for a long time
  • diarrhea that lasts for a long time
  • Following surgery
  • Burns that are severe
  • Pregnancy toxicity

Magnesium levels in the blood are rarely elevated as a result of food sources, but rather as a result of an excretion problem or excessive supplementation. Increased levels can be cause by:

  • Failure of the kidneys
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Dehydration
  • Diabetic acidosis
  • Addison's disese
  • Use of antacids or laxatives containing magnesium

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Magnesium, RBC Most Popular

Description: A Magnesium test is a blood test that measures magnesium levels in your blood’s serum and is useful in determining the cause of abnormal levels of magnesium, calcium, and or potassium, and is useful in the evaluation of a wide variety of disorders such as diabetes, kidney disease, and malabsorption.

Also Known As: Magnesium RBC Test, Magnesium Red Bood Cell Test, Mg Test, Mag test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Magnesium RBC test ordered?

Magnesium tests may be requested by health professionals as a follow-up to chronically low calcium and potassium levels in the blood. It may also be prescribed if a person exhibits symptoms of a magnesium deficiency, such as twitching, muscle weakness, cramping, disorientation, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias.

As part of an evaluation of malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea, or alcoholism, a health practitioner may prescribe a magnesium level to check for a deficit. Testing may also be done if someone is taking drugs that cause the kidneys to excrete magnesium. When magnesium and/or calcium supplementation is required, the level of magnesium in the blood can be measured at regular intervals to ensure that the medication is working.

A magnesium test, along with kidney function tests such as a BUN and creatinine, may be given on a regular basis when someone has a kidney problem or uncontrolled diabetes to help monitor renal function and ensure that the person is not excreting or retaining excessive quantities of magnesium.

What does a Magnesium RBC test check for?

The magnesium test measures the amount of magnesium in your blood’s serum. Magnesium is a mineral that supports healthy bones, muscle contraction, neuron function, and energy production. It enters the body through the diet and is then absorbed by the small intestine and colon. Bones, cells, and tissues all contain the element magnesium. It is challenging to determine the total magnesium content from blood tests alone since only 1% of the magnesium present in the body is accessible in the blood. However, this test is still useful for figuring out a person's magnesium levels.

Small levels of magnesium can be found in a range of meals, including green vegetables like spinach, whole grains, and nuts. Magnesium is commonly found in foods that contain dietary fiber. The body regulates how much magnesium it receives and excretes or conserves in the kidneys to keep its magnesium level stable.

Magnesium deficiency can occur as a result of malnutrition, malabsorption-related disorders, or excessive magnesium loss via the kidneys. Magnesium overload can occur as a result of taking magnesium-containing antacids or a decrease in the kidneys' ability to eliminate magnesium.

There may be no or few nonspecific symptoms in someone with mild to severe magnesium insufficiency. Nausea, loss of appetite, exhaustion, confusion, muscle cramps, seizures, changes in heart rate, and numbness or tingling are all symptoms of persistent or severe deficits. They can also wreak havoc on calcium metabolism and worsen calcium deficiency. Nausea, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and an erratic heart rate are some of the symptoms of excess magnesium, which are similar to those of deficiency.

Lab tests often ordered with a Magnesium RBC test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Calcium
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Potassium
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Lipid Panel
  • Phosphorus
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D
  • Glucose

Conditions where a Magnesium RBC test is recommended:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Diabetes
  • Alcoholism
  • Malnutrition
  • Malabsorption
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Parathyroid Diseases
  • Addison Disease
  • Adrenal Insufficiency

How does my health care provider use a Magnesium RBC test?

Magnesium levels in the blood are measured with a magnesium test. Atypical magnesium levels are most frequently found in conditions or illnesses that result in insufficient or excessive renal excretion of magnesium or impaired intestinal absorption of magnesium. Magnesium levels can be measured to determine the severity of kidney issues, uncontrolled diabetes, and/or uncontrolled diabetes as well as to diagnose gastrointestinal diseases.

Because a low magnesium blood level can lead to chronically low calcium and potassium levels over time, it may be tested to help diagnose calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and/or parathyroid hormone – another component of calcium regulation – problems.

Magnesium levels can be checked on a regular basis to monitor the response to oral or intravenous magnesium supplements, and calcium supplementation can be monitored using calcium and phosphorus tests.

What does my Magnesium RBC test result mean?

Low magnesium levels in the blood can suggest that a person isn't getting enough magnesium or is excreting too much. Deficiencies are most commonly encountered in:

  • Low nutritional intake 
  • Gastrointestinal conditions
  • Diabetes that is uncontrolled
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Use of a diuretic for a long time
  • diarrhea that lasts for a long time
  • Following surgery
  • Burns that are severe
  • Pregnancy toxicity

Magnesium levels in the blood are rarely elevated as a result of food sources, but rather as a result of an excretion problem or excessive supplementation. Increased levels can be cause by:

  • Failure of the kidneys
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Dehydration
  • Diabetic acidosis
  • Addison's disese
  • Use of antacids or laxatives containing magnesium

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The parietal cell antibody blood test is a test ordered by physicians when they suspect a patient has pernicious anemia or a vitamin B12 deficiency.

Also Known As: Gastric Parietal Cell Antibody Test, Anti-Parietal Cell Antibody Test, Anti-GPA Test, AGPA Test, APCA Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Parietal Cell Antibody test ordered?

Because the parietal cell antibody test is less accurate than the intrinsic factor antibody test, it is not usually requested. When a person exhibits symptoms that point to a vitamin B12 deficiency and when pernicious anemia is suspected, it may be prescribed.

Testing for vitamin B12, folate, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine are frequently prompted by results from parietal cell antibody tests.

When a person has a decreased vitamin B12 level and elevated levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, follow-up tests such as an intrinsic factor antibody test and a parietal cell antibody test may be prescribed.

What does a Parietal Cell Antibody test check for?

Autoantibodies, which are proteins created by the immune system and wrongly target a particular class of specialized cells that line the stomach wall, include parietal cell antibodies. This test finds these antibodies in the blood, which aids in the identification of pernicious anemia.

When the body's immune system attacks its own tissues and produces antibodies against the parietal cells and/or intrinsic factor, pernicious anemia can develop.

Parietal cells are specialized stomach cells that produce intrinsic factor and acid to aid in meal digestion.

Vitamin B12 must have intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed from diet.

Vitamin B12 is released from food during digestion by the stomach acids made by parietal cells, who then combine it with intrinsic factor to form a complex. This complex's production enables vitamin B12 absorption in the small intestine. Vitamin B12 is crucial for the synthesis of red blood cells in addition to its responsibilities in the brain and nervous system.

When the immune system of the body mistakenly attacks its own tissues and produces antibodies against intrinsic factor and/or parietal cells, it can lead to inflammation and gradually harm parietal cells. The generation or operation of intrinsic factor may be interfered with by this autoimmune disease, known as autoimmune atrophic gastritis.

Vitamin B12 is generally not absorbed when there is insufficient intrinsic factor, which results in a vitamin B12 deficit. Megaloblastic anemia, which is characterized by the formation of fewer but larger red blood cells, can be brought on by vitamin B12 deficiency. Additionally, a lack of vitamin B12 can cause signs and symptoms of nerve damage, such as numbness and tingling that first appear in the hands and feet, muscle weakness, sluggish reflexes, loss of balance, and shaky gait. Megaloblastic anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency can be brought on by other conditions. Pernicious anemia is the name for the condition when it results from a deficiency of intrinsic factor. Neutrophils and platelets may be less plentiful, in addition to anemia.

In order to identify pernicious anemia, the tests for parietal cell and/or intrinsic factor antibodies may be combined with a number of other procedures, such as complete blood count and blood smear.

Lab tests often ordered with a Parietal Cell Antibody test:

  • Intrinsic Factor Antibody
  • Vitamin B12 and Folate
  • Methylmalonic Acid
  • Gastrin
  • Homocysteine
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Conditions where a Parietal Cell Antibody test is recommended:

  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency
  • Anemia
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Neuropathy

How does my health care provider use a Parietal Cell Antibody test?

To help identify the root cause of a vitamin B12 shortage and to support the diagnosis of pernicious anemia, a parietal cell antibody test may be utilized in conjunction with or after an intrinsic factor antibody test.

It is typically done as a follow-up test after other lab tests, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B12, or a complete blood count with a blood smear examination, identify a person as having a vitamin B12 deficiency and any accompanying megaloblastic anemia and/or neuropathy.

What do my Parietal Cell Antibody test results mean?

When making a diagnosis, the results of this test are frequently compared to those from other laboratory tests.

A person is more likely to have pernicious anemia if they have decreased vitamin B12 levels, elevated levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, and positive test results for intrinsic factor antibodies and/or parietal cell antibodies.

The absence of pernicious anemia is not always indicated by a negative test result. At least 10% of those affected won't have antibodies to parietal cells.

Antibodies against parietal cells are less focused than those against intrinsic factors. Parietal cell antibodies are present in about 90% of people who have pernicious anemia.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Prealbumin Most Popular

Description: The prealbumin test is a blood test that checks for the protein prealbumin or transthyretin in your blood’s serum.

Also Known As: Thyroxine-binding Prealbumin Test, Transthyretin Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Prealbumin test ordered?

When signs and symptoms of malnutrition are evident or when a person is thought to be at risk for malnutrition, such as during a critical or chronic disease, hospitalization, or when receiving parenteral nourishment or undergoing hemodialysis, certain health practitioners may prescribe a prealbumin test. It could also be requested to help determine the severity of a patient's disease.

What does a Prealbumin blood test check for?

Prealbumin, commonly known as transthyretin, is a significant protein in the blood that is largely produced by the liver. Its job is to transport thyroxine and vitamin A around the body. This test determines the blood amount of prealbumin.

Despite its widespread usage as a malnutrition indicator, research is still underway to better understand the functions of prealbumin in the body, including the causes for changes seen during illness and the clinical relevance of prealbumin testing.

Lab tests often ordered with a Prealbumin test:

  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
  • Albumin

Conditions where a Prealbumin test is recommended:

  • Malnutrition

How does my health care provider use a Prealbumin test?

Until recently, the prealbumin test was thought to be a good marker of nutritional status, and it was used to detect and diagnose protein-calorie malnutrition, as well as to monitor persons on complete parenteral nutrition. It was also used to track changes in nutritional status in patients receiving hemodialysis as part of their renal disease treatment.

Changes in prealbumin may really represent other illnesses such as inflammation, infection, or trauma, which is why some health practitioners continue to utilize the test in this way. As a result, several medical professionals have proposed that the prealbumin test no longer be used to monitor nutritional status or diagnose malnutrition. Others, on the other hand, feel that the test can help determine prognosis for those who are severely sick, hospitalized, or at risk of poor outcomes, and that it can prompt nutritional and other interventions that can help improve patient outcomes.

What do my Prealbumin test results mean?

Prealbumin levels are varied depending on age and gender.

Prealbumin deficiency can be found in:

  • Malnutrition
  • Illness that is severe or ongoing
  • Inflammation
  • Burns and other forms of trauma
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Infections that are serious
  • Some intestinal problems

Prealbumin results are difficult to interpret because of the ongoing debate about the appropriate use of this test as researchers continue to investigate the role of prealbumin in the body and what changes in its level in the body imply. A single prealbumin result, according to some, is less important than a series of measurements done several days apart, as well as additional clinical assessments and laboratory tests. Measures of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein, may be requested to help interpret the prealbumin results, for example.

Although a high level of prealbumin may be observed in some illnesses, the test is not utilized to diagnose or monitor these conditions.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Prothrombin Time test will measure the speed of which your blood clots. This test can be used to detect a bleeding or clotting disorder or to determine in your blood is clotting too fast or too slow.

Also Known As: Pro Time with INR Test, Prothrombin Time and International Normalized Ratio test, Prothrombin Time PT with INR Test, Prothrombin Time with INR Test, Prothrombin with INR, Protime with INR, PT Test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Prothrombin Time with INR test ordered?

When a person takes the anticoagulant medicine warfarin, a PT and INR are ordered on a regular basis to confirm that the prescription is working effectively and that the PT/INR is adequately extended. A doctor will prescribe them frequently enough to ensure that the treatment is having the desired effect, namely, boosting the person's clotting time to a therapeutic level while minimizing the danger of excessive bleeding or bruising.

When a person who isn't taking anticoagulants exhibits signs or symptoms of excessive bleeding or clotting, a PT may be ordered when they are experiencing:

  • Bleeding that isn't explained or bruises that isn't easy to get rid of
  • Nosebleeds
  • Gums that are bleeding
  • A blood clot in an artery or vein
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • A persistent disorder that affects hemostasis, such as severe liver disease

PT and PTT may be prescribed prior to surgery when there is a high risk of blood loss associated with the procedure and/or when the patient has a clinical history of bleeding, such as frequent or severe nosebleeds and easy bruising, which may indicate the presence of a bleeding problem.

What does a Prothrombin Time with INR blood test check for?

The prothrombin time is a test that determines a person's capacity to make blood clots properly. The international normalized ratio, or INR, is a calculation based on the results of a PT that is used to track people who are taking the blood thinner warfarin.

After chemicals are added to a person's blood sample, a PT measures how long it takes for a clot to develop. The PT is frequently used with a partial thromboplastin time to measure the number and function of proteins known as coagulation factors, which are essential for optimal blood clot formation.

When an injury develops in the body and bleeding ensues, the clotting process known as hemostasis begins. This process is aided by a series of chemical events known as the coagulation cascade, in which coagulation or "clotting" components are activated one by one, leading to the development of a clot. In order for normal clotting to occur, each coagulation factor must be present in appropriate quantities and operate effectively. Excessive bleeding can result from too little, while excessive clotting can result from too much.

There are two "pathways" that can trigger clotting in a test tube during a laboratory test, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Both of these pathways subsequently converge to finish the clotting process. The PT test assesses how well all coagulation factors in the extrinsic and common routes of the coagulation cascade cooperate. Factors I, II, V, VII, and X are included. The PTT test examines the protein factors XII, XI, IX, VIII, X, V, II, and I, as well as prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen, which are all part of the intrinsic and common pathways. The PT and PTT examine the overall ability to generate a clot in a fair period of time, and the test results will be delayed if any of these elements are insufficient in quantity or are not operating effectively.

The PT test is normally done in seconds and the results are compared to a normal range that represents PT levels in healthy people. Because the reagents used to conduct the PT test vary from one laboratory to the next and even within the same laboratory over time, the normal ranges will change. The Internationalized Normalized Ratio, which is computed based on the PT test result, was developed and recommended for use by a World Health Organization committee to standardize results across various laboratories in the United States and around the globe for people taking the anticoagulant warfarin.

The INR is a formula that accounts for variations in PT reagents and enables for comparison of findings from different laboratories. When a PT test is performed, most laboratories report both PT and INR readings. However, the INR should only be used by people who are taking the blood thinner warfarin.

Lab tests often ordered with a Prothrombin Time with INR test:

  • Partial Thromboplastin Time
  • Fibrinogen Activity
  • Platelet Count
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Coagulation Factors
  • Warfarin Sensitivity testing

Conditions where a Prothrombin Time with INR test is recommended:

  • Bleeding Disorders
  • Excessive Clotting Disorders
  • Vitamin K Deficiency
  • Liver Disease
  • DIC

How does my health care provider use a Prothrombin Time with INR test?

The prothrombin time is used to diagnose the origin of unexplained bleeding or abnormal blood clots, generally in conjunction with a partial thromboplastin time. The international normalized ratio is a calculation based on the results of a PT that is used to monitor people on the blood thinner warfarin.

Coagulation factors are proteins that are involved in the body's process of forming blood clots to assist stop bleeding. When an injury occurs and bleeding begins, coagulation factors are triggered in a series of events that finally assist in the formation of a clot. In order for normal clotting to occur, each coagulation factor must be present in appropriate quantities and operate effectively. Excessive bleeding can result from too little, while excessive clotting can result from too much.

The PT and INR are used to monitor the anticoagulant warfarin's efficacy. This medication influences the coagulation cascade's function and aids in the prevention of blood clots. It is given to those who have a history of recurrent abnormal blood clotting on a long-term basis. Warfarin therapy's purpose is to strike a balance between preventing blood clots and causing excessive bleeding. This equilibrium must be carefully monitored. The INR can be used to change a person's medication dosage in order to get their PT into the ideal range for them and their condition.

What do my PT and INR test results mean?

Most laboratories report PT findings that have been corrected to the INR for persons taking warfarin. For basic "blood-thinning" needs, these persons should have an INR of 2.0 to 3.0. Some people with a high risk of blood clot require a higher INR, about 2.5 to 3.5.

The outcome of a PT test is determined by the method utilized, with results measured in seconds and compared to a normal range defined and maintained by the laboratory that administers the test. This normal range is based on the average value of healthy persons in the area, and it will differ somewhat from test to lab. Someone who isn't on warfarin would compare their PT test result to the usual range provided by the laboratory that conducted the test.

A prolonged PT indicates that the blood is taking an excessive amount of time to clot. This can be caused by liver illness, vitamin K inadequacy, or a coagulation factor shortage, among other things. The PT result is frequently combined with the PTT result to determine what condition is present.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Sed Rate is a blood test that is used to measure the rate that red blood cells fall to the bottom of a test tube. The measurement is based how many cells fall within one hour. This test can be used to determine infection or inflammation.

Also Known As: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test, ESR Test, Sed Rate Test, Sedimentation Rate Test, Westergren Sedimentation Rate Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Sed Rate test ordered?

When a condition or disease is believed to be causing inflammation in the body, an ESR may be ordered. Several inflammatory illnesses can be identified using this test. It may be requested, for example, if arthritis is suspected of producing joint inflammation and pain, or if inflammatory bowel disease is suspected of causing digestive symptoms.

When a person develops symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic vasculitis, or temporal arteritis, such as headaches, neck or shoulder discomfort, anemia, pelvic pain, poor appetite, joint stiffness, and unexplained weight loss, a doctor may recommend an ESR. To follow the development of specific illnesses, the sed rate test can also be routinely ordered.

A health practitioner may wish to repeat the ESR before undertaking a full workup to look for disease.

What does a Sed Rate blood test check for?

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a test that evaluates the degree of inflammation in the body indirectly. The test evaluates the rate at which erythrocytes fall in a blood sample that has been placed in a tall, thin, vertical tube. The millimeters of clear fluid present at the upper portion of the tube after one hour are reported as the results.

When a drop of blood is inserted in a tube, the red blood cells settle out slowly, leaving just a small amount of transparent plasma. In the presence of an increased number of proteins, particularly proteins known as acute phase reactants, red cells settle at a faster pace. Inflammation raises the levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in the blood.

An inherent component of the immune system's response is inflammation. It could be chronic, showing symptoms over time with conditions like autoimmune illnesses or cancer, or acute, showing symptoms right away after a shock, injury, or infection.

The ESR is a non-specific indication that can rise in a number of disorders; it is not a diagnostic test. It provides you with a fundamental understanding of whether you have an inflammatory condition or not.

Given the availability of more recent, specialized tests, there have been reservations about the ESR's utility. The ESR test, on the other hand, is commonly used to diagnose and monitor temporal arteritis, systemic vasculitis, and polymyalgia rheumatica. Extremely high ESR values can aid in differentiating between rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, ESR may still be a viable alternative in some cases, such as when newer tests are unavailable in resource-constrained places or while monitoring the progression of a disease.

Lab tests often ordered with a Sed Rate test:

  • C-Reactive Protein
  • ANA
  • Rheumatoid Factor

Conditions where a Sed Rate test is recommended:

  • Vasculitis
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Celiac Disease
  • Lupus
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease

How does my health care provider use a Sed Rate test?

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is a non-specific, very straightforward test that has been used for many years to detect inflammation associated with infections, malignancies, and autoimmune illnesses.

Because an elevated ESR often indicates the presence of inflammation, but does not tell the health practitioner where the inflammation is in the body or what is causing it, it is referred to as a non-specific test. Other illnesses besides inflammation may have an impact on an ESR. As a result, other tests, such C-reactive protein, are routinely paired with the ESR.

ESR is used to identify temporal arteritis, systemic vasculitis, and polymyalgia rheumatica, among other inflammatory illnesses. A notably elevated ESR is one of the crucial test results used to support the diagnosis.

This test can be used to track disease activity and treatment response in both of the disorders mentioned above, as well as several others including systemic lupus erythematosus.

What do my Sed Rate test results mean?

Because ESR is a non-specific inflammatory measure that is influenced by a variety of circumstances, it must be used in conjunction with other clinical findings, the individual's medical history, and the results of other laboratory tests. The health practitioner may be able to confirm or rule out a suspected illness if the ESR and clinical data match.

Without any signs of a specific condition, a single elevated ESR is usually insufficient to make a medical conclusion. A normal result does not, however, rule out inflammation or illness.

Inflammation, as well as anemia, infection, pregnancy, and aging, can cause a moderately raised ESR.

A severe infection with a rise in globulins, polymyalgia rheumatica, or temporal arteritis are common causes of an extremely high ESR. Depending on the person's symptoms, a health practitioner may employ various follow-up tests, such as blood cultures. Even if there is no inflammation, people with multiple myeloma or Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia have extraordinarily high ESRs.

Rising ESRs may suggest increased inflammation or a poor response to therapy when monitoring a condition over time; normal or falling ESRs may indicate an adequate response to treatment.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Selenium Most Popular
Selenium is an element of parental nutrition. Monitoring the selenium concentrations is useful in assessing parental nutrition, especially recent intake. Concentrations are also monitored in children with proprionic acidemia who require special diets with supplements.

Transferrin Most Popular

Description: Transferrin is a blood test used to measure the amount of transferrin in the blood's serum. It is used to evaluate if there is a proper amount of iron being transport throughout the body. A test called Total Iron Binding Capacity, or TIBC, will tell you how much of that transferrin is capable of transporting, or binding to the iron in the blood.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting for at least 12 hours is required

When is a Transferrin test ordered?

When a doctor wants to analyze or monitor a person's nutritional health, a transferrin test may be ordered along with additional tests like prealbumin.

What does a Transferrin blood test check for?

The primary protein in the blood that bonds to iron and transfers it across the body is transferrin. Total iron binding capacity, unsaturated iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation are all measures of how much transferrin is available to bind to and transport iron.

The transferrin serum test, along with TIBC, UIBC, and transferrin saturation, measures the blood's ability to bind and transport iron, and is an indicator of iron storage.

Lab tests often ordered with a Transferrin test:

  • Iron Total
  • Iron Total and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Ferritin
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • Reticulocyte Count

Conditions where a Transferrin test is recommended:

  • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Liver Disease
  • Malnutrition

How does my health care provider use a Transferrin test?

When assessing a person's nutritional state or liver function, a transferrin test is commonly performed. Transferrin will be low in people with liver disease because it is produced in the liver. Transferrin levels fall when there isn't enough protein in the diet, so this test is used to keep track of your diet.

What do my transferrin test results mean?

The findings of transferrin testing are frequently compared to the results of other iron tests.

If you have the following conditions, you may have a low transferrin level:

  • Hemochromatosis
  • Anemia caused by a build-up of iron in the body can cause a variety of symptoms.
  • Malnutrition
  • Inflammation
  • Hepatitis
  • A kidney ailment that causes protein loss in the urine such as nephrotic syndrome

When there is an iron deficit, transferrin saturation decreases, and when there is an overabundance of iron, such as in iron overload or poisoning, it increases.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Vitamin A (Retinol) Most Popular

Description: This test will measure the amount of retinol in the blood. It can be used to determine if there is too much vitamin A or not enough vitamin A in the blood.

Also Known As: Retinol test

Collection Method: Blood draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Overnight fasting is preferred

When is a Vitamin A test ordered?

When a person shows signs and symptoms that point to a vitamin A deficiency or is malnourished in general, a vitamin A test may be recommended. The following are some of the signs and symptoms:

  • Blindness at night
  • Eyes, skin, and hair that are dry
  • Damage to and ulcers on the cornea
  • Lesions and thickening of the skin
  • On the lining of the eyes, there are grayish patches.
  • Infections that recur
  • Anemia

When a person has an illness that causes malabsorption of nutrients, testing may be done on a regular basis to check vitamin A status and ensure that the individual is getting enough vitamin A. Inadequate vitamin A absorption has been linked to the following diseases:

  • Celiac disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Crohn's disease

When a person exhibits signs and symptoms of vitamin A poisoning and their medical history is compatible with the ingestion of vitamin A-containing foods or supplements, testing may be undertaken. The following are some of the indications and symptoms of vitamin A toxicity:

  • Headache
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Vision that is doubled or blurred
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Seizures
  • Irritability
  • Muscle ache
  • Joint and bone discomfort
  • Loss of weight
  • Hair loss
  • Dryness of the mucous membranes
  • Itching
  • Dysfunction of the liver
  • At the corners of the mouth, there are cracks
  • Tongue inflammation

What does a Vitamin A blood test check for?

This test examines the amount of retinol in the blood; in animals, retinol is the most common form of vitamin A. Vitamin A is necessary for proper vision, skin growth and integrity, bone formation, immunological function, and embryonic development. It is essential for the production of photoreceptors in the eyes as well as the maintenance of the lining of the eye's surface and other mucous membranes. Vitamin A deficiency can impair night vision, induce eye damage, and even result in blindness in severe situations. Vitamin A excesses, whether acute or chronic, can be hazardous, resulting in a variety of symptoms and, in rare cases, birth abnormalities.

Vitamin A is not produced by the body, so it must be obtained from food. Vitamin A is found in meat, while carotene is found in vegetables and fruits. Vitamin A is stored in the liver and adipose tissues, with healthy people storing up to a year's worth. Through a feedback system that releases vitamin A from storage as needed and enhances or decreases the efficiency of dietary vitamin A absorption, the body maintains a reasonably steady concentration in the blood.

Vitamin A deficiency is uncommon in the United States, but it is a major health issue in many underdeveloped countries where people have poor diets. Night blindness is one of the first indicators of vitamin A insufficiency. The World Health Organization estimated that night blindness impacted as many as 5 million preschool age children and nearly 10 million pregnant women in a 1995-2005 study of the global incidence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. In addition, they calculated that 190 million preschool children and 19 million pregnant women were at danger of vitamin A deficiency due to low retinol levels, which indicated a lack of vitamin A supply.

Deficits are most common among malnourished people, those with malabsorption disorders such celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, or chronic pancreatitis, the elderly, and those with alcoholism and liver disease in the United States.

Overuse of vitamin supplements is the leading cause of vitamin A toxicity. It can, however, happen when the diet contains a significant amount of vitamin A-rich foods, such as liver.

Lab tests often ordered with a Vitamin A test:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate
  • Vitamin D
  • Iron Total
  • Iron and TIBC

Conditions where a Vitamin A test is recommended:

  • Malnutrition
  • Celiac Disease
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Anemia
  • Alcoholism
  • Liver Disease
  • Malabsorption

How does my health care provider use a Vitamin A test?

Vitamin A testing is used to diagnose vitamin A deficiency in patients who have symptoms like night blindness or who have disorders that limit nutritional absorption in the intestine and are at risk of deficiency. Vitamin A deficiency is uncommon in the United States, hence testing for this purpose is uncommon. Testing is sometimes performed to detect hazardous levels of vitamin A induced by ingesting high doses of the vitamin.

Vitamin A is necessary for proper vision, skin growth and integrity, bone formation, immunological function, and embryonic development. It is essential for the production of photoreceptors in the eyes as well as the maintenance of the lining of the eye's surface and other mucous membranes.

Vitamin A is not produced by the body, so it must be obtained from food. Vitamin A is found in meat, while carotene is found in vegetables and fruits. Vitamin A deficiency can impair night vision, induce eye damage, and even result in blindness in severe situations. Vitamin A excesses, whether acute or chronic, can be hazardous, resulting in a variety of symptoms and, in rare cases, birth abnormalities.

What do my Vitamin A test results mean?

A normal vitamin A blood level suggests that a person has enough vitamin A right now, but it doesn't tell you how much vitamin A is held in reserve. Until vitamin A stores are depleted, the body will keep vitamin A levels in the blood at a reasonably constant level.

A low vitamin A blood test result means that the person's reserves have been depleted and they are deficient.

A high vitamin A blood level implies that the body's ability to retain vitamin A has been exceeded, and that excess vitamin A is currently circulating in the bloodstream, where it may be deposited in other tissues, causing toxicity.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


TSH Most Popular

Description: A TSH test is a blood test that measures thyroid stimulating hormone levels in your blood’s serum and is used to screen for and monitor treatment of thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Also Known As: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Test, Thyrotropin Test, TSH test, Thyroid Test, TSH Screen Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a TSH test ordered?

When a person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, or an enlarged thyroid gland, a doctor may order a TSH test.

Hyperthyroidism can cause the following signs and symptoms:

  • Heart rate has increased.
  • Anxiety
  • Loss of weight
  • Sleeping problems
  • Hand tremors.
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Visual disturbances, light sensitivity
  • Puffiness around the eyes, dryness, discomfort, and, in some cases, bulging of the eyes are all possible side effects.

Hypothyroidism can cause the following signs and symptoms:

  • gaining weight
  • Skin that is dry
  • Constipation
  • Intolerance to the cold
  • Skin that is puffy
  • Hair loss is a common problem.
  • Fatigue
  • Women's menstrual irregularities

When a person is being treated for a thyroid disease, TSH may be ordered at regular intervals. The American Thyroid Association suggests waiting 6-8 weeks after changing a person's thyroid medication dose before testing their TSH level again.

In the United States, TSH screening is routinely performed on newborns shortly after birth as part of each state's newborn screening program.

What does a TSH blood test check for?

The pituitary gland, a small structure beneath the brain and beyond the sinus cavities, produces thyroid-stimulating hormone. TSH causes thyroxine and triiodothyronine to be released into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. These thyroid hormones aid in the regulation of the body's energy usage. This test determines how much TSH is present in the blood.

The feedback mechanism that the body utilizes to maintain consistent quantities of thyroid hormones in the blood includes TSH and its regulatory hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone, which comes from the hypothalamus. TSH synthesis by the pituitary gland increases as thyroid hormone concentrations fall. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped gland that lays flat against the windpipe at the base of the throat, to produce and release T4 and T3. Thyroid production turns on and off to maintain generally steady levels of thyroid hormones in the blood when all three organs are operating regularly.

When the thyroid produces excessive amounts of T4 and T3, the affected person may have hyperthyroidism symptoms such as high heart rate, weight loss, agitation, hand tremors, itchy eyes, and difficulty sleeping. The most prevalent cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves disease. It is a chronic autoimmune condition in which the immune system creates antibodies that mimic TSH, causing the thyroid hormone to be produced in excessive levels. As a result, the pituitary gland may produce less TSH, resulting in a low blood level.

Weight gain, dry skin, constipation, cold intolerance, and weariness are all symptoms of hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid produces fewer thyroid hormones. In the United States, Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most prevalent cause of hypothyroidism. It's an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the thyroid, causing inflammation and destruction as well as the generation of autoantibodies. The thyroid generates low levels of thyroid hormone in Hashimoto thyroiditis. The pituitary gland may create more TSH, resulting in a high blood level.

TSH values, on the other hand, do not necessarily indicate or predict thyroid hormone levels. TSH is produced abnormally in some persons and does not work properly. Despite having normal or modestly increased TSH values, they frequently develop hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone levels can be high or low in a variety of thyroid illnesses, regardless of the amount of TSH in the blood.

TSH levels may be elevated or lowered in rare cases due to pituitary dysfunction. In addition to pituitary dysfunction, an issue with the hypothalamus can cause hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

Lab tests often ordered with a TSH test:

  • T3 Free
  • T3 Total
  • T4 Free
  • T4 Total
  • T3 Reverse
  • T3 Uptake
  • Thyroid Peroxidase
  • Thyroglobulin Antibodies
  • Thyroid Panel

Conditions where a test TSH is recommended:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hashimotos
  • Graves’ Disease
  • Autoimmune Diseases
  • Thyroid Cancer

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a TSH test?

Thyroid function and/or symptoms of a thyroid problem, such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, are frequently assessed with the thyroid-stimulating hormone test.

The pituitary gland, a small structure beneath the brain and beyond the sinus cavities, produces TSH. It's a part of the body's feedback system that keeps the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine in check and helps regulate the pace at which the body burns calories.

TSH tests are typically ordered in conjunction with or before a free T4 test. A free T3 test and thyroid antibodies are two further thyroid tests that can be ordered. TSH, free T4, and free T3 are sometimes ordered as part of a thyroid panel.

TSH is used to:

  • Diagnose a thyroid issue in a patient who is experiencing symptoms.
  • Check newborns for an underactive thyroid.
  • Monitor thyroid replacement therapy.
  • Monitor treatment of hyperthyroidism that involves medication.
  • Assist women in diagnosing and monitoring infertility issues.
  • Assist in determining the pituitary gland's function
  • Screen adults for thyroid issues and diseases.

What does my TSH blood test result mean?

A high TSH level could indicate that:

  • The person being examined has an underactive thyroid gland that isn't responding well to TSH stimulation owing to acute or chronic thyroid dysfunction.
  • If a person has hypothyroidism or has had their thyroid gland removed, the dose of thyroid hormone replacement medicine may need to be changed.
  • A patient with hyperthyroidism is taking too much anti-thyroid medication, and the dosage needs to be reduced.
  • There is a problem with the pituitary gland, such as a tumor that causes TSH levels to be out of control.

A low TSH level could imply the following:

  • An overactive thyroid gland
  • Thyroid hormone prescription taken in excess by patients being treated for an underactive thyroid gland.
  • Inadequate medication in an individual being treated for hyperthyroidism; nevertheless, after successful anti-thyroid treatment, TSH production may take a time to recover. This is why the American Thyroid Association recommends testing for thyroid hormones as well as TSH levels throughout treatment.
  • The pituitary gland has been damaged, preventing it from releasing enough TSH.

An abnormal TSH result, whether high or low, suggests an excess or deficiency in the quantity of thyroid hormone available to the body, but does not pinpoint the cause for the abnormal result. Additional testing is frequently performed after an abnormal TSH test result to determine the reason of the increase or decrease.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: A Vitamin B12 test is a blood test that measures the level of Vitamin B12 in the blood’s serum and is used to detect Vitamin B12 deficiency.

Also Known As:  B12 Test, Cobalamin Test, Vitamin B12 test, Serum B12 Test 

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Serum 

Test Preparation: No preparation required. 

When is a Vitamin B12 test ordered?  

When a complete blood count and/or blood smear, performed as part of a health checkup or anemia evaluation, reveal a low red blood cell count with the presence of big RBCs, vitamin B12 levels may be ordered. A high mean corpuscular volume implies that the RBCs have grown in size. 

When a person exhibits the following signs and symptoms of a deficit, testing for B12 levels may be necessary: 

  • Diarrhea 
  • Dizziness 
  • Muscle weakness, fatigue 
  • Appetite loss. 
  • Skin that is pale 
  • Irregular heartbeats, rapid heart rate 
  • Breathing problems 
  • Tongue and mouth ache 
  • In the feet, hands, arms, and legs, there is tingling, numbness, and/or burning 
  • Confusion or obliviousness 
  • Paranoia 

When a person is at risk of deficiency, such as those with a history of malnutrition or a condition associated to malabsorption, B12 tests may be required. 

Individuals being treated for malnutrition or a B12 or folate deficit may have these tests done on a frequent basis to see how effective their treatments are. This could be part of a long-term therapy plan for people who have a disease that causes chronic deficiency.  

What does a Vitamin B12 blood test check for? 

Vitamin B12 is a member of the vitamin B complex. It is required for the creation of normal red blood cells, tissue and cell healing, and the synthesis of DNA, the genetic material in cells. Vitamin B12 is a nutrient that the body cannot make and must be obtained through the diet. 

Vitamin B12 deficiency is detected by measuring vitamin B12 in the liquid portion of the blood. 

A B12 deficiency can cause macrocytic anemia, which is characterized by red blood cells that are bigger than normal. Megaloblastic anemia is a kind of macrocytic anemia marked by the generation of fewer but larger RBCs known as macrocytes, as well as cellular abnormalities in the bone marrow. Reduced white blood cell and platelet count are two other test results linked to megaloblastic anemia. 

B12 is also necessary for nerve function, and a lack of it can induce neuropathy, which causes tingling and numbness in the hands and feet of those who are affected. 

B12 deficiency is most commonly caused by a lack of vitamin B12 in the diet or supplements, insufficient absorption, or an increased requirement, such as during pregnancy. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Vitamin B12 test: 

  • Folate 
  • Methylmalonic Acid (MMA) 
  • Homocysteine 
  • Vitamin B1 
  • Vitamin B2 
  • Vitamin B3 
  • Vitamin B5 
  • Vitamin B6 
  • Vitamin B7 
  • Rheumatoid factor 

Conditions where a Vitamin B12 test is recommended:

  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency 
  • Pernicious Anemia 
  • Nerve Damage 
  • Malabsorption 
  • Malnutrition 

How does my health care provider use a Vitamin B12 test? 

Vitamin B12 and folate are frequently used in conjunction to detect deficiencies and to aid in the diagnosis of anemias such as pernicious anemia, an inflammatory condition that inhibits B12 absorption. 

B12 and folate are two vitamins that the body cannot generate and must be obtained from the diet. They are essential for the creation of normal red blood cells, tissue and cell repair, and the synthesis of DNA, the genetic material in cells. B12 is required for normal nerve function. 

B12 and folate tests can also be used to assess someone who is experiencing mental or behavioral changes, especially in the elderly. A B12 test can be ordered with or without folate, as well as with other screening laboratory tests like a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, antinuclear antibody, C-reactive protein, and rheumatoid factor to help determine why a person is exhibiting signs and symptoms of a nerve condition. 

B12 and folate tests can also be performed in conjunction with a variety of other tests to assess a person's overall health and nutritional status if they have signs and symptoms of substantial malnutrition or dietary malabsorption. People with alcoholism, liver disease, stomach cancer, or malabsorption diseases including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or cystic fibrosis may fall into this category. 

Testing may be performed to assess the success of treatment in patients with known B12 and folate deficits. This is especially true for people who cannot absorb B12 and/or folate effectively and must be treated for the rest of their lives. 

Folate levels in the blood's serum might fluctuate depending on a person's recent diet. Because red blood cells contain 95 percent of circulating folate, a test to evaluate folate levels inside RBCs could be employed instead of or in addition to the serum test. Some doctors believe that the RBC folate test is a better predictor of long-term folate status and is more clinically useful than serum folate, however there is no consensus on this. 

Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are two more laboratory tests that can be used to detect B12 and folate deficits. In B12 deficiency, both homocysteine and MMA are high, whereas in folate deficit, only homocysteine, not MMA, is elevated. This distinction is critical because treating anemia with folate treats the anemia but not the brain damage, which may be irreparable. 

What do my Vitamin B12 test results mean? 

Normal B12 and folate levels may indicate that a person does not suffer from a deficiency and that the signs and symptoms they are experiencing?are caused by something else. Normal levels, on the other hand, may indicate that a person's stored B12 and/or folate has not yet been depleted. 

A health practitioner may order a methylmalonic acid test as an early sign of B12 deficiency if a B12 level is normal but a deficiency is still suspected. 

A low B12 and/or folate level in a person with signs and symptoms implies a deficiency, although it does not always indicate the severity of the anemia or related neuropathy. Additional tests are frequently performed to determine the source of the deficit. Low B12 or folate levels can be caused by a variety of factors. 

Dietary folate or B12 deficiency, which?is uncommon in the United States. It can be evident in people who are malnourished in general and vegans who do not eat any animal products. Folate deficiency has become extremely rare since the development of fortified cereals, breads, and other grain products. 

Both B12 and folate deficits can be caused by diseases that prevent them from being absorbed in the small intestine. These may include the following: 

  • Pernicious anemia 
  • Celiac disease 
  • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are examples of inflammatory bowel disease. 
  • Bacterial overgrowth or the presence of parasites in the intestines, such as tapeworms 
  • Long-term usage of antacids or H2 proton pump inhibitors reduces stomach acid production. 
  • Absorption can be considerably reduced by surgery that removes part of the stomach or the intestines, such as gastric bypass. 
  • Insufficiency of the pancreas 
  • Chronic alcoholism or heavy drinking 
  • Some treatments, such as metformin, omeprazole, methotrexate, or anti-seizure medications like phenytoin, are used. 
  • Increased requirements for healthy fetal development, all pregnant women require an increased amount of folate and are advised to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid every day. The need for folate is higher in those who have cancer that has spread or who have chronic hemolytic anemia. 
  • Smoking 

If a person is being treated for a B12 or folate deficit with supplements, normal or higher findings suggest that the treatment is working. 

High amounts of B12 are uncommon, and they aren't routinely evaluated clinically. If a person has a condition such chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, diabetes, heart failure, obesity, AIDS, or severe liver disease, their vitamin B12 level may be elevated. High B12 levels can also be caused by using estrogens, vitamin C, or vitamin A. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Vitamin B2 is involved in metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein. The clinical manifestations of deficiency are non-specific. Clinical manifestations include mucocutaneous lesions of the mouth and skin, corneal vascularization, anemia, and personality changes.

Nicotinic Acid occurs naturally in plants and animals and is also added to many foods as a vitamin supplement.

Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is one of 8 B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is used to produce energy. These B vitamins, often referred to as B complex vitamins, also help the body use fats and protein. B complex vitamins are needed for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly.Source: Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)


Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in many metabolic pathways including heme synthesis. Vitamin B6 deficiency may be observed in patients with metabolic disorders, secondary to therapeutic drug use, or alcoholism. Deficiency affects the function of the immune system.

Vitamin C is an antioxidant involved in connective tissue metabolism, drug-metabolizing systems, and mixed-function oxidase systems to list a few. Vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy; manifestations include impaired formation of mature connective tissue, bleeding into the skin, weakness, fatigue, and depression.

Description: Vitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxy, LC/MS/MS is a blood test that measures calcitriol (1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin) in your blood's serum.

Also Known As: Calcitriol Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Vitamin D 1,25-Dihydroxy test ordered?

When renal illness or problems of the enzyme that converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D are suspected, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D tests may be requested. This test is only performed in rare cases when calcium levels are high or a person has an illness that produces excessive amounts of vitamin D, such as sarcoidosis or some types of lymphoma.

Vitamin D levels are sometimes evaluated to check therapy success when vitamin D, phosphorus, calcium or magnesium supplementation is required.

What does a Vitamin D 1,25-Dihydroxy blood test check for?

Vitamin D is a group of chemicals that are necessary for the healthy development and growth of teeth and bones. The level of vitamin D in the blood is determined by this test.

Vitamin D is tested in the blood in two forms: 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The primary form of vitamin D found in the blood is 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which is a relatively inactive precursor to the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. 25-hydroxyvitamin D is routinely evaluated to assess and monitor vitamin D status in humans due to its longer half-life and higher concentration.

Endogenous vitamin D is created in the skin when exposed to sunshine, whereas exogenous vitamin D is taken through foods and supplements. Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are two separate kinds of vitamin D with somewhat different chemical structures. Fortified foods, as well as most vitamin preparations and supplements, include the D2 form. The type of vitamin D3 produced by the body is also used in some supplements. When the liver and kidneys convert vitamin D2 and D3 into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, they are equally effective.

Vitamin D's major function is to assist balance calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in the blood. Vitamin D is necessary for bone growth and health; without it, bones become fragile, misshapen, and unable to mend themselves properly, leading to disorders such as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D has also been proven to influence the growth and differentiation of a variety of other tissues, as well as to aid in immune system regulation. Other illnesses, such as autoimmune and cancer, have been linked to vitamin D's other roles.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, two-thirds of the US population has adequate vitamin D, while one-quarter is at risk of inadequate vitamin D and 8% is at risk of insufficiency, as defined by the Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intake.

The elderly or obese, persons who don't receive enough sun exposure, people with darker skin, and people who take certain drugs for lengthy periods of time are all at risk of insufficiency. Adequate sun exposure is usually defined as two intervals of 5-20 minutes each week. Vitamin D can be obtained through dietary sources or supplements by people who do not get enough sun exposure.

Lab tests often ordered with a Vitamin D 1,25-Dihydroxy test:

  • Vitamin D 25-Hydroxy (D2 and D3)
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • PTH
  • Magnesium
  • Bone Markers
  • Trace Minerals

Conditions where a Vitamin D 1,25-Dihydroxy test is recommended:

  • Osteoporosis
  • Kidney Disease
  • Lymphoma
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Celiac Disease
  • Malabsorption
  • Malnutrition

How does my health care provider use a Vitamin D 1,25-Dihydroxy test?

Determine whether a deficit or excess of vitamin D is causing bone weakening, deformity, or improper calcium metabolism.

Because PTH is required for vitamin D activation, it can aid in diagnosing or monitoring problems with parathyroid gland function.

Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is absorbed from the intestine like a fat, it can help monitor the health of people with conditions that interfere with fat absorption, such as cystic fibrosis and Crohn's disease.

People who have had gastric bypass surgery and may not be able to absorb adequate vitamin D should be closely monitored.

When vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and/or magnesium supplementation is suggested, it can help assess the success of the treatment.

What do my Vitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxy test results mean?

In kidney illness, a low level of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is one of the first alterations to appear in people with early renal failure.

A high amount of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D can arise when there is an excess of parathyroid hormone or when there are disorders that can produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D outside of the kidneys, such as sarcoidosis or some lymphomas.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Brief Description: A Vitamin D test is a blood test used to determine if you have a Vitamin D deficiency and to monitor Vitamin D levels if you are on supplementation.

Also Known As: Ergocalciferol Test, Vitamin D2 Test, Cholecalciferol Test, Vitamin D3 Test, Calcidiol Test, 25-hydroxyvitamin D Test, Calcifidiol Test, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D Test, Vitamin D Total Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: Fasting preferred, but not required.

When is a Vitamin D test ordered?

When calcium levels are inadequate and/or a person exhibits symptoms of vitamin D deficiency, such as rickets in children and bone weakening, softness, or fracture in adults, 25-hydroxyvitamin D is frequently ordered to rule out a vitamin D deficit.

When a person is suspected of having a vitamin D deficiency, the test may be requested. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in older folks, people who are institutionalized or homebound and/or have minimal sun exposure, people who are obese, have had gastric bypass surgery, and/or have fat malabsorption. People with darker skin and breastfed babies are also included in this category.

Before starting osteoporosis medication, 25-hydroxyvitamin D is frequently requested.

What does a Vitamin D blood test check for?

Vitamin D is a group of chemicals that are necessary for the healthy development and growth of teeth and bones. The level of vitamin D in the blood is determined by this test.

Vitamin D is tested in the blood in two forms: 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The primary form of vitamin D found in the blood is 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which is a relatively inactive precursor to the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. 25-hydroxyvitamin D is routinely evaluated to assess and monitor vitamin D status in humans due to its longer half-life and higher concentration.

Endogenous vitamin D is created in the skin when exposed to sunshine, whereas exogenous vitamin D is taken through foods and supplements. Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 have somewhat different molecular structures. Fortified foods, as well as most vitamin preparations and supplements, include the D2 form. The type of vitamin D3 produced by the body is also used in some supplements. When the liver and kidneys convert vitamin D2 and D3 into the active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, they are equally effective.

Some tests may not differentiate between the D2 and D3 forms of vitamin D and just report the total result. Newer methods, on the other hand, may record D2 and D3 levels separately and then sum them up to get a total level.

Vitamin D's major function is to assist balance calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in the blood. Vitamin D is necessary for bone growth and health; without it, bones become fragile, misshapen, and unable to mend themselves properly, leading to disorders such as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D has also been proven to influence the growth and differentiation of a variety of other tissues, as well as to aid in immune system regulation. Other illnesses, such as autoimmune and cancer, have been linked to vitamin D's other roles.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, two-thirds of the US population has adequate vitamin D, while one-quarter is at risk of inadequate vitamin D and 8% is at risk of insufficiency, as defined by the Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intake.

The elderly or obese, persons who don't receive enough sun exposure, people with darker skin, and people who take certain drugs for lengthy periods of time are all at risk of insufficiency. Adequate sun exposure is usually defined as two intervals of 5-20 minutes each week. Vitamin D can be obtained through dietary sources or supplements by people who do not get enough sun exposure.

This test has 3 Biomarkers

  • Vitamin D Total which is a combined measurement of Vitamin D, 25-Oh, D2 and Vitamin 25-Oh, D3
  • Vitamin D, 25-Oh, D2 which is a measurement of ergocalciferol Vitamin D, which is Vitamin D obtained through plant sources. 
  • Vitamin D, 25-Oh, D3 which is a measurement of cholecalciferol Vitamin D, which is Vitamin D obtained through animal sources.

Lab tests often ordered with a Vitamin D test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • CMP
  • Iron and TIBC
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • PTH
  • Magnesium

Conditions where a Vitamin D test is recommended:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Osteoporosis
  • Lymphoma
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Autoimmune Disorders
  • Celiac Disease
  • Malabsorption
  • Malnutrition

Commonly Asked Questions:

How does my health care provider use a Vitamin D test?

Determine whether a deficit or excess of vitamin D is causing bone weakening, deformity, or improper calcium metabolism.

Because PTH is required for vitamin D activation, it can aid in diagnosing or monitoring problems with parathyroid gland function.

Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is absorbed from the intestine like a fat, it can help monitor the health of people with conditions that interfere with fat absorption, such as cystic fibrosis and Crohn's disease.

People who have had gastric bypass surgery and may not be able to absorb adequate vitamin D should be closely monitored.

When vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and/or magnesium supplementation is suggested, it can help assess the success of the treatment.

What do my Vitamin D results result mean?

Despite the fact that vitamin D techniques differ, most laboratories use the same reference intervals. Because toxicity is uncommon, researchers have focused on the lower limit and what cut-off for total 25-hydroxyvitamin D shortage implies.

A low blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D could indicate that a person isn't getting enough sunlight or dietary vitamin D to meet his or her body's needs, or that there's an issue with absorption from the intestines. Seizure medications, notably phenytoin, might occasionally interfere with the liver's generation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to an increased risk of some malignancies, immunological illnesses, and cardiovascular disease.

Excessive supplementation with vitamin pills or other nutritional supplements frequently results in a high level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Most Popular
Deficiency of vitamin E may cause extensive neuropathy in young children and, in addition, is suspect as a possible cause of motor and sensory neuropathy in older children and in adults. One likely cause of vitamin E deficiency is intestinal malabsorption, resulting from bowel disease, pancreatic disease, or chronic cholestasis. Other causes of malabsorption of vitamin E include celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, and intestinal lymphangiectasia.

Vitamin K Most Popular
Vitamin K is a required co-factor for the synthesis of factors 2, 7, 9, and 10 and proteins C and S. Deficiencies of vitamin K lead to bleeding. Coumadin® (warfarin) acts as an anticoagulant because it is a vitamin K antagonist

Zinc Most Popular

Zinc is an essential element involved in a myriad of enzyme systems including wound healing, immune function, and fetal development. Zinc measurements are used to detect and monitor industrial, dietary, and accidental exposure to zinc. Also, zinc measurements may be used to evaluate health and monitor response to treatment.


Description: A Urinalysis complete test is a urine test that is used to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a variety of conditions and diseases urinary tract infections and kidney disorders.

Also Known As: Urine Test, Urine Analysis Test, UA Test, urine microscopic examination Test, Urinalysis Test, Complete Urinalysis Test

Collection Method: Urine Collection

Specimen Type: Urine

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Urinalysis Complete test ordered?

A urinalysis test may be ordered when a person undergoes a routine wellness examination, is admitted into a hospital, will have surgery, or is having a prenatal checkup.

When a person visits a doctor with symptoms of a urinary tract infection or another urinary system ailment, such as kidney disease, a urinalysis will almost certainly be prescribed. The following are some possible signs and symptoms:

  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Backache
  • Urination that is painful or occurs frequently
  • Urine with blood in it

Testing may also be conducted at regular intervals to track the progress of a condition.

What does a Urinalysis Complete test check for?

A urinalysis is a series of examinations done on urine that are physical, chemical, and microscopic. The tests identify and/or measure a number of elements in the urine, including cells, cellular fragments, and microbes. These elements include byproducts of healthy and unhealthy metabolism.

Urine is produced by the kidneys, two fist-sized organs located on either side of the spine near the base of the rib cage. The kidneys help the body regulate its water balance, filter wastes from the blood, and store proteins, electrolytes, and other molecules for later use. To get rid of everything unnecessary, urine travels from the kidneys to the ureters, bladder, and urethra before exiting the body. The color, amount, concentration, and content of urine will change slightly every time a person urinates due to the varied elements in urine, despite the fact that pee is normally yellow and clear.

By screening for components in the urine that aren't typically present and/or monitoring aberrant levels of specific substances, many illnesses can be caught early on. Glucose, bilirubin, protein, red and white blood cells, crystals, and germs are among examples. They could be present because of the following reasons:

  • The body responds to an elevated amount of the substance in the blood by attempting to remove the excess through urine.
  • There is a problem with the kidneys.
  • As with bacteria and white blood cells, there is a urinary tract infection present.

Three separate phases make up a full urinalysis:

  • The color and clarity of the urine are assessed using a visual examination.
  • Chemical examination, which determines the concentration of urine and tests for roughly 9 chemicals that provide useful information about health and disease.
  • Microscopic inspection that identifies and counts the different types of cells, casts, crystals, and other components found in urine, such as bacteria and mucus.

When abnormal results are found, or if a healthcare provider requests it, a microscopic analysis is usually performed.

It may be essential to repeat the test if the findings of a urinalysis are abnormal, and further other urine and blood tests may be needed to help establish a diagnosis, if the results are abnormal.

Lab tests often ordered with a Urinalysis Complete test:

  • Complete Blood Count
  • Iron Total and Total Iron binding capacity
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Lipid Panel
  • CMP
  • TSH
  • Urine Culture
  • Bilirubin Fractionated
  • Glucose

Conditions where a Urinalysis Complete test is recommended:

  • Diabetes
  • Kidney Disease
  • Liver Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Pregnancy
  • Hematuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Kidney Stones

How does my health care provider use a Urinalysis Complete test?

A urinalysis is a series of tests that can diagnose a variety of disorders. It can be used to screen for and/or diagnose a variety of illnesses, including urinary tract infections, renal abnormalities, liver diseases, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders, to name a few.

Urinalysis may be used in conjunction with other tests, such as urine albumin, to monitor the progress of treatment in patients with diseases or conditions like diabetes or kidney disease.

What do my urinalysis complete test results mean?

There are numerous ways to interpret the results of a urinalysis. Unusual results are a warning sign that something isn't right and needs further testing.  To connect the urinalysis results with an individual's symptoms and clinical findings and to look for the causes of aberrant findings, other targeted tests must be done, such as a complete blood count, metabolic panel, or urine culture.

It is more likely that a problem must be addressed the higher the concentration of the atypical component, such as noticeably increased levels of protein, glucose, or red blood cells. On the other hand, the outcomes do not inform the medical professional as to what led to the finding or whether it is a transient or ongoing sickness.

A normal urinalysis does not rule out the possibility of disease. Early in a disease process, some persons will not release elevated amounts of a drug, and others will release them irregularly throughout the day, which means they could be overlooked by a single urine sample. Small amounts of substances may be undetectable in very dilute urine.

NOTE: Only measurable biomarkers will be reported.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Amylase Most Popular

Description: Amylase is a blood test that is used to measure the amount of amylase in the blood’s serum. It is used to assess for and detect a pancreatic disorder.

Also Known As: Amy Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is an Amylase test ordered?

When a person displays symptoms of a pancreatic disease, a blood amylase test may be conducted.

  • Abdominal or back pain that is severe
  • Fever
  • Appetite loss.
  • Nausea

A urine amylase test may be requested in conjunction with or after a blood amylase test. A health practitioner may conduct one or both of these tests on a regular basis to evaluate the success of treatment and see whether amylase levels are increasing or decreasing over time.

What does an Amylase blood test check for?

Amylase is one of numerous pancreatic enzymes that aid in carbohydrate digestion. This test detects the presence of amylase in the blood.

Amylase is produced from the pancreas into the duodenum, the first region of the small intestine, where it aids in the digestion of carbohydrates. Other organs, including the salivary glands, generate it as well.

Amylase is normally found in modest amounts in the blood and urine. Increased levels of amylase are released into the blood when pancreatic cells are harmed, as in pancreatitis, or when the pancreatic duct is obstructed by a gallstone or, in rare situations, a pancreatic tumor. This raises amylase levels in the blood.

Lab tests often ordered with an Amylase test:

  • Lipase
  • Trypsin
  • Trypsinogen

Conditions where an Amylase test is recommended:

  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Pancreatic Diseases
  • Pancreatitis

How does my health care provider use an Amylase test?

An amylase test is used to identify and track acute pancreatitis. It's frequently ordered in conjunction with a lipase test. It can also be used to detect and track chronic pancreatitis and other pancreas-related conditions.

A urine amylase test may be requested as well. Its level will usually correspond to blood amylase concentrations, but the rise and decrease will occur later. A urine creatinine clearance test may be ordered in conjunction with a urine amylase test to determine the ratio of amylase to creatinine filtered by the kidneys. Because poor kidney function might result in a decreased rate of amylase clearance, this ratio is used to assess renal function.

An amylase test on peritoneal fluid may be used to assist diagnose pancreatitis in some instances, such as when there is a buildup of fluid in the abdomen.

Amylase tests are often used to track the progress of pancreatic cancer treatment and after gallstone resection that has resulted in gallbladder attacks.

What do my Amylase test results mean?

A high level of amylase in the blood may suggest the presence of a pancreas problem.

Amylase levels in the blood often rise to 4 to 6 times higher than the highest reference value, also known as the upper limit of normal, in acute pancreatitis. The increase happens within 4 to 8 hours following a pancreas damage and usually lasts until the cause is effectively treated. In a few days, the amylase levels will return to normal.

Amylase levels in chronic pancreatitis are initially fairly increased, although they frequently decline over time as the pancreas deteriorates. Returning to normal levels may not signal that the source of damage has been rectified in this scenario. The size of the amylase rise does not indicate the severity of pancreatic illness.

Amylase levels may also be elevated in persons who have pancreatic duct obstruction or pancreatic cancer.

Urine amylase levels rise in lockstep with blood amylase levels and remain elevated for several days after blood levels have returned to normal.

A high amount of amylase in the peritoneal fluid can indicate acute pancreatitis, but it can also indicate other abdominal problems including a clogged intestine or poor blood supply to the intestines.

A low amylase level in the blood and urine of a person with pancreatitis symptoms could indicate that the amylase-producing cells in the pancreas have been permanently damaged. Reduced levels can also be caused by renal illness or pregnancy toxemia.

Increased blood amylase levels along with normal to low urine amylase levels could indicate the presence of a macroamylase, a harmless compound of amylase and other proteins that builds up in the bloodstream.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


C. difficile is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and pseudomembranous colitis.

Description: The Zinc Protoporphyrin test is a blood test that measures levels of zinc protoporphyrin in your blood to screen for lead exposure and iron deficiency anemia.

Also Known As: ZP Test, ZPP Test, Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Test, FEP Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Whole Blood

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Zinc Protoporphyrin test ordered?

When long term exposure to lead is known or suspected, ZPP may be done in addition to a lead test.

When an individual participates in a program for occupational lead monitoring or when they regularly come into contact with lead through a pastime, such as working with stained glass, the test may be required.

ZPP may be requested when there is a suspicion of iron insufficiency in children or adolescents or as a screening test for the condition.

What does a Zinc Protoporphyrin blood test check for?

Small levels of zinc protoporphyrin are typically found in red blood cells, although the level may rise in lead poisoning and iron shortage patients. The ZPP level in the blood is determined by this test.

It is first required to understand heme in order to comprehend how lead poisoning and iron deficiencies impact the ZPP level. The protein hemoglobin, which is found in red blood cells and delivers oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and cells, must have heme as one of its constituent parts.

An iron atom is inserted into the core of a molecule known as protoporphyrin to complete the process of heme synthesis. When zinc is present, as in lead poisoning, or when iron cannot be inserted into the body, as in iron shortage, protoporphyrin combines with zinc to create zinc protoporphyrin. Since ZPP cannot bind to oxygen, it has no functional function in red blood cells.

Lab tests often ordered with a Zinc Protoporphyrin test:

  • Iron Total
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity
  • Ferritin
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Conditions where a Zinc Protoporphyrin test is recommended:

  • Lead poisoning
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia

How does my health care provider use a Zinc Protoporphyrin test?

Iron deficiency in children and chronic lead poisoning in adults are the two main conditions for which zinc protoporphyrin is prescribed.

Red blood cells often contain modest levels of the chemical ZPP. The majority of the protoporphyrin in red blood cells interacts with iron to create heme, which is the oxygen-carrying molecule in hemoglobin. When there is not enough iron available to produce heme, as in iron deficiency, or when lead is present and prevents the synthesis of heme, as in lead poisoning, zinc joins with protoporphyrin instead of iron. With these conditions, the blood's ZPP concentration will increase.

To test for chronic lead exposure, ZPP testing may be requested in addition to a lead level. People who reside in older homes and hobbyists who work with materials containing lead may be more susceptible to contracting lead poisoning. Lead levels may be enhanced in those who inhale lead-containing dust, touch lead directly, contaminate their hands, and then eat. Lead and ZPP levels in children who eat lead-containing paint chips may be raised.

The Occupational Safety & Health Administration highly advises that a ZPP test be done each time a lead level is requested in an industrial setting in order to monitor an employee's exposure to lead. Both are required since ZPP does not alter fast when a person's source of lead exposure is eliminated and it does not represent recent or acute lead exposure. ZPP is most effective at determining a person's average lead exposure over the previous 3–4 months.

As readings do not increase until lead concentrations are over the permissible threshold, ZPP is not sensitive enough to be used as a lead screening test in children. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have established a very low level as the maximum lead concentration deemed acceptable for children. To identify lead exposure in this age range, tests that assess the blood lead levels are performed.

The ZPP test may be requested in order to detect iron insufficiency in children at an early stage. Most young people will have elevated ZPP levels prior to showing any signs or symptoms of anemia, which is one of the early indicators of inadequate iron storage. To confirm iron insufficiency, more detailed testing of iron status are needed.

What do my Zinc Protoporphyrin test results mean?

Typically, there is very little ZPP in the blood. The cause of a disruption in heme production can be inferred from an increase in ZPP, but the explanation is not always clear. Iron deficiency and lead poisoning are the main causes of increases in ZPP.

It's crucial to consider a person's history, clinical observations, and the outcomes of additional tests including ferritin, lead, and a complete blood count when evaluating ZPP levels. The patient may suffer from both lead toxicity and iron deficiencies.

ZPP represents the average lead level over the past three to four months in situations of chronic lead exposure. A ZPP test, however, cannot identify the quantity of lead that is now present in the blood as well as the amount that is present in the organs and bones. Following exposure, ZPP values increase more gradually than blood lead concentrations, and they take longer to decline once lead exposure has ended.

The most frequent cause of an increase in ZPP in children is iron insufficiency. Following iron supplementation, a declining ZPP value over time certainly suggests a successful course of treatment.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Lipase Most Popular

Description: A Lipase test is used to measure the amount of lipase in the blood’s serum. Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas. This test can be used to help diagnose acute pancreatic diseases and monitor chronic ones. It can also be used to measure the progress of pancreatic disease treatment.

Also Known As: LPS Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Lipase test ordered?

When a person shows signs of acute pancreatitis or another pancreatic condition, a lipase test may be recommended.

It may also be ordered at regular intervals when a doctor wishes to monitor someone with a pancreatic issue to see how well medication is working and whether lipase levels are rising or falling over time.

What does a Lipase blood test check for?

Lipase is one of numerous pancreatic enzymes that aid in the digestion of dietary lipids. This test determines how much lipase is present in the blood.

Lipase travels from the pancreas to the first portion of the small intestine, where it aids in the breakdown of dietary lipids into fatty acids. Lipase is produced mostly by the pancreas, but it is also produced by cells in the tongue, stomach, and liver, which are all involved in digestion and nutritional absorption.

Lipase is normally found in modest amounts in the blood. When pancreatic cells are harmed, as in pancreatitis, or the pancreatic duct is obstructed by a gallstone or, in rare situations, a pancreatic tumor, more lipase enters the bloodstream, resulting in greater blood concentrations.

Lab tests often ordered with a Lipase test:

  • Amylase
  • Trypsin
  • Trypsinogen

Conditions where a Lipase test is recommended:

  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Diabetes
  • Pancreatic Diseases
  • Pancreatitis
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Celiac Disease
  • Crohn Disease

How does my health care provider use a Lipase test?

To diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis, a blood test for lipase is frequently performed in conjunction with an amylase test. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic illnesses, but it isn't as good a test for these conditions because lipase levels stay raised for extended periods of time and don't always reflect clinical progress.

Lipase testing is sometimes used to diagnose and monitor cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease.

What do my Lipase test results mean?

A high lipase level in the blood could suggest the presence of a pancreas problem.

Lipase levels are usually quite high in acute pancreatitis, generally 5 to 10 times higher than the maximum reference point. Lipase levels normally rise within 4 to 8 hours of an acute pancreatitis incident and stay high for 7 to 14 days. The severity of an acute pancreatic attack cannot be determined by lipase levels.

Pancreatic duct obstruction, pancreatic cancer, and other pancreatic illnesses, as well as gallbladder inflammation and renal dysfunction, can raise concentrations.

Lipase levels in the blood may suggest persistent damage to the pancreas' lipase-producing cells. This can happen in pancreas-related chronic disorders like cystic fibrosis.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Methylmalonic Acid, also known as MMA, is a blood test used to detect Vitamin B12 deficiency early on before an individual becomes deficient or when there is a mild deficiency already present. MMA can also be used to diagnose methylmalonic acidemia in newborns.

Also Known As: MMA Test

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Methylmalonic Acid test ordered?

When a vitamin B12 test result comes back low, an MMA test may be performed, sometimes coupled with a homocysteine test.

Asymptomatic persons with a higher risk of vitamin B12 insufficiency, such as the elderly, or those using certain medicines for a long period, such as Metformin, are also given MMA. If the two tests are not scheduled together, an MMA test may be ordered as a follow-up to an increased homocysteine level.

When a doctor fears that an acutely unwell child has inherited methylmalonic acidemia, MMA testing may be recommended.

What does a Methylmalonic Acid blood test check for?

Methylmalonic acid is a naturally occurring chemical that is required for human metabolism and energy generation. Vitamin B12 aids in the conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl Coenzyme A in one step of metabolism. If there isn't enough B12, the MMA concentration rises, resulting in an increase in MMA levels in the blood and urine. Methylmalonic acid levels that are high in the blood or urine are a sensitive and early sign of vitamin B12 insufficiency.

Anemia and the formation of big red blood cells can occur as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency over time. It can also induce neuropathy symptoms including numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, as well as mental or behavioral problems like cognitive impairment, disorientation, irritability, and depression in severe cases. Though some patients may have some degree of neuropathy, an increased concentration of MMA may frequently be detected before blood cell alterations and full-blown symptoms appear.

Although the link between MMA and B12 has been recognized for over 40 years, MMA testing is not widely used, and there is no consensus on its clinical relevance. Some doctors believe that MMA is a better indicator of bioavailable B12 than the standard vitamin B12 test since a considerable portion of B12 detected in the blood is bound to proteins and is not biologically active. Others feel that measuring MMA and homocysteine can help detect early and mild B12 insufficiency. Others believe that many moderate deficits diagnosed do not evolve to more serious deficiencies and so do not require identification or treatment.

Methylmalonic acidemia is a rare metabolic condition that affects roughly 1 in 25,000 to 100,000 people. Testing babies for high levels of MMA could help doctors diagnose it. Screening for this disease is required in all 50 states in the United States. This condition prevents babies from converting methylmalonyl Coenzyme A to succinyl Coenzyme A.

Lab tests often ordered with a Methylmalonic Acid test:

  • Vitamin B12
  • Folate
  • Homocysteine
  • Intrinsic Factor Antibody
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Reticulocyte Count
  • Parietal Cell Antibody

Conditions where a Methylmalonic Acid test is recommended:

  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency
  • Folate Deficiency
  • Anemia

How does my health care provider use a Methylmalonic Acid test?

The methylmalonic acid test can be used to determine a vitamin B12 deficiency that is mild or early. It can be ordered alone or in conjunction with a homocysteine test as a follow-up to a vitamin B12 test result that falls below the normal range.

MMA is a chemical produced in the body in extremely minute amounts. It is required for metabolism and the creation of energy. Vitamin B12 aids in the conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl Coenzyme A in one step of metabolism. If there isn't enough B12, the MMA level rises, resulting in an increase in MMA levels in the blood and urine. Methylmalonic acid levels in the blood or urine can be used to detect vitamin B12 insufficiency early.

There are currently no standards for screening asymptomatic adults for vitamin B12 deficiency, however those at high risk without symptoms, such as the elderly or those taking particular drugs for a long time, may require confirmation with MMA and/or homocysteine.

The MMA test is quite sensitive in detecting a B12 deficiency. It is the preferred confirmatory test for a B12 deficiency because it is more specific than homocysteine.

MMA testing may be conducted in some cases to assist detect methylmalonic acidemia, a rare inherited metabolic condition. In all 50 states in the United States, newborn screening programs currently require testing for this disease.

What do my Methylmalonic Acid test results mean?

Early stages of B12 deficiency may be evident if MMA and homocysteine levels are elevated while vitamin B12 levels are mildly diminished. This could indicate a decrease in B12 availability in the tissues.

If only the homocysteine level is high but not the MMA, the person may be deficient in folate. This distinction is critical because treating anemia with folate treats the anemia but not the brain damage, which may be irreparable.

If both MMA and homocysteine levels are within normal limits, a B12 shortage is unlikely.

Infants with the rare hereditary illness methylmalonic acidemia may have moderately to severely high levels of MMA.

Reduced MMA levels are uncommon and are not considered clinically significant.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: The H Pylori antigen test is used to detect the bacteria, helicobacter pylori, that is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease.

Also Known As: H. Pylori Antigen Test, Stool Antigen Test

Collection Method: Patient Self Collection Kit provided by Patient Service Center

Specimen Type: Stool (Feces)

Test Preparation: Patient Self Collection Required – Instructions Below

  1. Patient to visit a Quest Patient Service Center to obtain the designated sterile collection container required for the test.
  2. Patient self-collects stool sample off site from PSC.
  3. Patient self-collects 0.5 mL or 0.5 grams of semi-solid stool or 20 mm diameter solid stool and transfer to properly labeled plastic, leak-proof container.
  4. Label the specimen collection container: a. Record the date and time on the specimen collection. b. Record the patient’s full name as on requisition and DOB.
  5. IMPORTANT: Watery, diarrheal stool is not acceptable.
  6. IMPORTANT: The stool sample must be refrigerated immediately after collection.
  7. The stool specimen must be packed with cold packs and returned to the Quest Patient Service Center with the Patient Requisition within 24 hours of collection.

Patient Preparation

For initial diagnostic purposes no special patient preparation is required. Patients are not required to be off of medications or to fast before this test. While positive test results from patients taking agents such as proton pump inhibitors and antimicrobials should be considered accurate, false negative results may be obtained. For this reason, physicians may suggest the patient go off medications for two weeks and repeat test if negative results are obtained.

To confirm eradication, testing should be done at least 4 weeks following the completion of treatment. However, a positive test result 7 days’ post therapy is indicative of treatment failure.

When is a Helicobacter Pylori test ordered:

When someone complains of stomach pain and exhibits ulcer-related symptoms, testing may be required.

When an individual has finished taking the recommended course of antibiotics, H. pylori tests may also be requested to ensure that the H. pylori bacteria have been eradicated. However, not every patient has a follow-up examination.

What does a Helicobacter Pylori stool test check for?

An organism known as Helicobacter pylori is a major contributor to the development of peptic ulcer disease. Testing for H. pylori identifies a gastrointestinal infection brought on by the bacteria.

H. pylori is quite widespread, particularly in underdeveloped nations. As much as 50% of people on the planet have the bacteria in their stomachs and intestines. The majority of persons affected by H. pylori will never have any symptoms, although it does raise the risk of stomach cancer, chronic gastritis, and ulcers. Due to the bacteria, the stomach is less able to generate mucus, which increases the risk of acid damage and peptic ulcers.

It is not advised to perform an antibody test on blood samples for routine diagnosis or to assess the efficacy of treatment. This test does not differentiate between a current illness and a former infection; it only finds antibodies to the bacterium. It is improbable that a person has ever had an infection with H. pylori if the antibody test is negative. A stool antigen or breath test should be used to validate results if they are ordered and positive.

Lab tests often ordered with a Helicobacter Pylori test:

  • Gastrin

Conditions where a Helicobacter Pylori test is recommended:

  • Peptic Ulcer

How does my health care provider use a Helicobacter Pylori test?

Testing for Helicobacter pylori is used to identify bacterial infections and assess how well a treatment is working. A H. pylori infection is linked to a higher risk of stomach cancer, chronic gastritis, and ulcers.

For the diagnosis of an H. pylori infection and the assessment of the efficacy of treatment, the stool antigen test and urea breath test are advised. Because they are quick and noninvasive, these tests are the ones that are used the most. Invasive endoscopy-related tests can also be used to identify and assess H. pylori, but they are less typically used as a result.

What do my H Pylori test results mean?

When a person's stool antigen or breath test for H. pylori is positive, it is likely that the bacteria are to blame for their peptic ulcer. To eradicate the germs and halt the pain and ulceration, a course of treatment combining antibiotics and other drugs will be advised.

If a test is negative, it is quite improbable that the subject has an H. pylori infection, and it is possible that the subject's signs and symptoms are caused by something else. To more definitively rule out infection, additional testing, such as a more invasive tissue biopsy, may be performed if symptoms continue.


The presence of reducing substances is useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism, i.e., sucrose and lactase. The unabsorbed sugars in stool are measured as reducing substances.

Vitamin B1 deficiency is most often associated with alcoholism, chronic illness and following gastric by-pass surgery. Prolonged deficiency causes beriberi. Plasma vitamin B1 is useful in evaluating nutritional assessment and compliance, while whole blood vitamin B1 is useful in evaluating body stores.

Leptin Most Popular

Description: Leptin is a hormone that the body uses to monitor your appetite. When leptin is being produced it is telling your body that it is full, and you do not need to continue eating. Leptin can also control the amount of energy that is burnt throughout the day.

Collection Method: Blood Draw

Specimen Type: Serum

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Leptin test ordered?

Leptin is typically ordered during clinical investigations to further investigate leptin's role.

Leptin testing is rarely requested outside of research, however it may be requested when a child is diagnosed as fat, particularly if there is a family history of early-onset obesity.

When analyzing an obese person, some doctors may conduct a leptin test to see if they have a deficiency or an excess of the hormone.

What does a Leptin blood test check for?

Leptin is a hormone that signals hunger satisfaction and helps to regulate appetite. This test detects a leptin shortage that may be linked to obesity by measuring the quantity of leptin in the blood.

Leptin is largely produced by fat cells, with minor contributions from other tissues such as the placenta in pregnant women. It travels via the brain's hypothalamus via blood receptors. When enough food has been ingested, the body signals that it is no longer hungry. A low amount of leptin induces hunger and an increase in food consumption in a typical feedback response. Hunger decreases and food consumption decreases as leptin levels rise due to an increase in fat cells.

As the body seeks to defend itself from perceived underfeeding, insufficient leptin can produce persistent hunger. Rare hereditary leptin deficits can lead to severe obesity, resulting in persistent hunger and eating that begins in childhood. Leptin replacement therapy has been demonstrated to help some of persons who are impacted.

Elevated leptin levels are most typically linked to obesity. This is hypothesized to be caused by leptin resistance, which is comparable to the insulin resistance found in obesity. People who are impacted are resistant to leptin's activity, and they continue to feel hungry even after eating enough food. In an attempt to compensate for the perceived hunger, the body continues to create more leptin. However, it is estimated that roughly 10% of obese people have some level of leptin insufficiency.

The relationship between leptin and obesity has piqued researchers' interest. Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States because it raises the risk of a variety of conditions, including high blood pressure, dyslipidemias, type 2 diabetes, joint problems, sleep apnea, coronary heart disease, stroke, and certain cancers. Obesity has consistently climbed in all age groups over the last 20 years, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than one-third of adults and 17% of adolescents and teens in the United States are obese. The body mass index, or BMI, is used to classify people.

According to a new study, a leptin level may be more accurate than the standard body mass index in determining how much excess fat a person carries in some people. The higher the level of leptin in a person's system, the more fat tissue they have. This was notably evident in the study with older women and those with strong muscles or solid bones, where the BMI score could be deceiving.

The study of leptin's functions in the body, as well as the relationships between leptin and obesity and successful weight loss, is ongoing. There's also a lot of curiosity about whether a leptin-based medication could help obese people who are also leptin deficient.

Lab tests often ordered with a Leptin test:

  • Lipid Panel
  • Thyroid Panel
  • Glucose
  • Hemoglobin A1c
  • Insulin
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

Conditions where a Leptin test is recommended:

  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Diabetes
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Addison Disease
  • Cushing Syndrome
  • Thyroid Diseases
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Heart Disease
  • Malnutrition

How does my health care provider use a Leptin test?

The leptin test is not commonly ordered, and its utility in medical settings is still unknown. As the role of leptin is examined further, most testing is still done in a laboratory context.

A leptin test is most likely to be ordered on an obese child in a clinical environment, especially if there is a family history of early-onset obesity. It's commonly ordered on an obese person with frequent, persistent hunger symptoms to see if they have a leptin shortage or excess.

The test may be done in conjunction with other tests, such as a lipid profile, thyroid panel, glucose, insulin, and/or A1c, to assess an obese person's health status and detect underlying issues that are contributing to or exacerbating their situation.

What do my Leptin test results mean?

Reduced leptin levels in the obese may indicate a deficiency, whilst increasing concentrations are thought to be linked to resistance to leptin's actions. The majority of obese persons will have elevated levels, but about 10% of them may have a leptin shortage.

Significantly lower leptin levels may signal a hereditary leptin deficit associated to extreme obesity in rare cases.

Leptin secretion has a circadian pattern, which means that its concentration in the blood varies throughout a 24-hour period.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Description: Fecal Globulin by immunochemistry is a test that measures the amount of blood present in fecal samples. The results from the fecal globulin test can be used to detect a lower gastrointestinal disorder. It is recommended to be a part of the routine physical examination.

Also Known As: Fecal Immunochemical Test, Fecal Occult Blood Test, Stool Occult Blood Test, FIT, FOBT

Collection Method: Fecal specimen collected from toilet water and brushed onto InSure® FOBT test card

Specimen Type: Fecal Specimen

Test Preparation: No preparation required

When is a Fecal Globin test ordered?

When a person chooses fecal occult blood testing as a method of colon cancer screening, the American Cancer Society and other major healthcare organizations recommend yearly testing. The American Cancer Society and others recommend that colon cancer screening begin around age 50 for the general population, but it may begin earlier if a person has a family history of colon cancer.

An FOBT may be ordered by a doctor if a patient has unexplained anemia that could be caused by gastrointestinal bleeding.

What does a Fecal Globin test check for?

The majority of colon cancer cases begin with the formation of benign intestinal polyps. Benign polyps are quite common in adults over 50, and while the majority do not cause health problems, some can turn malignant and spread to other parts of the body. These finger-like growths protrude into the rectum or the intestinal cavity. They can be delicate and bleed on occasion, as when food debris rubs against them.

The blood expelled is normally not visible in the stool, but a fecal occult blood test or a fecal immunochemical test can detect it. The FOBT and FIT are effective colorectal cancer screening techniques because this small amount of blood may be the earliest and sometimes only evidence of early colon cancer. A guaiac-based test, an over-the-counter flushable reagent pad, and an immunochemical technique are all options for testing.

It is advised that at least three stool samples be taken on different days be tested. According to the American Cancer Society, a single test performed during a digital rectal exam at a doctor's office is not recommended since it may not be sensitive enough to detect cancer. Because collecting feces on three different days increases the chances of identifying cancer, the home FOBT or FIT is advised. Additionally, those who choose this type of colon cancer screening should be screened every year.

Lab tests often ordered with a Fecal Globin test:

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • Calprotectin

Conditions where a Fecal Globin test is recommended:

  • Colon Cancer

How does my health care provider use a Fecal Globin test?

The fecal occult blood test, also known as the fecal immunochemical test, is primarily used to screen for early colon cancer. The majority of colon cancer cases begin with the formation of benign intestinal polyps. People over the age of 50 are more likely to develop benign polyps. The majority are non-cancerous, however some can develop malignant.

Blood in the stool could be the only sign of early cancer, so if caught early, therapy can begin right away, increasing the chances of a cure.

What do my Fecal Occult Blood test results mean?

Normally, the fecal occult blood test is negative.

A positive test result for the guaiac-based FOBT shows that abnormal bleeding is occurring anywhere in the digestive tract. Ulcers, diverticulosis, polyps, inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids, blood eaten owing to bleeding gums or nosebleeds, or benign or malignant tumors could all cause blood loss.

A positive result for the fecal immunochemical test shows abnormal bleeding in the lower digestive tract. Other sources of blood, such as those found in the diet, do not generate a positive result since this test only identifies human hemoglobin. Furthermore, hemoglobin from upper digestive tract hemorrhage is broken down before reaching the lower digestive tract and is undetectable by the FIT. As a result, the FIT is a more precise test than the gFOBT.

Follow-up testing is required after a positive result from either the guaiac-based FOBT or the immunochemical FIT. Direct imaging of the colon and rectum is generally used.

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.


Morley Robbins Magnesium Advocacy Group's 

MAG - Iron Panel, Transferrin and Hemoglobin

  • Ferritin
  • Hemoglobin (Hgb) included in the CBC (includes Differential and Platelets)
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Transferrin

 

 

Morley Robbins Magnesium Advocacy Group's 

MAG - Magnesium RBC, Zinc, and Copper  Panel contains the following tests.

  • Ceruloplasmin
  • Copper
  • Magnesium, RBC
  • Zinc

Patients who were advised to take this test by Morley Robbins and the Magnesium Advocacy Group should notify the lab attendant that the preferred specimen for their Ceruloplasmin and Copper tests is SERUM. The preferred specimen for the Zinc test is PLASMA. Please be aware that it is at the lab’s discretion to decide which specimen type is most appropriate.

Customers should refrain from taking vitamins, or mineral herbal supplements for at least one week before sample collection for Magnesium RBC.

 

 

Morley Robbins Magnesium Advocacy Group's 

MAG - Magnesium RBC, Zinc, Copper with Iron Panel contains the following tests.

  • Ceruloplasmin
  • Copper
  • Ferritin
  • Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC)
  • Magnesium, RBC
  • Transferrin
  • Zinc

 

 

 

Morley Robbins Magnesium Advocacy Group's 

MAG - Vitamin D (1-25, D2, D3), Mag RBC, & Calcium Panel contains the following tests.

  • Calcium, Ionized
  • Magnesium, RBC
  • QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS
  • Vitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxy, LC/MS/MS

 

  • Magnesium RBC (Red Blood Cell): it’s the KEY catalyst for creating “Storage” and “Active” forms of this Hormone…
  • 25(OH)D blood test: it’s the measure of the “Storage” form, the precursor to “Active” form of this Hormone…
  • 1,25(OH)2 D3 blood test: it’s the measure of the “Active” form of this Hormone…
  • “Ionized” Serum Calcium blood test (NOT a standard serum test!): given that Calcitriol’s JOB in the body is to put MORE Calcium into the bloodstream, it only makes sense to know exactly how much you have there already, right?…

 

 

 


Morley Robbins Magnesium Advocacy Group's 

MAG - Vitamin D (1-25, D2 ,D3), Potassium RBC & Calcium contains the following tests.

  • Calcium, Ionized
  • Potassium, RBC
  • QuestAssureD™ 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (D2, D3), LC/MS/MS
  • Vitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxy, LC/MS/MS
     

 

 


 

 


Description: A Vitamin D test is a blood test used to determine if you have a Vitamin D deficiency and to monitor Vitamin D levels if you are on supplementation. 

Also Known As: 25-hydroxyvitamin D Test, Vitamin D 25-Hydroxyvitamin Test 

Collection Method: Blood Draw 

Specimen Type: Serum 

Test Preparation: Fasting preferred, but not required. 

When is a Vitamin D test ordered?

When calcium levels are inadequate and/or a person exhibits symptoms of vitamin D deficiency, such as rickets in children and bone weakening, softness, or fracture in adults, 25-hydroxyvitamin D is frequently ordered to rule out a vitamin D deficit. 

When a person is suspected of having a vitamin D deficiency, the test may be requested. Vitamin D deficiency is more common in older folks, people who are institutionalized or homebound and/or have minimal sun exposure, people who are obese, have had gastric bypass surgery, and/or have fat malabsorption. People with darker skin and breastfed babies are also included in this category. 

Before starting osteoporosis medication, 25-hydroxyvitamin D is frequently requested. 

What does a Vitamin D blood test check for? 

Vitamin D is a group of chemicals that are necessary for the healthy development and growth of bones and teeth. The level of vitamin D in the blood is determined by this test. 

Vitamin D is tested in the blood in two forms: 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The primary form of vitamin D found in the blood is 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which is a relatively inactive precursor to the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. 25-hydroxyvitamin D is routinely evaluated to assess and monitor vitamin D status in humans due to its longer half-life and higher concentration. 

Vitamin D's major function is to assist balance calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in the blood. Vitamin D is necessary for bone growth and health; without it, bones become fragile, misshapen, and unable to mend themselves properly, leading to disorders such as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D has also been proven to influence the growth and differentiation of a variety of other tissues, as well as to aid in immune system regulation. Other illnesses, such as autoimmune and cancer, have been linked to vitamin D's other roles. 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, two-thirds of the US population has adequate vitamin D, while one-quarter is at risk of inadequate vitamin D and 8% is at risk of insufficiency, as defined by the Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intake. 

The elderly or obese, persons who don't receive enough sun exposure, people with darker skin, and people who take certain drugs for lengthy periods of time are all at risk of insufficiency. Adequate sun exposure is usually defined as two intervals of 5-20 minutes each week. Vitamin D can be obtained through dietary sources or supplements by people who do not get enough sun exposure. 

Lab tests often ordered with a Vitamin D test: 

  • Complete Blood Count 
  • CMP 
  • Iron and TIBC 
  • Calcium 
  • Phosphorus 
  • PTH 
  • Magnesium

Conditions where a Vitamin D test is recommended:

  • Kidney Disease 
  • Osteoporosis 
  • Lymphoma 
  • Cystic Fibrosis 
  • Autoimmune Disorders 
  • Celiac Disease 
  • Malabsorption 
  • Malnutrition 

Commonly Asked Questions: 

How does my health care provider use a Vitamin D test? 

Determine whether a deficit or excess of vitamin D is causing bone weakening, deformity, or improper calcium metabolism. 

Because PTH is required for vitamin D activation, it can aid in diagnosing or monitoring problems with parathyroid gland function. 

Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is absorbed from the intestine like a fat, it can help monitor the health of people with conditions that interfere with fat absorption, such as cystic fibrosis and Crohn's disease. 

People who may not be able to absorb vitamin D adequately or have had gastric bypass surgery should be closely monitored. 

When vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and/or magnesium supplementation is suggested, it can help assess the success of the treatment. 

What do my Vitamin D results result mean? 

Even though vitamin D techniques differ, most laboratories use the same reference intervals. Because toxicity is uncommon, researchers have focused on the lower limit and what cut-off for total 25-hydroxyvitamin D shortage implies. 

A low blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D could indicate that a person isn't getting enough sunlight or dietary vitamin D to meet his or her body's needs, or that there's an issue with absorption from the intestines. Seizure medications, notably phenytoin, might occasionally interfere with the liver's generation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 

Vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to an increased risk of some malignancies, immunological illnesses, and cardiovascular disease. 

Excessive supplementation with vitamin pills or other nutritional source of vitamin D frequently results in a high level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. 

We advise having your results reviewed by a licensed medical healthcare professional for proper interpretation of your results.